jeffersonian democracy: 1801-1809

Jeffersonian Democracy: 1801-1809

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Jeffersonian Democracy: 1801-1809. JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY: Theme 1: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: Jeffersonian Democracy: 1801-1809

Jeffersonian Democracy:1801-1809

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Jefferson’s effective, pragmatic policies strengthened the principles of two-party republican government, even though the Jeffersonian “revolution” caused sharp partisan battles between Federalists and Republicans over particular issues.

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President Thomas Jefferson1801-1809


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Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 20091. Abraham Lincoln2. Franklin Roosevelt3. George Washington4. Theodore Roosevelt5. Harry Truman6. John Kennedy7. Thomas Jefferson8. Dwight Eisenhower9. Woodrow Wilson10. Ronald Reagan11. Lyndon Johnson12. James Polk13. Andrew Jackson14. James Monroe

15. Bill Clinton16. William McKinley17. John Adams18. George H.W. Bush19. John Quincy Adams20. James Madison21. Grover Cleveland22. Gerald Ford23. Ulysses Grant24. William Taft25. Jimmy Carter26. Calvin Coolidge27. Richard Nixon28. James Garfield

29. Zachary Taylor30. Benjamin Harrison31. Martin Van Buren32. Chester Arthur33. Rutherford Hayes34. Herbert Hoover35. John Tyler36. George W. Bush37. Millard Fillmore38. Warren Harding39. William Harrison40. Franklin Pierce41. Andrew Johnson42. James Buchanan

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The election (Revolution) of 1800

Dem-Reps did very well in elections- but for president, neither Adams nor Jefferson received a majority- so election goes to House of Reps, still controlled by Federalists.To Block Jefferson- they voted for his “running mate” Aaron Burr (who refused to pull himself out of the election) this went on for 35 rounds until Alexander Hamilton put his weight behind Jefferson (irony since they have been enemies for years) whom he decides is lesser of two evils (Burr will eventually challenge Hamilton to a duel where he will be fatally wounded)

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12th Amendment 1804This VP thing has been a problem- the idea has been to make sure the minority had a voice, instead- it is hampering the gov’t being able to work well.Changed the voting process so Pres/VP ran on a single “ticket” you get both of them

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Federalist Era is (essentially) over. New ideals are limiting the role of Gov’t, equality, individual liberties, faith in the common man “The Gov’t that governs best is the one that governs least”

Where possible, put Dem-Reps in office (despite saying “We are all Republicans, We are all Federalists” in inaugural speech)

Albert Gallatin (Sec of Treasury) downsized Federal budget- cut by ½-2/3 . But kept Bank, Tariff, funding at par which had been parts of Hamilton’s plan. Debt fell from $80 m- $57 m, even after Louisiana Purchase

Pardoned those convicted under Alien and Sedition Acts

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“The Providential Detection”

(1797-1800)This Federalist cartoon

depicts Jefferson about to burn the U.S. Constitution

as the American eagle snatches it out of his

hand. Meanwhile, Jefferson has works by

Voltaire and Paine on the altar of French

Revolutionary despotism.

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John Marshall and The Supreme Court

An Early problem for Jefferson is that Judiciary is packed with Federalists. Judiciary Act of 1801 had created a large number of new judges- that Adams was still appointing on his way out the door-(“Midnight Judges”) including John Marshall as chief justice.

Argument over “Strict” and “Loose” Construction- how much

“Interpretation” would judges have with law?

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Marbury vs. Madison, 1803Before Being Supreme Court Justice- Marshall

had been Sec of State- it was his job to deliver appointments of Federalist Judgeships- he didn’t get 17 (out of 59) done- left them for new Sec of State James Madison- who refused.

William Marbury was one of the 17- sued Madison for withholding appointment.

Crisis- what if court ordered delivery and Madison refused? What if Marshall was impeached by Dem-Reps?

In his opinion- Marshall said Madison was wrong to withhold, but didn’t matter anyway- b/c Judiciary Act was Unconstitutional. Jefferson/Madison win the battle- Supreme Court wins the war b/c they establish Judicial Review

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Impeachment of Samuel ChaseJefferson annoyed with idea that court now has final say over the law. Repealed the Judiciary Act- and decided to get rid of Federalist judges where possible- Starting with Samuel Chase.

House voted charges- but Senate refused to convict- which ended the attempt to use impeachment to “unpack” the courts

Samuel ChaseSupreme Court Associate Justice

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Westward Expansion

1800s saw a real opening of the (mid) west- in 1790 there had been 200k, by 1820 there were 3.9 million. Best way to get good to market- down Mississippi to New Orleans.Pickney’s treaty gave US access- but Spanish violating that agreement in 1800…right before they got conquered by Napoleon…

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Louisiana PurchaseJefferson sends James Monroe and Robert Livingston to try to buy New Orleans and Mississippi from Napoleon for $10 m. To their shock- Napoleon offers the entire Louisiana Territory, at the Bargain price of $15 m (He needs $$ for war, and is over Americas in general after problems in Haiti)

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Federalist OppositionJefferson’s dilemma: He’s a strict

constructionist- and NO Where does the Constitution mention the power of the president to double the size of the country….(He thought about proposing an amendment) Irony- the Federalists become the Strict one- feared the added debt….and that

The western lands would beLoyal to Dem-Reps

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The Louisiana Purchase, 1803

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Significance: Most important land purchase in U.S. History Doubled size of U.S.

Guaranteed Mississippi waterway to Gulf of Mexico

Paved the way for westward expansion and tragic Indian removal

Effectively ended European expansion in North America -- Helped reduce threats on U.S. western frontier

Boosted American nationalism

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Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to head “Corps of Discovery” Travelled up Mississippi- guided by Sacajawea. Last look for NW Passage- which they didn’t find, but made extensive notes about geography, flora, & fauna. Encouraged idea of “Manifest Destiny”

Lewis and Clark

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Zebulon PikeLouisiana Purchase encouraged further exploration, settlement and expansion. Pike explored the headwaters of the Mississippi, then took a lower route where he spotted the mountain that bears his name….

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Aaron Burr and Secessionist Plots (Essex Junto)

New England not happy with this larger country- they feared they would no longer be important. VP Aaron Burr very bitter since 1800- cooked up plot for NE to secede from the union. Hamilton found out and stopped the plot- Burr challenged him to a duel, where Hamilton fatally wounded.

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Burr fires his fatal shot at Hamilton

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Burr removed as VP after duel. He then take secession out west and tries to get Louisiana to secede instead. Tried for treason- aquitted (talking/plotting isn’t treason) Flees to Euro where he tried to get Napoleon to invade US.

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Yazoo Land Controversy 1804

Jefferson’s opponents accused Jefferson of supporting an illegal land transaction in Georgia. (Georgia had sold millions of acres that were supposed to go to federal gov’t to speculators)- and then gov’t paid the speculators inflated prices for the land. Created strife and

taint of Jefferson’s honesty during his 2nd term

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Foreign AffairsEuropean issues had been good for US with Louisiana Purchase, but it was hard to stay out of affairs. US/Eng had strong trade ties, But Jefferson was a “Francophile” and drew us closer to them again.Before he was president, Jefferson was often outspoken about need for gov’t to stay small and out of affairs…found it’s different when you’re the guy

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Barbary Pirates(1801-1805)

Jefferson initially reduced size of military (esp Navy)-saying it was a waste of $$

Barbary Pirates’ “unofficially” controlled Mediterranean shipping- expected nations to pay tribute (we refuse). Attack U.S. shipping -- Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the U.S. in 1801- forcing Jefferson to admit Navy WAS a good idea, expanded it- and sent it to fight (small boats “mosquito fleet”)

Four years of fighting- then a treaty where US agreed to pay $60,000 to end attacks

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Lieutenant Stephen Decatur and Midshipman Thomas Macdonough board a

gunboat in Tripoli

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Theme 2:Despite his desire to

avoid international conflict, President Jefferson was forced to deal with foreign-policy dangers related to the Napoleonic Wars .

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Napoleonic Wars led to harassment of U.S. shipping

By 1805, Britain controlled the seas and Napoleon controlled much of the European Continent- BOTH put out declarations that no one could trade with their “Enemy” France Berlin Decree (1806)-- “Continental System”. Order in Council (1806, 1807)

Britain began seizing American ships headed for Europe- and impressing American Sailors (over 6000 taken)

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Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, 1807British commander of HMS Leopard demanded surrender of “British Deserters” aboard USS Chesapeake INSIDE Amer territorial waters. Leopard fired on Chesapeake, 3 k 18 wounded.

US had not been this angry since XYZ- British apologized for “error”, but still Jefferson feels the need to act

The U.S.S. Chesapeake was attacked on June 21, 1807, resulting in three U.S. sailors dead

and eighteen wounded.

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Embargo Act (1807)Banned US vessels from sailing to

foreign ports. (thinking was that it would force England and France to respect American Neutrality) Doesn’t impact Fr/Eng much- Really hurt US econ- esp New England, which was Federalist territory (they thought Jefferson did it for spite) Illegal trade/smuggling became common

Most controversial action of Jefferson’s presidency- storm of outcry led it’s repeal in 1809 as Jefferson was leaving office

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Harsh enforcement laws led to some talk of secession in New England

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Non-Intercourse Act (1809)Replaced Embargo- forbid trade only

with England and France (gee- that’s 90%) Remained policy until war of 1812

Embargo Failed- had overestimated how much Euro depends on OUR trade. Cost 3x war

BUT (silver lining) helped spark Industrial Revolution in US- ironic b/c Jefferson was anti-industrialization

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Jefferson’s LegacyExpansion became primary goal of

Jeffersonians: an agrarian empire (interesting, no other nation had ever combined “expansion” and “liberty” as goals)

Creation of non-aristocratic government- retained enormous faith in “common man”

Destruction of Federalists by 1816- in part from Hamilton’s death, but also b/c Dem-reps showed willingness to compromise on Federalist ideas

Kept U.S. out of war….for a while longer….

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Madison and the Warhawks

James Madison won presidency easily in 1808- inherited foreign affairs mess- near constant pressure to go to warMacon’s Bill #2: allowed trade to resume if either England or France would lift their trade restrictions. (France did quickly, without intending to actually honor, Britain was moving more slowly- so we Embargo)

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Henry Clay/John C Calhoun

Congress has a new, younger group of leaders (NOT the generation of revolution/constitution) lots of them from South and West where population is growing. Henry Clay (Kentucky) Speaker of the HouseJohn C Calhoun (South Carolina)Ardent Nationalists- not only offended by England, also want to move all Indians west of Mississippi, and to take Florida from Spain

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The War of 1812Fighting actually started in Western lands- and against Native Americans. Some had “assimilated” into American society (became farmers etc…) but there was a growing resistance movement led by Tecumseh

Tecumseh and his brother “The Prophet” were calling for Creeks, Shawnees, Cherokees, and Iroquois to “Push back the White Menace” Called for complete separation from whites. Americans assume they are getting help from British

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William Henry Harrison1811 Harrison (gov of Indiana) led the army against Indians at Battle of Tippecanoe (last indian battle in the Northwest) Made Harrison a hero. When war of 1812 starts, Indians fight with BritishWar hawks shouting for invasion of Canada to expand our territory and “Punish” British

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Daniel WebsterOne of the last Federalists in Congress- (from New Hampshire) Spoke out against getting into a war with England- said it would be bad for New England manufacturing. New England never really supportive of WarWhy do we declare on Eng and not France? Jeffersonians like France (and Nap is good at schmooze) Visibility of British insults; impressment etc… Lure of expansion and conquering Canada (which New Eng didn’t want, it’s more agrarian lands)

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Mr. Madison’s WarBy Spring of 1812 war is virtually inevitable- so Madison asks for declaration (which goes through, but not resoundingly- New Eng doesn’t want this) Official reason was that Britain was violating our neutralityCould easily have been a disaster. We were NOT ready for a war. Our econ is a mess, we don’t have enough officers, and Britain was incredibly powerful (esp their navy, ours is still a joke)

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Invasion of CanadaAs before- England is way more concerned about what is going on in Europe (Nap Wars). Americans hoped Fr. Canadians would welcome us as liberators. (not realizing 80% of people in Ontario were former loyalists- we should have focused on Montreal)Strategy was to split Canada W/E- three pronged invasion set off….and were beaten back (though we did win battle of the Thames, and Tecumseh killed there)

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Naval BattlesMain British navy couldn’t bypass Niagra Falls, so Great Lakes became a winnable battle ground. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry built a fleet in the great lakes- capturing the British “fleet” (merchant ships) in Sept 1813. Though at same time we were getting hammered in the Chesapeake

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War in the South

By 1814 Napoleon defeated in Europe- and Britain could focus on US. Prepared a two pronged attack: from the North through the Hudson Valley (we we stop at Battle of Plattsburg, a lot like Saratoga) and Up the Chesapeake- where the British invade and burn Washington DC in August of 1814 (We had burned Canadian capital at York) Baltimore beseiged by navy (Ft McHenry)

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Battle of New OrleansGeneral Andrew Jackson has been fighting Native Americans on the Gulf Coast- headed west towards New Orleans. (British want mouth of Mississippi- they can then bottle up west) British went with a foolish frontal assault- New Orleans was the largest and bloodiest battle of the war. (2000 British Casualties compared to 70 Americans) Irony Americans called this “the battle that won the war”- but by the time battle fought- treaty of ghent already signed. Made Jackson a national hero- unleashed a wave of nationalism

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Treaty of GhentEssentially an armistice- didn’t deal with issues that started war (neutrality etc, though that will become a non-issue with Nap defeated) Both sides just agree to stop fightingSometimes called “second war for independence” b/c we proved we could stand when threatened- European powers saw that we were NOT a helpless fledgling nation

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Hartford ConventionA group of New England Federalists gathered to discuss their issues/concerns with their declining influence compared to the west. Called for a Const. Amendment that would eliminate 3/5 clause, demand a 2/3 majority in congress to declare war/embargo or admit states, and that you can’t have 2 presidents in a row from the same state.Presented their findings just as tidings from battle of New Orleans coming in….