gamifying aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

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Conferencia. ANIEI, CNCIIC 2014. Aguascalientes. Octubre 2014. Gamifiying Applications: User Motivation & Engagement Luis de Marcos Ortega (Univ. of Alcalá) [email protected]

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1. Conferencia. ANIEI, CNCIIC 2014. Aguascalientes. Octubre 2014. Gamifiying Applications: User Motivation & Engagement Luis de Marcos Ortega (Univ. of Alcal) [email protected] 2. TOC 1. Univ. of Alcal 2. Games 3. Videogames 4. Gamification 5. Examples 6. Process 7. Criticism 8. Conclusion 9. References 3. Univ. of Alcal History Founded in 1499 Moved to Madrid in 1836 Re-established in 1977 Presentation video watch?v=mQ0oSqja8Aw 4. Univ. of Alcal Polytechnic School Computer Science Electronics Communication Computer Science Department 74 teachers (42 full-time) 5. Games Definition: No consensus of what a game is Deep philosophical question 6. Games Wittgenstein [on language] For how is the concept of a game bounded? What still counts as a game and what no longer does? Can you give the boundary? No. You can draw one; for none has so far been drawn. (But that never troubled you before when you used the word game.) Philosophical Investigations, Aphorism 68 7. Games playing a game is an attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles Elements: Objective (prelusory goal) Rules (lusory means) Lusory attitude (Suits, 2005) 8. Games Play is not the predominat feature of childhood but is a leading factor in development Strict subordination to rules is quite impossible, but in play it does become possible: thus play creates a zone of proximal development of the child. In play a child always behaves beyond his average age, above his daily behavior (Mind in society, 1978) Lev Vygotsky 9. Games Games have had an important role in our evolution (Koster, 2005) "Games are exercises for our brains" (pag. 38) "Play developed to teach us about survival" (pag. 196) 10. Games Games have the potential to change the world and can be used to tackle real world problems (McGonigal, 2011) 11. Videogames Computers provide to games: immediate feedback multimedia enriched narrative connectivity 12. Videogames Videogames are learning tools (Gee, 2007) set of goals and rules that constraint possible actions, and a feedback mechanism that provides a seamless sense of progression. 13. Gamification Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts to engage users and promote action (Werbach, 2012) 14. Gamification Gamification has a great potential Unmotivated users Systems not used Employees and customers disengaged Put fun back!!! 15. Gamification Game design elements (Werbach, 2012) Dynamics (5): Constraints, emotions, narrative, progression, relationships Mechanics (10): Challenge, chance, competition, cooperation, feedback, resourse acquisition, rewards, transactions, turns, win states Components (15): Achievements, avatars, badges, boss fights, collections, combat, content unlocking, gifting, leaderboards, levels, points, quests, social graph, teams, virtual goods. 16. Gamification PBL triad: (P)oints (B)agdes (L)eaderboard 17. Examples Foursquare Social network of places Visits (check-ins) Badges (social recognition) 18. Examples Nike+ Fuel points + community (challenge friends) 11 million users (2013) Market share (U.S shoes): from 47% (2006) to 61% (2009) 19. Examples Starbucks loyality program Points (stars) + levels Nice integration: Payment App 6 million users (2013) $3 billion in sales 20. Examples Hurrah! & Microsoft CRMGamified challenge, competition, rewards (trophies) points, badges, leaderboards, achievements "generate and inspire key behaviors that drive more sales, encourage and motivate your employees 21. Gamification Types of gamification (organizational view) Internal gamification External gamification Behavior-change gamification Types of gamification (process view) Product gamification Marketing gamification Workplace gamification 22. Gamification Other flavours of gamification Game-based/gameful design Motivational software/design Serious games Playful design Ludification / Ludology Fun theory 23. Examples American Army Serious game First-person shooter designed for recruiting Most effective marketing tool of AA 24. Examples Fold-it Serious game Real world-problem (protein folding) 25. Examples Piano Stairs Playful design / Fun theory 26. Process Gamification is not an insignificant task: game mechanics on their own result insufficient (Kapp, 2012) 27. Process 1. Define / know your player style 2. Express the player lifecycle 3. Put positive psychology in your design 4. Motivate players 28. Process 1. Define / know your player style Forget about users think in terms of players!!! Different players means different Skills Needs Expectations Motivations Know your player styles and address them 29. Process Player styles (Bartle, 1996) World Interact Players Act 30. Process 2. Express the player lifecycle Newbies need to learn the basics Regulars need fresh content / activities / challenges Experts need exclusity, recognition, impact 31. Process 3. Put positive psychology in your design In your activity loops PERMA model (P)ositive Emotion (E)ngagement (R)elationships (M)eaning (A)ccomplisments 32. Process 4. Motivate your players Focus on intrinsic rewards Provide a sense of autonomy, mastery and purpose Design your flow Theoretical background (psychology) Self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Flow (Cskszentmihlyi, 1990) 33. Theory Motivators: Extrinsic motivation from outside sources, usually rewards Intrinsic motivation from within an individual, self-determined Beware of extrinsic motivators / rewards Reward may become the only reason Potentially demotivating effect 34. Theory Self-determination theory continuum between extrinsic motivation 35. Theory Self-determination theory Motivational affordances 36. Theory Flow 37. Social Gamification of Learning Competition + cooperation Example 37 38. Example Social Gamification of Learning Elements Achievements (social or task-related) Autonomy Peer-review Competence + Relatedness Personal profile Autonomy (+Relatedness) Dashboard + social network Relatedness Virtual shop Autonomy Addressing all player types Elgg social networking engine + gamification features 39. Social Gamification of Learning Example 40. Results: Learning performance Example 40 41. Results: Social graph Example 42. Criticism Gamification is bullshit. I'm not being flip or glib or provocative. I'm speaking philosophically. More specifically, gamification is marketing bullshit, invented by consultants as a means to capture the wild, coveted beast that is videogames and to domesticate it for use in the grey, hopeless wasteland of big business, where bullshit already reigns anyway. (Ian Bogost) 43. Criticism Cow clicker deconstructive satire of social games [] gamification, educational apps, and alternate reality games (wikipedia) Pointsification 44. Criticism Gamification is an inadvertent con. It tricks people into believing that theres a simple way to imbue their thing (bank, gym, job, government, genital health outreach program, etc) with the psychological, emotional and social power of a great game. Cant play, wont play Margaret robertson 45. Caveats Sight (2012) A short futuristic film by Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo. 46. Caveats Amusement is the extension of work in late capitalism. It is sought out by him who wants to scape the mechanised process of work only to become fit for it anew Dialectics of Enlightenment Theodor W. Adorno. 47. Conclusions Engagement is a differentiator Gamification is not an easy task Recommendations: Involve players Focus on meaning, autonomy & relatedness Play test: test, test, test, & then test again Dont forget the fun!!! 48. Conclusions at its core gamification is about finding the fun in the things that you have to do (Werbach, 2012) 49. References CSKSZENTMIHLYI, M. 1990. Flow: The psychology of optimal experience, New York, HarperCollins. GEE, J. P. 2007. What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. KAPP, K. M. 2012. The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education, San Francisco, Pfeiffer. KOSTER, R. 2005. A Theory of Fun for Game Design, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, Paraglyph Press. McGONIGAL, J. 2011. Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World, New York, Penguin Books. RYAN, R. M. & DECI, E. L. 2000. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67. SUITS, B. 2005. The Grasshopper: Life, Games & Utopia, Toronto, Broadview Press. WERBACH, K. & HUNTER, D. 2012. For the win: How game thinking can revolutionize your business, Philadelphia, Wharton Digital Press. 50. Other Resources Kevin Werbach course on Gamification Sebastian Deterding: Meaningful Play: Getting Gamification Right Amy Jo Kim: Smart Gamification 51. Thank you & Questions 52. Conferencia. ANIEI, CNCIIC 2014. Aguascalientes. Octubre 2014. Luis de Marcos Ortega (Univ. of Alcal) luis.d[email protected] Gamifiying Applications: User Motivation & Engagement