Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits Vice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., U.S. Navy (Ret.) Under Secretary of

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<ul><li><p>Future of Global Earth Observations:Innovation Yielding Societal BenefitsVice Admiral Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., U.S. Navy (Ret.)Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and AtmosphereNOAA AdministratorEcoVision 2007April 19, 2007</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>WeatherBenefits of Integrated ObservationsNational Data Buoy Center (NDBC) weather buoyFlood DamageHurricane Katrina 2005NOAA P3</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>POES and GOES satellite configurationPrediction of El NinoClimate Monitoring &amp; Diagnostics Lab-AntarcticaClimateBenefits of Integrated Observations</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS)Efficient Marine TransportationBridge Air Gap SensorWater Level Observations-MassachusettsCommerce &amp; TransportationBenefits of Integrated Observations</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Continuity of access to electricityEnergyBenefits of Integrated ObservationsSolar weather observationsEarth Observations For Energy Exploration</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>AgricultureBenefits of Integrated ObservationsStrengthening sustainable agricultural systemsSatellite Observation of South African DroughtNPOESS</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>What is GEO?Group on Earth ObservationsEOS I July 2003, Washington34 Members + 20 International OrganizationsEOS II April 2004, Tokyo47 Members + 26 International OrganizationsEOS III February 2005, BrusselsNearly 60 Members + 34 International Organizations10-Year Implementation PlanGEO Ministerial Summit November 2007, Cape Town69 Members + 46 International OrganizationsSuccessfully implementing work plan</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>NOAA Satellites &amp; The Benefits Of Global Earth Observations</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>What is GEOSS?Global Earth Observation System of SystemsComprehensiveCoordinatedSustainedInnovative solutions to economic and societal challenges </p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Future of Global Earth ObservationsTechnical InnovationGOES-I/P InstrumentsGOES-R BaselineImagerAdvanced Baseline Imager (ABI)5 Channels1km Visible, 4km IRFull Disk Image: Every 28 minutes - 3 hours16 channels: Higher Spatial &amp; Temporal Resolution1/2km Visible, 2km IRFull Disk Image: Every 5 - 15 minutes</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Future of Global Earth ObservationsTechnical InnovationGOES-I/P InstrumentsGOES-R BaselineData Rate: 2.11 MbpsDaily Rate: 132.0 MbpsDaily Output: 181 GbDaily Output: 16,000 Gb</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Future of Global Earth ObservationsAdvances in Data ManagementTechnical Innovation Yields Enhanced Data Management NeedsData Product ProcessingUser InterfaceArchives &amp; AccessNew Observation Systems Mean 100-Fold Increase in Earth Observation Data</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Future of Global Earth ObservationsEnhanced International Cooperation</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Future of Global Earth ObservationsGEO-NETCastImplementation of GEONetCast:Open exchange of data and informationWorldwide information distributionRole of members in participating organizations</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Future of Global Earth ObservationsInnovations for the AmericasGOES-10 moved to 60W to expand satellite coverage in South AmericaThree new Dart-II buoys deployed in the Pacific Ocean off coast of Mexico and Costa Rica</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p></li><li><p>Future of Global Earth ObservationsInnovations for Global SocietyProvide the right information, in the right format,at the right time, to the right people, to make the right decisions.</p><p>Future of Global Earth Observations: Innovation Yielding Societal Benefits</p><p>(Philippe Cousteau, President and CEO of EarthEcho International, and grandson of Jacques Cousteau, is scheduled to introduce you at the lunch.)</p><p>Thank you very much for your kind introduction, Philippe.I am happy to be here to contribute to this first annual EcoVision conference. This conference has attracted a fascinating mix of stakeholders for our environment government, private sector, academia and NGOs). NOAA is pleased to be a sponsor of this event along with other organizations including:The Discovery ChannelThe Wildlife SocietyNorthrop GrummanNational Geographic GM and FordI am pleased to have the opportunity this afternoon to talk about the future of Earth observations and how innovation will enable us to move forward in the years to come to advance societal and economic benefits for the US and across the world.Observations are at the crux of what NOAA does every day.</p><p>One of the most well known elements of NOAA is our role in weather prediction. However, there are many observing systems that contribute substantially to this capability. </p><p>In the case of hurricane prediction, weather buoys and our P3 hurricane hunter aircraft provide critical aerial and ocean observations to contribute to predictions. </p><p>As a result of enhancements in our observing systems:48-hr hurricane track forecasts have improved 3.5% per year on average since 1985, while intensity forecasts have improved about 0.8% per year</p><p>Our ongoing efforts to improve prediction through enhanced observations continues to be important. With disasters like Hurricane Katrina, as shown in the picture showing flooding in downtown New Orleans on August 30, 2005, improving prediction capabilities to allow additional time for evacuation is extremely important. Earth observations, both space-based and in-situ, are critical to assessing and predicting the health of the Earth. For example, NOAA plays a critical role in using the space-based and in-situ observations to predict El Nino and La Nina, which have a significant impact on our climate, weather, and other environmental phenomena.NOAAs current satellites GOES and POES (NOAA-12 &amp; 14, GOES 8 &amp; 9 and DMSP (NOAA operated)) as depicted in this animation were deployed to watch the Earth on a 24 x 7 operational basis (in the late 1990s).NOAAs in-situ observations are not only based in the U.S. but range as far as Antarctica and the Arctic as an understanding of the whole Earth is critical to climate prediction.Space-based, aerial and in-situ observations are valuable to the prediction of and preparation for a broad range of environmental hazards. While they are valuable on their own, their value increases when their information is integrated as it enables the development of better products for decision making.</p><p>NOAA, as part of the Department of Commerce, also plays a critical role in advancing safe air, surface and water transportation to advance economic prosperity. NOAA operates observing systems to allow for the consistent measurement of water levels and currents as well as a broad range of meteorological parameters such as winds, pressure, air and water temperatures.</p><p>PORTS is a decision-support tool that improves the safety and efficiency of maritime commerce and coastal resource management through the integration of real-time environmental observations, forecasts, and other geospatial information.</p><p>PORTS are operated by NOAA in partnership with local port authorities. </p><p>Thirteen different PORTS systems are currently operating in US ports and 4 more are planned to be established in the Gulf of Mexico this year.</p><p>For example:Tampas PORTS provides accurate real-time oceanographic information tailored to the specific needs of the 6,700 commercial vessels transiting Tampa Bay each year. Groundings in Tampa Bay declined by over 50% during the first 4 years of PORTS operation.</p><p>For example:An air gap (bridge clearance) sensor was installed on the Gerald Desmond Bridge, in Long Beach, California, to help ships know whether or not they can safely pass underneath the bridge. Key example of the value of Earth observations Energy security in the areas of exploration, consumption and the impacts of consumption:Earth Observations play a key role not just in the public good arena. Businesses make key decisions affecting their operations based on information they get from observations. For example, utility companies typically use weather forecasts to determine the mix of coal, hydroelectric, nuclear, wind, natural gas and oil plants that will be used to meet consumer needs. The U.S. power grid infrastructure relies on NOAAs space weather forecasts to predict solar storms as they can impact the load on their transformers.One credible electric power outage could result in a direct loss to US Gross Domestic Product of $3 - $6 billion From an energy exploration perspective, Earth observations are also playing innovative roles. New techniques allow us to get a better picture of what is beneath the sea floor. By the introduction of three-dimensional seismic data, we can better understand whether an area has potential for energy resources. Better evaluations result in cost-savings and the prevention of wasteful drilling and mining. Directed drilling and mining efforts would reduce strain on the oceanic environment and ecosystems.NOAAs Earth observation resources have the potential to impact societies and their economics throughout the world. When used in partnership with other observing systems from our international partners, the possibilities for environmental monitoring expand and have the potential to reap benefits for diverse populations throughout the world.</p><p>With NOAAs current polar satellite imager, AVHRR, and in the next generation with VIIRS on NPOESS, NOAA can continue to make contributions for drought monitoring in Africa. </p><p>The image on the lower right details the severe drought conditions that have been particularly pronounced in Southern Africa between January and March of this year. Data like this is critical to enable planners in the region to develop their preparedness efforts following a poor rainy season.</p><p>Satellite observations partnered together with in-situ observations have significant potential to enhance societal benefits for diverse stakeholders and encourage the development of more sustainable agricultural systems through enhanced environmental prediction and preparedness for natural hazards</p><p>TRANSITION:Over the past few years as NOAA administrator, we have been working with international partners to build on this potential to work to integrate our observation efforts to yield specific societal benefits.</p><p>The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is an international partnership leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. GEO involves 66 countries, the European Commission, and 46 international organizations. History of GEO:3 Earth Obs Summits at ministerial level led to creation of Group on Earth Observations with Secretariat in Geneva (housed at WMO) and a 10-Year Implementation Plan for GEOSS.Closed out a 2006 work plan at GEO 3 in Bonn, Germany in 2006 and accepted a new 2007-2009 Work Plan to take us through the first third of GEOSS implementation. The current work plan is focused on the nine societal benefit area foci of GEO.Planning for a 4th Earth Observation Summit in November 2007 a chance to highlight the successes and the progress that has been made and to gain support for the further work that needs to be done.</p><p>Governments and international organizations cant develop and grow GEO alone. NGOs and civil society must work with us as we build this effort to reach the greatest number of users. No one knows better than the users what information is of the greatest value.The academic, technical and scientific communities must continue their ground-breaking research and outreach to stimulate the ongoing development of systems and products that enhance societal impacts.The private sector also has a role to stimulate the development of cutting-edge systems and products. We need to work cooperatively to define appropriate roles, in order to serve the public interest. The heart of the development of GEOSS is in its focus on nine societal benefit areas health, disasters, weather, climate energy, water, agriculture, ecosystems and biodiversity.</p><p>The GEOSS initiative focuses on integration of data, for short and long-term purposes, on an international scale. </p><p>The view of the slide is from an integration perspective and is designed to show there are two areas of likely integration benefit: at the collection level, geospatially; and within the data management system, where we transform raw data into useable information to meet user needs. The view also emphasizes the point that our mission goals are the recipients of data and/or information sets to meet their requirements.Integration is both vertical and horizontal.</p><p>However, with these integrated systems we must demonstrate tangible benefits to society or we will not maintain political support, nor will we maintain the interest of researchers who in large part are concerned about their own specific platforms. GEO is an institution that is seeking to build a comprehensive, coordinated and sustained Global Earth Observation System of Systems. GEOSS will be comprehensive, by including observations and products gathered from all components required to serve the needs of participating members. GEOSS will be coordinated, in terms of leveraging resources of individual contributing members to accomplish this system, whose total capacity is greater than the sum of its parts. GEO will also be sustained, by the collective and individual will and capacity of participating members.TRANSITION:For these efforts to continue we must seek and encourage continued innovation in the development of next-generation observation systems but also in their integration.NOAA is pursuing advanced capabilities for the next-generation of operational satellites we are currently developing.</p><p>For example GOES-R:Its Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is going to provide enhanced data quality and resolution in comparison to NOAAs current geostationary systems.</p><p>__________________ GOES I/P vs GOES-RImager Visible 1km resolution km resolutionImager Infrared 4km resolution 2 km resolution</p><p>There has been some concern in the scientific community that GOES-R will not have a HES instrument for advanced sounding:ABI can be used on GOES-R series to produce sounding-like products similar to present GOES sounder In addition, the rapid revisit time of ABI (5-15 minutes) provides users with more frequent observations than the GO...</p></li></ul>