Bio Metrics & tics

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    BIOMETRICS & BIO-INFORMATICS

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    KAAMADHENU ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE

    SUBMITTED BY :

    C.SRUTHI III-B.SC(CS),A.KAVIPRIYA III-B.C.A,

    E-mail ID:1.bscsruthi@yahoo.com2.kavipriya.divya@gmail.com

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    CONTENT

    INTRODUCTION

    HOW DOES BIOMETRICS WORK

    TYPES OF BIOMETRICS

    HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING

    FINGER RECOGNITION

    CURRENT USES OF BIOMETRICS

    FUTURE OF BIOMETRICS

    ADVANTAGES / DISADVANTAGES

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    In a more simpler terms biometrics meansusing the body as a password.

    The statistical measurement and analysis of biological observations .

    WEBSTERS DEFINITION :

    INTRODUCTION

    Biometrics comes from the Greeks.

    The words bio means life and metrymeans to measure.

    The technique of verifying a person by aphysical characteristic or personal trait.

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    GOAL OF BIOMETRIC :

    Identification is to assist in providing asingle computer system log-in that rarelyrejects authorized users and alwaysdetects fraudulent access attempts.

    Such a system surpasses password and tokensystems because a person's body cannot be

    forgotten or stolen, and access is provided tothe person, not a piece of plastic.

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    HOW DOES BIOMETRICS WORK?

    The user presses his finger gently against asmall reader surface (optical or silicon) usuallyof about 2 inch square size.

    This reader is attached to a computer and takesthe information from the scan and sends it to thedatabase. There it is compared to theinformation within.

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    To prevent fake fingers from being used,manysystems also measure blood flow, or check forcorrectly arrayed ridges at the edges of thefingers.

    The user is usually to leave his finger on thereader for less than 5 seconds during whichtime the identification or verification takesplace.

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    Types of Biometrics

    There are two types of biometrics:

    Behavioral and Physical.

    Behavioral biometrics :

    Generally used for verification.

    Physical biometrics :

    It can be used for either identificationor verification.

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    Examples of physical biometrics include:

    j Bertillonage - measuring body lengths (no longer used)

    j Fingerprint - analyzing fingertip patterns

    j Facial Recognition - measuring facial characteristics

    j Hand Geometry - measuring the shape of the hand

    j Iris Scan - analyzing features of colored ring of the eye

    j Retinal Scan - analyzing blood vessels in the eye

    j

    Vascular Patterns - analyzing vein patternsj DNA - analyzing genetic makeup

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    HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING

    (FIRST USE OF BIOMETRICS)

    The first recorded use of fingerprints was by theancient Assyrians and Chinese for the signing of legal documents.

    The first modern study of fingerprints was made by

    the Czech physiologist Johannes EvangelistaPurkinje, who in 1823 proposed a system of classification that attracted little attention.

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    FINGER RECOGNITION

    Identification points consist of bifurcations,ending ridges, dots, ridges and islands.

    A single rolled fingerprint may have as manyas 100 or more identification points that can be

    used for identification purposes.There is no exact size requirement as thenumber of points found on a fingerprintimpression depends on the location of the print.

    As an example the area immediately surroundinga delta will probably contain more points persquare millimeter than the area near the tip of thefinger which tends to not have that many points.

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    IMAGE #1 IMAGE # 2

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    In Image #1 we see part of a fully rolledfingerprint. Notice that the edges are cutoff.

    If you take a look at Image #2 you can see that itwas sectioned out the center portion of this

    impression and labeled 10 points of identification.

    Image #2 when measured 1:1 is just over 1/4"square. If you look closely you should be able toidentify 10 additional points that were notmapped with the lines.

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    First, Image #1 and Image #2 are bothtaken from the same image. In real life youwould have impressions made at separatetimes and subject to different pressuredistortions.

    Secondly, these images are relatively cleanand clear where many of the actually crime

    scene prints are anything but clear.

    In some cases you may have a latent thatcould be a fingertip, palm or even footimpression.

    Last you have to consider that this is aneasy comparison because you are blessedwith having a core pattern and a delta whenin some cases you may have a latent thatcould be a fingertip, palm or even footimpression.

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    CURRENT USES OF BIOMETRICSCURRENT USES OF BIOMETRICS

    There are many uses that biometrics is being used todayand the future holds more advances. At Coca-Cola Co.,hand-scanning machines recently replaced the

    venerable time card for many workers.

    In Cook County, Illinois, a sophisticated camera thatanalyzes the iris patterns of an individual's eyeball ishelping ensure that the right people are released from

    jail.

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    MasterCard International Inc. and Visa USA Inc.,the world's two largest credit card companies, havebegun to study the feasibility of using finger-scanning devices at the point of sale to verify that

    the card user is really the card holder.

    The scanners would compare fingerprints withbiometric information stored on a microchipembedded in the credit card.

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    FUTURE OF BIOMETRICS

    As future is near biometrics will be a keyinstrument in our society. With the use of biometrics increasing from day to day and the

    need to stop fraud, it seems that the futureshows hope.

    There be a central database to contain thedigital templates from everyone eyes, fingeror voices.

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    The biometric system turn into the Social SecurityNumber of the future. Even though the SocialSecurity number, was a symbol of our right to work and our responsibility to pay taxes.

    The future of this technology is just starting to bloom.Many issues are arising from this technology and

    "PRIVACY" is the main concern.

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    ADVANTAGES / DISADVANTAGES

    Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of fully developed biometric systems that are fairlyaccurate:

    Iris recognition (recording of iris using standard videotechnology)

    Advan t ag es: Non-invasive procedure (close physicalcontact not required).

    Disadvan t ag es: Relatively expensive; requires largeamount of computer storage; may not be generally

    accepted by public.

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    Retinal scans (electronic scan of the innermostlayer of the eyeball's wall):

    Advan t ag es: Retina generally remains stablethrough life, ensuring accuracy.

    Disadvan t ag es: Requires close physical contactMW scanning device; may not be generallyaccepted by public.

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    Finger imaging (recording of fingerprint using opticalscanner):

    Advan t ag es: Widely accepted by public and law

    enforcement communities as reliable identification. Disadvan t ag es: Requires close physical contact withscanning device; residue on finger may causerecognition problems; has criminal overtones.

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    Hand geometry (three-dimensional recording of length, width and height of hand and fingers, using

    optical scanner):

    Advan t ag es: User-friendly; requires small amount of computer storage space.

    Disadvan t ag es: Isn't as unique as other biometricmethods; hand injury can cause recognition

    problems.

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    Facial thermography or imaging (photograph of faceconverted into digital code):

    Advan t ag es: Non-invasive procedure.

    Disadvan t ag es : People who look alike can fool scanner;people can alter their appearance and facial hair canfool device.

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    Voice verification or recognition (acoustic signal of voice converted into digital code):

    Advan t ag es: Works well over the telephone.

    Disadvan t ag es: Requires large amount of computerstorage; people's voices can change; backgroundnoises can interfere.

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    Signature recognition (computer record of pen/stylusspeed, pressure, direction and other characteristics of signature):

    Advan t ag es: People are used to providing a signature.

    Disadvan t ag es: Poor long-term reliability; accuracydifficult to ensure.

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    1. Websters Dictionary (1997 Edition)

    2. Campel, Joesph P., alyea, Lisa A. and Dunn,Jeffery S. "Biometric Security: Government

    Applications and Operations" (1996)3. Davis, Ann "The Body as Password" WiredMagazine (1997)

    4. Woodward, Jon D. "Biometrics: Privacys Foe or

    Privacys Friend?" IEEE Magazine (1997)

    5. Biometrics Organization Web site(http://www.biometrics.org)

    6. Eurpoean Website full of Biometrics information(http://www.ams.med-uni-goettingen.de/rhilger/)

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    7.Bigun, Josef; Chollet, Gerard; Borgerfors, Gunilla;"Audio and Video based Biometric PersonAuthentication" March 1997

    8. Fogarty, T.C., "Evolutionary ComputingProceedings" 1996

    9.Fight the Fingerprint Website(http://www.networkusa.org/finerprint.shtml)

    10. Biometrics Journal Aug. 1997 Vol.53 No.6

    11. "Biometric Scanning, Law & Policy" by John D.Woodward

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    THANK YOU

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    QUERIES?????