gamifying aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

of 52 /52
Conferencia. ANIEI, CNCIIC 2014. Aguascalientes. Octubre 2014. Gamifiying Applications: User Motivation & Engagement Luis de Marcos Ortega (Univ. of Alcalá) [email protected]

Upload: luis-de-marcos-ortega

Post on 03-Aug-2015




2 download

Embed Size (px)


Page 1: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

Conferencia. ANIEI, CNCIIC 2014. Aguascalientes. Octubre 2014.

Gamifiying Applications:

User Motivation & Engagement

Luis de Marcos Ortega (Univ. of Alcalá)

[email protected]

Page 2: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


1. Univ. of Alcalá

2. Games

3. Videogames

4. Gamification

5. Examples

6. Process

7. Criticism

8. Conclusion

9. References

Page 3: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

Univ. of Alcalá

• History

– Founded in 1499

– Moved to Madrid in 1836

– Re-established in 1977

• Presentation video



Page 4: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

Univ. of Alcalá

• Polytechnic School

– Computer Science

– Electronics

– Communication

• Computer Science


– 74 teachers (42 full-time)

Page 5: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Definition:

No consensus of what a game is

• Deep philosophical question…

Page 6: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Wittgenstein [on language]– “For how is the concept of a game

bounded? What still counts as a

game and what no longer does?

Can you give the boundary? No.

You can draw one; for none has

so far been drawn. (But that never

troubled you before when you

used the word ‘game’.)”

Philosophical Investigations,

Aphorism 68

Page 7: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• “playing a game is an

attempt to overcome

unnecessary obstacles“

• Elements:

– Objective (prelusory goal)

– Rules (lusory means)

– Lusory attitude

(Suits, 2005)

Page 8: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• “Play is not the predominat

feature of childhood but is a

leading factor in development”

• “Strict subordination to rules is

quite impossible, but in play it

does become possible: thus play

creates a zone of proximal

development of the child. In play

a child always behaves beyond

his average age, above his daily

behavior” (Mind in society, 1978)Lev Vygotsky

Page 9: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Games have had an important role in our evolution

(Koster, 2005)

– "Games are exercises for our brains" (pag. 38)

– "Play developed to teach us about survival" (pag. 196)

Page 10: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Games have the potential to change the world and

can be used to tackle real world problems

(McGonigal, 2011)

Page 11: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Computers provide to games:

– immediate feedback

–multimedia enriched narrative


Page 12: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Videogames are

learning tools

(Gee, 2007)– set of goals and rules

that constraint possible

actions, and a feedback

mechanism that

provides a seamless

sense of progression.

Page 13: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Gamification is the use of game design

elements in non-game contexts to engage

users and promote action (Werbach, 2012)

Page 14: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Gamification has a great potential

– Unmotivated users

– Systems not used

– Employees and customers disengaged

• Put fun back!!!

Page 15: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Game design elements (Werbach, 2012)– Dynamics (5): Constraints, emotions, narrative, progression,


– Mechanics (10): Challenge, chance, competition, cooperation,

feedback, resourse acquisition, rewards, transactions, turns, win


– Components (15): Achievements, avatars, badges, boss fights,

collections, combat, content unlocking, gifting, leaderboards, levels,

points, quests, social graph, teams, virtual goods.

Page 16: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• PBL triad:




Page 17: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Foursquare

– Social network of places

– Visits (check-ins) Badges (social recognition)

Page 18: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Nike+

– Fuel points + community (challenge friends)

– 11 million users (2013)

– Market share (U.S shoes):

• from 47% (2006) to 61% (2009)

Page 19: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Starbucks loyality program

– Points (stars) + levels

– Nice integration: Payment App

– 6 million users (2013)

– $3 billion in sales

Page 20: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Hurrah! & Microsoft CRMGamified

– challenge, competition, rewards (trophies)

– points, badges, leaderboards, achievements

– "generate and inspire key behaviors that drive more

sales, encourage and motivate your employees“

Page 21: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Types of gamification (organizational view)

– Internal gamification

– External gamification

– Behavior-change gamification

• Types of gamification (process view)

– Product gamification

– Marketing gamification

– Workplace gamification

Page 22: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Other flavours of gamification

– Game-based/gameful design

– Motivational software/design

– Serious games

– Playful design

– Ludification / Ludology

– Fun theory

Page 23: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• American Army

– Serious game

– First-person shooter designed for recruiting

– Most effective marketing tool of AA

Page 24: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Fold-it

– Serious game

– Real world-problem (protein folding)

Page 25: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Piano Stairs

– Playful design / Fun theory

Page 26: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


Gamification is not an insignificant

task: game mechanics on their own

result insufficient (Kapp, 2012)

Page 27: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


1. Define / know your player style

2. Express the player lifecycle

3. Put positive psychology in your design

4. Motivate players

Page 28: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


1. Define / know your player style– Forget about users…

think in terms of players!!!

– Different players means different…

• Skills

• Needs

• Expectations

• Motivations

– Know your player styles and address them

Page 29: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Player styles (Bartle, 1996)





Page 30: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


2. Express the player lifecycle

– Newbies need to learn the basics

– Regulars need fresh content / activities / challenges

– Experts need exclusity, recognition, impact

Page 31: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


3. Put positive psychology in your design

– In your activity loops

– PERMA model

• (P)ositive Emotion

• (E)ngagement

• (R)elationships

• (M)eaning

• (A)ccomplisments

Page 32: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


4. Motivate your players

– Focus on intrinsic rewards

– Provide a sense of autonomy, mastery and


– Design your flow

• Theoretical background (psychology)

– Self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000)

– Flow (Csíkszentmihályi, 1990)

Page 33: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Motivators:– Extrinsic motivation – from outside sources,

usually rewards

– Intrinsic motivation – from within an individual,


• Beware of extrinsic motivators / rewards

– Reward may become the only reason

– Potentially demotivating effect

Page 34: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Self-determination theory

– continuum between extrinsic motivation

Page 35: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Self-determination theory

– Motivational affordances

Page 36: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Flow

Page 37: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

• Social Gamification of Learning– Competition + cooperation



Page 38: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Social Gamification of Learning– Elements

• Achievements (social or task-related) Autonomy

• Peer-review Competence + Relatedness

• Personal profile Autonomy (+Relatedness)

• Dashboard + social network Relatedness

• Virtual shop Autonomy

– Addressing all player types

– Elgg social networking engine + gamification


Page 39: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

• Social Gamification of Learning


Page 40: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

• Results: Learning performance



Page 41: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

• Results: Social graph


Page 42: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


“Gamification is bullshit. I'm not being flip or

glib or provocative. I'm speaking

philosophically. More specifically, gamification

is marketing bullshit, invented by consultants

as a means to capture the wild, coveted beast

that is videogames and to domesticate it for

use in the grey, hopeless wasteland of big

business, where bullshit already reigns

anyway.” (Ian Bogost)

Page 43: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Cow clicker– “deconstructive satire of social games […]

gamification, educational apps, and

alternate reality games” (wikipedia)

– Pointsification…

Page 44: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


“Gamification is an inadvertent con. It tricks

people into believing that there’s a simple way

to imbue their thing (bank, gym, job,

government, genital health outreach program,

etc) with the psychological, emotional and

social power of a great game.”

Can’t play, won’t play

Margaret robertson

Page 45: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


Sight (2012)– A short futuristic film by Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo.

Page 46: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


“Amusement is the extension of work in

late capitalism. It is sought out by him

who wants to scape the mechanised

process of work only to become fit for it


Dialectics of Enlightenment

Theodor W. Adorno.

Page 47: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


• Engagement is a differentiator

• Gamification is not an easy task

• Recommendations:

– Involve players

– Focus on meaning, autonomy & relatedness

– Play test: test, test, test, & then… test again

– Don’t forget the fun!!!

Page 48: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)


“at its core gamification is

about finding the fun in the

things that you have to do”

(Werbach, 2012)

Page 49: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

References• CSÍKSZENTMIHÁLYI, M. 1990. Flow: The psychology of optimal experience, New York,


• GEE, J. P. 2007. What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy,

New York, Palgrave Macmillan.

• KAPP, K. M. 2012. The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-based Methods

and Strategies for Training and Education, San Francisco, Pfeiffer.

• KOSTER, R. 2005. A Theory of Fun for Game Design, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA,

Paraglyph Press.

• McGONIGAL, J. 2011. Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can

Change the World, New York, Penguin Books.

• RYAN, R. M. & DECI, E. L. 2000. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions

and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.

• SUITS, B. 2005. The Grasshopper: Life, Games & Utopia, Toronto, Broadview Press.

• WERBACH, K. & HUNTER, D. 2012. For the win: How game thinking can revolutionize

your business, Philadelphia, Wharton Digital Press.

Page 50: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

Other Resources

• Kevin Werbach course on Gamification


• Sebastian Deterding: Meaningful Play: Getting

Gamification Right


• Amy Jo Kim: Smart Gamification


Page 51: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

Thank you & Questions

Page 52: Gamifying Aplications (aguascalientes_oct2014)

Conferencia. ANIEI, CNCIIC 2014. Aguascalientes. Octubre 2014.

Luis de Marcos Ortega (Univ. of Alcalá)

[email protected]

Gamifiying Applications:

User Motivation & Engagement