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Page 1: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES€¦ · Chapter 24 Resources Timesaving Tools ... the Popular Front ... World War I and its aftermath brought political and territorial changes


Chapter 24 ResourcesTimesaving Tools

• Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition andyour classroom resources with a few easy clicks.

• Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize yourweek, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to maketeaching creative, timely, and relevant.

™ Use Glencoe’sPresentation Plus!multimedia teacher tool to easily present

dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu-dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint® you can customize the presentations to create your ownpersonalized lessons.

The following videotape programs are available from Glencoe as supplements to Chapter 24:

• The Great Depression (ISBN 0–7670–0859–6)• Mussolini: Italy’s Nightmare

(ISBN 1–56501–818–4)• Joseph Stalin (ISBN 1–56501–820–6)

To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To findclassroom resources to accompany many of thesevideos, check the following home pages:A&E Television: www.aande.comThe History Channel: www.historychannel.com




Graphic Organizer StudentActivity 24 Transparency L2


The West Between the Wars (1919–1939)Main Idea

Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Supporting Detail

Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Supporting Detail

Graphic Organizer 1: Main Idea Chart

Map OverlayTransparency 24 L2

Nazi-Fascist Expansion, 1936–1939

Overlay Set 22 Nazi–Fascist Expansion, 1936-1939 Transparency 22.1 ©1998 West Educational Publishing/I PT

Germany, 1936Adriatic Sea



Elbe R.

Oder R.

















B l a c k S e a


Mediterranean Sea

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Map Overlay Transparency 24

Enrichment Activity 24 L3

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Whether you are reading today’s news-paper or researching history, political car-toons can help you understand thearguments surrounding an issue.Cartoonists illustrate their point of view

★ Enrichment Activity 24 ★★

through satirical drawings rather thanlengthy editorials. Sometimes their cartoonsdepict actual people involved in an issue;other times the characters symbolize ideas,groups, or nations.

No Laughing Matter: Interpreting Political Cartoons

5. What is interrupting the ceremony?________________________________________________

6. Why is the ceremony being interrupted? ___________________________________________

7. Around what year might this cartoon have appeared? _______________________________

8. Where do you think the cartoonist stands on this issue? Why do you think so?__________

DIRECTIONS: Look at the following politicalcartoon and answer the questions in thespace provided.

1. What type of ceremony is beingdepicted by the cartoon?______________

2. Who is the bearded man, and what doeshe represent?________________________

3. What does the woman represent? ______

4. What does the ceremony symbolize? ___

Primary Source Reading 24 L2

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Mein Kampf

Soon after he joined the obscure far-right National Socialist party, AdolfHitler tried to use his gang of Brownshirts to seize power in Munich.The unsuccessful putsch, or small-scale revolt, that started in a Munich

beer hall sent Hitler to jail. There he wrote a long political essay describing hisphilosophy of a “master race,” his belief that the Jews were responsible forGermany’s problems, and his visionary goals for himself, the Nazis, and a newGerman Reich, or empire. The book, titled Mein Kampf (My Struggle), waspublished in 1925 and 1927.

Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn Hitler’s opinion of and use for propaganda.

Ever since I have been scrutinizing politicalevents, I have taken a tremendous interest inpropagandist activity. I saw that the Socialist-Marxist organizations mastered and applied thisinstrument with astounding skill. And I soonrealized that the correct use of propaganda is atrue art which has remained practicallyunknown to the bourgeois parties. . . .

But it was not until the War [World War I]that it became evident what immense resultscould be obtained by a correct application ofpropaganda. . . .

For what we failed to do, the enemy did,with amazing skill and really brilliant calcula-tion. I, myself, learned enormously from thisenemy war propaganda. . . .

. . . Is propaganda a means or an end?It is a means and must therefore be judged

with regard to its end. It must consequently takea form calculated to support the aim which itserves. . . .

. . . To whom should propaganda beaddressed? To the scientifically trained intelli-gentsia or to the less educated masses?

It must be addressed always and exclusivelyto the masses.

What the intelligentsia—or those who todayunfortunately often go by that name—what theyneed is not propaganda but scientific instruction.The content of propaganda is not science anymore than the object represented in a poster isart. The art of the poster lies in the designer’sability to attract the attention of the crowd byform and color. . . .

The function of propaganda does not lie inthe scientific training of the individual, but in

calling the masses’ attention to certain facts,processes, necessities, etc., whose significance isthus for the first time placed within their field ofvision.

The whole art consists in doing this so skill-fully that everyone will be convinced that thefact is real, the process necessary, the necessitycorrect, etc. . . . [Propaganda’s] effect for themost part must be aimed at the emotions andonly to a very limited degree at the so-calledintellect.

All propaganda must be popular and itsintellectual level must be adjusted to the mostlimited intelligence among those it is addressedto. Consequently, the greater the mass it isintended to reach, the lower its purely intellec-tual level will have to be. . . .

. . . The more exclusively it takes into consid-eration the emotions of the masses, the moreeffective it will be. . . .

The receptivity of the great masses isvery limited, their intelligence is small, buttheir power of forgetting is enormous. In conse-quence . . . , all effective propaganda must belimited to a very few points and must harp onthese in slogans until the last member of thepublic understands what you want him tounderstand by your slogan. . . .

For instance, it was absolutely wrong tomake the enemy ridiculous, as the Austrian andGerman comic papers did. It was absolutelywrong because actual contact with an enemy sol-dier was bound to arouse an entirely differentconviction, and the results were devastating; fornow the German soldier . . . felt himself swin-dled by his propaganda service. His desire to

P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 24


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The Postwar World—Worksheet

1. Setting: The United States in the 1930sSubject: direct relief from the federalgovernmentPosition:Means of Expression: song, poem, oressay

2. Setting: Italy in 1924Subject: Mussolini’s dictatorshipPosition:Means of Expression: poem, short story,one-act play, or song

3. Setting: the United States in 1919Subject: membership in the League ofNationsPosition:Means of Expression: song or essay

4. Setting: Germany in 1923Subject: inflationPosition:Means of Expression: song, poem, oressay

5. Setting: Great Britain in 1926Subject: general strikePosition:Means of Expression: poem, song, one-act play, or short story

6. Setting: Germany in the late 1930sSubject: Hitler’s policies toward GermanJewsPosition:Means of Expression: poem, short story,one-act play, or song

7. Setting: France in 1936Subject: the Popular FrontPosition:Means of Expression: song, poem, oressay

8. Setting: the Soviet Union in the late1920sSubject: collectivizationPosition:Means of Expression: song, poem, shortstory, or one-act play

9. Setting: Italy in 1921Subject: actions of the BlackshirtsPosition:Means of Expression: song, poem,essay, one-act play, or short story

10. Setting: Germany in the 1930sSubject: a German artist’s lifePosition:Means of Expression: song, poem,story, or one-act play

24H I S T O R Y



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On October 29, 1929, the stock market inNew York City crashed. In one day, stockprices plummeted. Businesses and individ-uals suddenly found themselves bankrupt.Many people lost their jobs. Some defaultedon taxes and mortgages, and lost theirhomes. How could people have money oneday and be broke the next? How can such a disaster be prevented?

The years prior to the 1929 crash wereeconomic boom years. There were morepeople who wanted to buy stocks than therewere stocks to sell, so the prices went up.Some people, however, began worrying thatthese prices were too high. They started sell-ing their stocks to ensure their profits. Littleby little, more people realized that stockprices were beginning to fall. They too triedto sell their stocks. As the number of sellersexceeded the number of buyers, prices con-tinued to fall. Then panic set in, and theprices tumbled.

In the aftermath of the crash, during the Great Depression, the governmentestablished the Securities and ExchangeCommission to ensure that such a disasterwould never happen again. The commis-

sion monitored the stock market, providedinvestors with access to accurate informa-tion, and prevented unfair use of nonpublicinformation in stock trading.

Despite the Securities and ExchangeCommission, however, stock market crasheshave occurred since the Great Depression.On October 19, 1987, for example, the stockmarket dropped 500 points. It lost about $1trillion in a single day due to circumstancessimilar to those in 1929. Today, millions ofstocks are traded by computers, often with-out human input. The computers have beenprogrammed to detect when stock pricesbegin to fall. If the prices fall to a lowenough level, the program directs the com-puter automatically to sell those stocks. Youcan imagine what could happen now thatmillions of computers around the world areprogrammed in this way! In response, thegovernment and New York Stock Exchangehave enacted rules to prevent rapid sellingof stocks by computer. For example, if thestock market average falls by 50 points intoo short a time, computer stock tradingmust be suspended until the trading slowsand the price level begins to rise.

Historical Significance Activity 24

Stock Market Crashes: Then and Now


DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

1. What happens when there are more people who want to buy an item than there are itemsavailable to sell?

2. Describe a financial panic.

3. How might the Securities and Exchange Commission help prevent another stock marketcrash?

4. How has technology changed stock trading today?

5. What danger did this technological change introduce?

6. What safeguard has been established to counteract this danger?

Cooperative LearningActivity 24 L1/ELL



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The West Between the Wars Showdown Challenge

★ Cooperative Learning Activity 24 ★★

BACKGROUNDWorld War I and its aftermath brought political and territorial changes to many areasof the world. Some countries were created, others changed names or territories. Manynations of the West also faced severe economic problems after 1929. Dictatorialregimes sprang up in Italy, Germany, and across Eastern Europe. In this activity, youwill work in groups to create questions for a history game show based on the WestBetween the Wars, and then compete in a showdown challenge team competition.

GROUP DIRECTIONS1. Use Chapter 24 of your textbook to collect facts about famous people, events,

and places in the countries of the Western world between 1919 and 1939. Youmay also create “bonus questions” (with answers and sources) from libraryresources or the Internet, based on information not contained in your textbook.Make notes about what you find and record your sources.

2. Use your facts to write questions and answers for a history game. You will alsoneed to know these facts to answer questions during the game.

3. Sort through the questions created by team members as a group and determinethe best ones for the team to use in the game.

4. The following categories must be used. All of the questions your team createsmust fit one of the categories and your team must have five to ten basic ques-tions and at least one bonus question for each category.

World War I “Peace” Treaties The Great DepressionDemocratic States After the War The Rise of DictatorsHitler: The Man and His Views The Nazi StateMass Culture and Leisure Literature and Science

ORGANIZING THE GROUP1. Group Work/Decision Making Assign two categories to pairs of group mem-

bers or individuals. Review what kind of information to use for bonus questions.

2. Individual Work Write questions and answers on note cards—questions on oneside, answers on the other—for the categories assigned. Label your card as tothe category assigned. Use resources beyond your textbook’s contents only forbonus questions and cite your sources.

3. Group Work/Decision Making Meet with your group. Share your questionsand answers with your group. Take turns asking each other your questions andchecking that the answers given are correct. You are now ready to play yourgame.

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Page 2: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES€¦ · Chapter 24 Resources Timesaving Tools ... the Popular Front ... World War I and its aftermath brought political and territorial changes


Chapter 24 Resources




Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROMInteractive Tutor Self-AssessmentCD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMAudio ProgramWorld History Primary SourceDocument Library CD-ROM

MindJogger VideoquizPresentation Plus! CD-ROMTeacherWorks CD-ROMInteractive Student Edition CD-ROMThe World History Video Program

MULTIMEDIAMULTIMEDIAThe following Spanish language materialsare available:

• Spanish Guided Reading Activities• Spanish Reteaching Activities• Spanish Quizzes and Tests• Spanish Vocabulary Activities• Spanish Summaries• Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide


Linking Past and PresentActivity 24 L2



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Name ____________________________________ Date ________________ Class __________

Then After World War I, the Paris PeaceConference adopted President WoodrowWilson’s proposal for a League of Nations.Member nations agreed to seek peaceful solu-tions to their conflicts and pledged that theywould defend any other member nationagainst attack. However, the United StatesSenate was unwilling to agree to defend theterritory of other nations, and America did notjoin the organization.

Because of its structure, the League ofNations could not act against the wishes of anypowerful member. The Council could take mil-itary action, but only by unanimous vote. TheAssembly, which handled the budget andadmitted new members, required a two-thirdsmajority to take any action. An administrativebranch, the Secretariat, set up organizations topromote disarmament, human rights, health,and economic development.

The League was successful in resolving aterritorial dispute between Sweden andFinland and averting war between Greece andBulgaria in 1925. However, the League’speacekeeping efforts became progressively lesseffective, particularly after Germany and Japanwithdrew in 1933. The League would proveunable to prevent a civil war in Span, Japan’swar against China, and the aggressions ofHitler. Despite its limitations, the League setthe pattern for how an international organiza-tion might promote peace and security.

In 1946 the League of Nations dissolveditself. The demise of the League was due most-ly to a lack of organization as well as a lack ofinterest on the part of its more powerfulnations. The functions of the League, however,were taken over by the United Nations, whichwas formed by the victors of World War II andinitially included fifty member nations.

Now Today, most of the world’s independentnations are United Nations members.Secretary-General Kofi Annan shared the 2001Nobel Peace Prize with the United Nations“for their work for a better organized andmore peaceful world.” This work included try-ing to eliminate the causes of war by fightinghunger, promoting disarmament, reducingpoverty, and defending human rights.

Like the League of Nations, the UnitedNations has a General Assembly, a SecurityCouncil, and a Secretariat. In addition, it hasan International Court of Justice that resolveslegal disputes between members, an Economicand Social Council that promotes humanrights and encourages higher standards of liv-ing, and a Trusteeship Council that helpsterritories become self-governing.

Also like the League, in matters of peaceand war the United Nations cannot act againstthe wishes of the five permanent SecurityCouncil members—the United States, Russia,China, France, and Great Britain. With theirconsent (or absence), the United Nations canand does apply economic sanctions to roguenations, sends observers and peacekeepers totrouble spots, and conducts trials of war crimi-nals. In 1950 the United Nations became thefirst world organization to take part in a war,fighting North Korea’s attempt to conquerSouth Korea.

Most of the United Nations’ successes inpeacekeeping have taken place in smallernations and conflicts. In its mission to fightdisease and hunger, as well as to promote edu-cation and technology in underdevelopedregions, the United Nations has achieved itsgoal on a much wider scale. Few can questionthe value of the United Nations as a forum inwhich nations can talk, vote, express opinions,and agree upon solutions.

Linking Past and Present Activity 24

Nations United

Critical ThinkingDirections: Answer the following questionson a separate sheet of paper.1. Making inferences: How does the United

Nations work for peace? 2. Making comparisons: What similarities

and differences do you see between theLeague of Nations and the United Nations?

3. Synthesizing information: Think aboutreasons why the United States might wantto limit its role in the United Nations. Thendo research in the library and on theInternet to identify different points of viewabout American support for the UnitedNations. Write a brief summary of yourfindings.

Time Line Activity 24 L2



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Time Line Activity 24

The West Between the WarsDIRECTIONS: Many changes took place in Europe and the United States in the years afterWorld War I. Some of these events are listed on the time line below. Read the time line, thenanswer the questions that follow.

1900 19501925

1. After which year could American women participate in choosing the President?


2. How long did the Weimar Republic last? ����������������������������������

3. Jewish people had no rights in Germany after which year? ����������������������������������

4. a. In which western European country did a totalitarian leader first take control?


b. Who was the leader? ����������������������������������

5. a. What economic disaster happened in the 1920s? ����������������������������������

b. In which year did this happen? ����������������������������������

6. In which year did the Communists finally assume total control in Russia?


7. When did the first Five-Year Plan end in the Soviet Union? ����������������������������������

1919 Constitution of theWelmar Republic signedin Germany.

1920 Women in theUnited States win theright to vote.

1922 Russia renamedUnion of Soviet SocialistRepublics; Fascists marchon Rome; Mussolini namedprime minister.

1924 Mussolini assumesdictatorial powers.

1926 General Strike inGreat Britain

1927 First talking film 1928 First Five-Year Planannounced in SovietUnion.

1929 Stock market crash

1935 Dance bands reach height of popu-larity in United States; Nuremburg Lawsstrip Jews of their citizenship.

1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt introduces theNew Deal; Hitler named chancellor ofGermany; Hitler outlaws political parties.

Reteaching Activity 24 L1

Changes in the Postwar EraCultural Economic Political

Country Developments Developments Developments

United States economic boom

Great Britain Commonwealth ofNations

France huge war debts coalition governments

Italy huge war debts


Soviet Union

The West Between the Wars

The postwar era saw dramatic changes and innovations in lifestyles,science and technolo-gy, and the arts. At the same time, many countries struggled under the strain of war debtsand a worldwide depression. While the United States, France, and Great Britain retainedtheir democratic structure, totalitarian governments emerged in Germany, Italy, and theSoviet Union. Use the chart below to review some post–World War I cultural, economic, andpolitical developments in the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany, and theSoviet Union.

DIRECTIONS: Copy the chart below onto a separate sheet of paper. Then read the items in thelist below and write them in the appropriate spaces in the chart. Some items belong in morethan one space; some spaces will be left blank. The chart has been started for you.

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Reteaching Activity 24‘

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• industrial and agriculturalworkers strike

• Socialist realism becomes obligatory

• Quo Vadis

• rise of the Labour party

• Stalin and Five-Year Plan

• huge war debts

• poet Paul Valéry

• Popular Front

• Commonwealth of Nations

• Lenin and NEP

• drought causes famine

• coalition governments

• creation of Weimar Republic

• Conservatives

• Birth of a Nation

• no longer world’s trade leader

• government purges

• Roosevelt and New Deal

• economic boom

• Hannah Höch uses photomontage

• Herman Hesse

• Kraft durch Freucle

• economy near ruin

• John Maynard Keynes

• 1929 stock market crash sets offworldwide depression

• French New Deal

• rise of fascism and Mussolini

• Marconi discovers wirelessradio

• rise of Nazism and Hitler

• Works Progress Administration

• high unemployment

Vocabulary Activity 24 L1

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The West Between the Wars: 1919–1939DIRECTIONS: Match each term with its definition by writing the correct letter on the blank.

Vocabulary Activity 24f

A. coalition

B. collective bargaining

C. collectivization

D. concentrationcamp

E. deficit spending

F. depression

G. dictatorship

H. documentary

I. fascism

J. general strike

K. Kristallnacht

L. kulak

M. photomontage

N. purge

O. reparations

P. surrealism

Q. totalitarian state

R. uncertaintyprinciple

1. form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life

2. attack on Jewish businesses, homes, and synagogues

3. protest in which all or almost all of a nation’s workers walk off their jobs

4. compensation required from a defeated nation as indemnity for damage during a war

5. political philosophy that advocates an aggressive form of nationalism, single-party system with a strong ruler, glorification of the state

6. to remove

7. middle-class peasant

8. alliance of several different political factions

9. film presenting facts without inserting fictional matter

10. theory based on the unpredictability of physical laws

11. a state where the government controls the means of production

12. spending of public funds obtained by borrowing rather than by taxation

13. system in which the government owns the land and uses the peasants to farm it

14. technique of making a picture by assembling pieces of photographs

15. negotiation between unions and employers to determine wages and working conditions

16. long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices

17. dreamlike images and unnatural combinations of objects

18. where Adolf Hitler and the Nazi government sent Jews, political opponents, andother groups they found to be threatening

Chapter 24 TestForm A L2



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DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

Column A

1. reduced German reparations and coordinated Germany’sannual payments with its ability to pay

2. a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment

3. political philosophy that emphasizes the need for a strongcentral government led by a dictatorial ruler

4. the modified version of the old capitalist system that Leninused to avoid complete economic disaster

5. system in which private farms were eliminated and thegovernment owned the land

6. living space

7. excluded Jews from German citizenship and forbademarriages between Jews and German citizens

8. program that offered leisure time activities to fill the freetime of the working class

9. James Joyce’s famous example the “stream ofconsciousness” technique in literature

10. documentary film of the 1934 Nuremberg Nazi party rally

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

11. The Treaty of Locarno guaranteed A. that sixty-three nations would “renounce war as an instrument of national policy.”B. a $200 million dollar loan to aid in German economic recovery.C. Germany’s new western borders with France and Belgium, fostering a feeling of

peace in Europe.D. that the United States would join the League of Nations.

12. John Maynard Keynes argued that unemploymentA. was a symptom of the demise of the capitalist system.B. came not from overproduction, but from a decline in demand.C. was actually healthy for the economy in the long run.D. came from government mismanagement of the economy.

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 24 Test, Form A

Column B

A. Nuremberg laws

B. New EconomicPolicy

C. collectivization

D. Dawes Plan

E. Lebensraum

F. fascism

G. The Triumph of the Will

H. Kraft durch Freude

I. economicdepression

J. Ulysses

Chapter 24 TestForm B L2

Performance AssessmentActivity 24 L1/ELL

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

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★ Performance Assessment Activity 24

Use with Chapter 24.

The West Between the Wars

BACKGROUNDAfter World War I, artists from across Europe and the United States entered an

exceptionally creative period. Having lived through the war and witnessed the vio-lence and atrocities, many artists had become disillusioned by their societies, theirgovernments, and humanity in general. They abandoned traditional forms of art anddeveloped innovative ways of depicting the world. Four art movements of the post-war era were dadaism, surrealism, cubism, and German expressionism.

TASKYou are an artist during the years following World War I, and a local art museum

has asked you to contribute one of your artworks to an upcoming exhibit. Researchthe techniques and philosophy of a specific artist or an artistic movement from thepost–World War I era and then create your own artwork based on what you havelearned. Your artwork will be exhibited along with those of your classmates.

AUDIENCEYour audience includes your teacher, other students, and the art-viewing public.

PURPOSEYour purpose is to express a common post–World War I theme in the style of an

artistic movement that flourished at that time.

PROCEDURES1. Choose an artist from the following list to research, or plan to survey several

artists from one of the art movements.Dadaism: Francis Picabia, Marcel Duchamp, Jean ArpSurrealism: Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Joan Miró, Salvador Dali, René MagritteCubism: Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, Georges BraqueGerman Expressionism: Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka, George Grosz, Kurt Schwitters

2. As part of your research, look at the philosophy behind your chosen art move-ment. List the ideas that followers of this movement were trying to represent andthe feelings they were trying to evoke.

3. Look at several examples of paintings by your chosen artist or artists. Study theimages, the colors, the design and layout, the lines, and the textures.

4. Think about a work of art that you would like to create in the style of the paint-ings you have studied. Do not try to copy an existing painting, but rather developan original idea.

5. On art paper, sketch your design in pencil.

6. Continue rendering your artwork using watercolors, poster paints, markers, orother media.

ExamView® ProTestmaker CD-ROM

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Movements of People 1919–1939After World War I, the map of Europe changed. Although efforts were made todraw new boundaries on the basis of self-determination of ethnic groups, notevery minority group became a separate nation. Some minority ethnic groupsremained within the boundaries of other groups. Throughout the period betweenthe two world wars, many minority ethnic groups left their homes to escape per-secution and violence. Others emigrated because their government forced themto do so.

DIRECTIONS: The map below shows Europe in the 1930s. Read the followingstatements describing the movements of various minority ethnic groups duringthe 1919–1939 period. Draw arrows on the map to represent the movementsdescribed. Use a different color for each ethnic group and add a key to show themeaning of each color.

Mapping History Activity 24

1. Following an agreement at theend of the Greek-Turkish war,Greece and Turkey exchangedtheir minority populations.About 400,000 Turks fromnortheastern Greece weremoved to Turkey, while1,250,000 Greeks were sent toGreece from Turkey in 1924.

2. Between 1919 and 1939, Turkey also received 80,000 Turks fromRomania; 110,000 Turks fromBulgaria; and around 20,000Turks from Yugoslavia.

3. As a result of the Treaty ofVersailles, many Germansmoved back to Germany: 350,000 from the north of newlyconstituted Poland; 90,000 fromthe south of Poland; 40,000 fromwestern Czechoslovakia; and120,000 from the northeasterncorner of France.

4. About 290,000 Jews and other refugees from the Nazi regime migrated eitheroverseas, or to Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and Switzerland.

5. Hungary received 200,000 ethnic Hungarians from Romania; 80,000 from northern Yugoslavia; and 120,000 from eastern Czechoslovakia.






























Mediterranean Sea

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2000 400 kilometer

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400 miles

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European Borders, 1930s

World Art and MusicActivity 24 L2



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World War I resulted in mass killing on a scale unknown before, resultingin despair and the belief that the traditions of western culture were at fault.The French artist Marcel Duchamp and other artists and writers who sharedthis attitude, launched a movement called Dada or Dadaism. The term means“hobbyhorse” in French and was reportedly selected at random from a dic-tionary. Its purpose was to inform the public that all established values weremeaningless in light of the great war.

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage about Dada, then answer the ques-tions in the space provided.

But there was also libera-tion from unleashing thecreative mind.

In Zurich, Jean Arp andSophie Taeuber creatednonfigurative drawings,watercolors, and embroi-deries dominated by hori-zontal and verticalstructures. Arp declaredthat they eliminated“everything that wasmerely a matter of enter-tainment or taste from ourinvestigations; even thepersonal touch struck us asuseless and embarrassing,for it was the emanation ofa dead and rigid world.”They used embroidering,weaving, painting, and glu-ing static geometric formsto create their impersonal

constructions. They were typical of Dadaists who couldnot be bound to any one technique or type of expres-sion; they mixed traditional forms of expression tooppose the traditional forms of art.

German Dadaist Raoul Hausmann’s The Spirit ofOur Times is a combination of both sculpture andcollage. Hausmann started with the theory that peo-ple have no personality and that their face is simply


WoWorld Art and Music Activity 24


Dada art was a reac-tion to existing cul-

ture, particularly in art. Artthat was carefully con-structed and thought out,even impressionistic andrealistic art, was consid-ered to be a trait of theculture that lead to WorldWar I. Dada artists in theUnited States and westernEurope instead relied onchance and imagination tocreate their works. MarcelDuchamp would take aready-made item, such asa metal wine rack, attachhis name to it, and exhibitit as a work of art.

Dada artists took exist-ing forms of art andadded the elements ofchance and imagination.Hans Arp, for example, created a new form of collagein which he arranged colored pieces of paper shapedby tearing rather than by cutting and dropped themon a larger sheet to create his works. GermanDadaist Max Ernst composed collages using pieces ofillustrations of machinery.

Dada art is a negative reaction to traditional art. Itwas anti-art and it was meant to assault the senses.

Raoul Hausmann’s The Spirit of Our Times

History and GeographyActivity 24 L2



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Name Date Class


On April 1, 1933, German soldiers in fulluniform stood at the entrances of certaindepartment stores and other shops, urgingcustomers not to enter. “This is a Jewishbusiness!” the soldiers shouted.“Remember to boycott the Jews!” Fewcustomers dared to enter and few Jewishstores remained open. That day marked thebeginning of Germany’s official persecutionof the Jews. Why did the German govern-ment initiate a policy of persecuting itsown citizens?

After World War I, many successful Jewsmoved in the upper class of Europeansociety. In Germany, for example, Jewsowned steel mills, railroads, shipping lines,department stores, and banks. The lives ofthese wealthy Jews closely resembled thoseof other rich Germans.

Yet for every Jew in the upper class, therewere dozens of middle and working classJews. Beginning in the late 1800s, millionsof Jews fled the impoverished villages inRussia and eastern Europe. Some traveledall the way to the United States; others

Jews in Europe

Jewish tailors and small-business ownerswere often confined to the ghettos ofcentral European cities because they wereviewed as unwelcome competitors.

In Berlin’s Jewish GhettoThe entrance to the Wassertorstrasse was a big stone archway, a bit of old Berlin, daubedwith hammers and sickles and Nazi crosses and plastered with tattered bills which adver-tised auctions or crimes. It was a deep shabby cobbled street, littered with sprawling chil-dren’s tears. . . .

Down in the murky pit of the courtyard, where the fog, in this clammy autumn weather,never lifted, the street singers and musicians succeeded each other in a performance whichwas nearly continuous. There were parties of boys with mandolins, an old man who playedthe concertina, and a father who sang with his little girls. . . .

Another regular visitor was the Jewish tailor and outfitter, who sold clothes of allkinds on the installment plan. He was small and gentle and very persuasive. All daylong he made his rounds of the tenements in the district, collecting fifty pfennigs here,a mark there, scratching up his precarious livelihood, like a hen, from this apparently bar-ren soil.

—From Goodbye to Berlin (1935) by Christopher Isherwood

People in World History Activity 24 L2



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Name Date Class

Please know that I am aware of the hazards. I want to doit because I want to do it. Women must try to do thingsas men have tried. When they fail, their failure must bebut a challenge to others.

Amelia Earhart in a letter to her husband, the explorer George Palmer Putnam, 1937

Today, flying one’s own plane is becom-ing a much more common practice. Asrecently as 50 years ago, however, flyingwas very unusual––especially for women.Amelia Earhart was the first woman to flyalone across the Atlantic Ocean. One ofAmerica’s most celebrated aviators, shepaved the way for generations of womenand flyers that followed.

Few of the events in Earhart’s childhoodsignaled the path her life would take. Shewas born in Kansas on July 24, 1897, thedaughter of a lawyer. Educated inPennsylvania and at New York’s ColumbiaUniversity, Earhart started flying as ahobby. Eager to make a difference in theworld, she worked as a military nurse inCanada during World War I. After the war,she became a social worker in a poorBoston neighborhood.

Earhart became famous in 1928 when shewas the first woman passenger on a transat-lantic flight. She was a passenger on theFriendship, an airplane piloted by WilmerStulz. They flew from Newfoundland toWales. This success catapulted Earhart intoa career as a pilot.

Determined tojustify the famethat her 1928transatlanticcrossing hadbrought her,Earhart flewacross the Atlanticalone four yearslater. She alsomade many dramatic flights across Americaand played an active role in developingcommercial flights.

In January 1935, Earhart became the firstperson to fly from Hawaii to California, thelongest distance yet. Building on this amaz-ing feat, Earhart decided in 1937 to setanother record––she would be the first per-son to fly around the world. Accompaniedby her navigator, Fred Noonan, Earhartcompleted nearly two-thirds of her flightbefore her plane vanished in the PacificOcean near the international date line.Many boats and airplanes searched for her,but no trace has ever been found.

There have been many theories about herdisappearance. Some people think the planecrashed in the ocean and Earhart andNoonan perished. Other people think thatthe plane landed safely on a small islandand Earhart and Noonan were taken pris-oners by the Japanese, then in control ofsome of the islands in the area. The mysteryhas never been solved.

Amelia Earhart (1897–1937)

People in WoWorld History: Activity 24 Profile 1


Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

1. Why is Amelia Earhart famous?

2. What happened to Amelia Earhart on her 1937 flight around the world?

3. Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions. What does Amelia Earhart represent to people?

Critical Thinking SkillsActivity 24 L2

Copyright ©

by The M


-Hill C

ompanies, Inc.

Name Date Class

Critical Thinking Skills Activity 24 Distinguishing Fact from Opinion

A fact is a statement that can be proved.An opinion is a personal belief. To distin-guish between fact and opinion, look forstatements that you can check for accuracy.Facts can be verified, or matched to those inother sources. Opinions cannot be proved;

however, they gain credibility when sup-ported by facts. A person who wants to per-suade others to accept his or her opinion,but who lacks supporting facts, oftenappeals to the emotions instead.

DIRECTIONS: Read the following discussions, which could have taken place during the periodbetween World War I and World War II. Then answer the questions on a separate sheet of paper.

A. United States Senate

Senator A: My fellow countrymen, weshould not embark on any more internationalventures. It is sheer folly to join this Leagueof Nations. We would surely be drawn intoanother bloody European war. Do you wantour young soldiers to be killed again fornothing but foolish European tribal fighting?

Senator B: Dear Senators, my colleague iscorrect in saying that the war was bloody.France lost 1.4 million men in the fighting; 4.3million were wounded. In Germany 1.8 mil-lion were killed. This tragedy is why we mustjoin the League of Nations. Had the League ofNations existed prior to the war, we couldhave prevented 8 million senseless deaths.

1. What are the two senators debating?

2. Which senator uses facts to make his point? What are those facts?

3. Considering that both senators could have used the same facts to support their opinions,which speech do you find more effective—the one with or without factual data? Explainyour answer.

B. German Reichstag

Parliamentarian A: Thanks to the stock mar-ket crash in New York, we have now enteredinto another economic depression. We do notwant to repeat the crisis of a decade agowhen the dollar was worth 4.2 million marks!We caused this runaway inflation by printingnew money to cover our debts. Now ourpolicies are being guided by racial fear. Thenand now, poor government planning hascaused our problems—nothing else.

Parliamentarian B: We all know what hascaused our current economic problems andthose of a decade ago. Our great leader AdolfHitler has explained it to us from the begin-ning. Has no one listened? The Jews are toblame for our economic depression. We mustput an end to their favorable position in oursociety and take back what rightfully belongsto the German people. Then our economicproblems will be over.

4. What facts have been presented in this debate?

5. What has caused Germany’s economic problems, according to Parliamentarian A?According to Parliamentarian B?

6. Compare each speaker’s use of facts in this debate.

Standardized Test PracticeWorkbook Activity 24 L2

Standardized Test Practice



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Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________

Reading Objective 5: The student will analyze information in a variety of written texts in order to makeinferences and generalizations.Reading Objective 6: The student will recognize points of view, propaganda, and/or statements of fact andnonfact in a variety of written texts.

Any information that proves a claim or a conclusion is known as evidence. There are fourbasic kinds of evidence: oral accounts (eyewitness testimony), written documents (diaries, letters,books, articles), objects (artifacts), and visual forms (photographs, videotapes, paintings,drawings). These kinds of evidence fall into one of two categories—primary evidence andsecondary evidence. Participants or eyewitnesses to events produce primary evidence. Secondaryevidence is produced later by those who did not experience the events directly.

★ Practicing the SkillRead the claim and study the photo and textbook evidence below about the 1930s Dust Bowl. Then completethe activity that follows.

Claim: The Dust Bowl was an ecological and human catastrophe.

On Sunday, April 14, 1935, one of thebiggest dust storms of this century swept overthe Great Plains of the United States. Huge blackclouds of dust, more than 1,000 feet high,formed a wall miles wide. Birds flew franticallytrying to escape suffocation in the roiling storm.Motorists were stranded for hours along thehighway, totally blinded by the impenetrablecloud. The rain sent mud balls splattering to theground. Dust from the “black blizzard” piled upon railroad lines, and it took snowplows severaldays to clear the tracks.

★ Learning to Identify and Evaluate EvidenceUse the following guidelines to help you identify and evaluate evidence.

• Clearly define the issue, claim, or conclusion.• Use sources to support or disprove a


• Compare the evidence to see if they agree.• Rate the evidence on objectivity or bias.

ACTIVITY 24Identifying and Evaluating Evidence



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DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

Column A

1. guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with Franceand Belgium, and fostered a feeling of peace in Europe

2. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s policy of active governmentintervention in the economy

3. government that aims to control the political, economic,social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens

4. Mussolini’s bands of black-shirted, armed Fascists

5. used his post as general secretary to gain complete controlof the Communist Party

6. term misused by Hitler and the Nazis to identify their“master race”

7. “night of shattered glass”

8. used his paintings to create a strange world in which theirrational became visible

9. author of Siddhartha and Steppenwolf

10. propaganda minister of Nazi Germany

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

11. Faced with runaway German inflation, an international commissioncreated the Dawes Plan, whichA. cancelled Germany’s reparation debt, angering the Allied Powers.B. reduced reparations and coordinated Germany’s annual payments with its

ability to pay.C. reduced the interest rates paid by Germany on its foreign loans.D. increased the price paid by foreign markets for German products.

12. An is a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment.A. economic recession C. economic depressionB. down cycle D. inflationary period

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 24 Test, Form B

Column B

A. Aryan

B. totalitarian

C. Joseph Goebbels

D. Joseph Stalin

E. Treaty of Locarno

F. Hermann Hesse

G. Salvador Dalí

H. New Deal

I. squadristi

J. Kristallnacht

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Chapter 24 Resources

Blackline Master





Music Program


Audio Program

*Also Available in Spanish

Daily Objectives Reproducible Resources Multimedia Resources


SECTION 1The Futile Search for Stability1. Explain why peace and prosperity

were short-lived after World War I.2. Describe how a global economic

depression weakened the Westerndemocracies after 1929.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–1Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–1Guided Reading Activity 24–1*Section Quiz 24–1*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–1*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–1Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 3Hitler and Nazi Germany1. Characterize the totalitarian state in

Germany established by Hitler andthe Nazi Party.

2. Explain why many Germansaccepted the Nazi dictatorship whileother Germans suffered greatlyunder Hitler’s rule.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–3Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–3Guided Reading Activity 24–3*Section Quiz 24–3*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–3*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–3Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 4Cultural and Intellectual Trends1. Relate how radios and movies were

popular forms of entertainment thatwere used to spread political mes-sages.

2. Summarize the new artistic andintellectual trends that reflected thedespair created by World War I andthe Great Depression.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–4Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–4Guided Reading Activity 24–4*Section Quiz 24–4*Reteaching Activity 24*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–4*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–4Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 2The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes1. Characterize the modern totalitarian

state established by Mussolini.2. Report how Stalin, the leader of the

Soviet Union, eliminated peoplewho threatened his power.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–2Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–2Guided Reading Activity 24–2*Section Quiz 24–2*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–2*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–2Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

Assign the Chapter 24 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.

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Chapter 24 Resources

Teacher’s Corner

The following articles relate to this chapter:

• “Our Man in China,” by Mike Edwards, January 1997.• “U.S.S. Macon: Lost and Found,” by J. Gordon Vaeth,

January 1992.



To order the following, call National Geographic at 1-800-368-2728:

• 1929–1941: The Great Depression (Video)

Access National Geographic’s new dynamic MapMachineWeb site and other geography resources at:www.nationalgeographic.comwww.nationalgeographic.com/maps


Teaching strategies have been coded.

L1 BASIC activities for all studentsL2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average

studentsL3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students


Activities that are suited to use within the blockscheduling framework are identified by:

Mike Egstad Apple Valley Senior High SchoolApple Valley, Minnesota

FascismUse the fasces from ancient Rome to demonstrate

the essential meaning of fascism. The fasces was abattle ax (the state), a bundle of sticks (the citizens),and a strong cord (the law), which bound the sticksaround the ax. It represented authority in Romantimes and came to symbolize the relationshipbetween the citizen and the state.

Bring to class a long, fairly thin dowel to representthe ax. Have each student contribute a pencil anduse string or rubber bands to bind them into a bun-dle around the dowel. Then have students try tobreak the bundle with their bare hands. Remove thepencil that you have contributed and snap it in halfwith your fingers. Then demonstrate to students howeasily the dowel with all pencils gone will break.

Point out to students that the primary goal andduty of individual citizens in a fascist state was toserve and protect the state. Remind them of Hitler’sremark after the disaster at Stalingrad. “What is life?Life is the nation. The individual must die anyway.Beyond the life of the individual is the nation.” Lead aclass discussion evaluating this comment in relationto the demonstration of the fasces.

From the Classroom of…


Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content iscovered in the Student Edition.

You and your students can visit , theWeb site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovativeintegration of electronic and print media offers your students awealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to theWeb site for the following options:

• Chapter Overviews • Self-Check Quizzes

• Student Web Activities • Textbook Updates

Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in theWeb Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources andInteractive Tutor Puzzles are also available.


MEETING SPECIAL NEEDSMEETING SPECIAL NEEDSIn addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found ineach section, the following resources are also suitable foryour special needs students:

• ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers totailor tests by reducing answer choices.

• The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of thestudent edition so that less-proficient readers can listen tothe words as they read them.

• The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides thesame content as the student edition but is written twograde levels below the textbook.

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The Impact TodayGuide students in a discussion of both thenegative and positive impact of automo-biles, radio, and television on their livesand on the lives of their families. Howwould their lives differ without these tech-nological developments? What leisureactivities would they pursue?


The West Between the Wars


Key EventsAs you read this chapter, look for the key events in the history of the Western countries

between the wars.• Europe faced severe economic problems after World War I, including inflation and

the Great Depression.• Dictatorial regimes began to spread into Italy, Germany, and across eastern Europe.

• The uncertainties and disillusionment of the times were reflected in the art and literature of the 1920s and 1930s.

The Impact TodayThe events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.

• The current debate over the federal government’s role in local affairs and social problems developed in part from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s solution to the Great Depression.

• Automobiles, motion pictures, and radios transformed the ways in which people lived during the 1920s and 1930s and still impact how we live our lives today.

World History Video The Chapter 24 video, “The Rise of Dictators,”chronicles the growth of dictatorial regimes in Europe after 1918.

1929The GreatDepressionbegins

1924Hitler writes first volume of MeinKampf

1920 1922 1924 1926 1928

1922Communists create the Union of Soviet SocialistRepublics

1926Mussolini creates a Fascist dictatorshipin Italy

1929Stalinestablishesdictatorshipin SovietUnion

Dorothea Lange’s famous photograph, Migrant Mother,

1936, captured the humanhardship and suffering resulting

from the Great Depression.

IntroducingCHAPTER 24

IntroducingCHAPTER 24

Refer to Activity 24 in thePerformance AssessmentActivities and Rubrics booklet.


The World HistoryVideo ProgramTo learn more about individuals whocame to power following World War I,students can view the Chapter 24video, “The Rise of Dictators,” from TheWorld History Video Program.

MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz topreview Chapter 24 content.

Available in VHS.




Pre- and Post-Responses The pre-response generates students’ background knowledge and setsa purpose for reading, while the post-response verifies this information. Have students copy thesection headings from this chapter into their notes. Ask them to create a list of two topics thatmight go with each heading. Go over the list with the class. After reading the chapter, have stu-dents revisit their topics and update their lists with the information they have learned. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

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1932Franklin Delano Rooseveltis elected president of theUnited States

1933Hitler becomeschancellor ofGermany

1936Spanish CivilWar begins

1936John Maynard Keynes’sGeneral Theory ofEmployment, Interest, andMoney is published


Chapter OverviewVisit the Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

and click on Chapter 24–ChapterOverview to preview chapter information.

wh.glencoe.com1930 1932 1934 1936 1938

Hitler and the Nazi Party used rallies, such as this one at Nuremberg in 1937, to create support for their policies.

Flags of the Hitler Youthorganization

Franklin D. Roosevelt



IntroducingCHAPTER 24

IntroducingCHAPTER 24

Nuremberg Rally In September 1937, Adolf Hitler arrived in Nuremberg for the opening of theNazi Party rally. The event was the largest display of Nazi power in Germany’s history. Church bellsrang and storm troopers lined the streets of Nuremberg to greet the führer. The size of the rally wasstaggering, as Hitler reviewed a parade of thousands of soldiers. Hundreds of trains transportedarmy and paramilitary units to the gathering, and tent cities were erected to house the participants.


Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, students should be able to:1. explain the weaknesses of the

League of Nations;2. list the factors leading to the

Great Depression;3. discuss the response to eco-

nomic hardships by GreatBritain, France, Germany, andthe United States;

4. distinguish between dictator-ship and totalitarianism;

5. discuss how Mussolini,Stalin, Franco, and Hitlercame to power;

6. describe Hitler’s anti-Semiticpolicies and activities;

7. summarize the developmentsin the areas of art, music, lit-erature, and science.

Time Line Activity

As students read the chapter, havethem explain the significance of 1933.(Hitler became chancellor of Ger-many and began to establish theNazi state.) L1


Chapter OverviewIntroduce students to chaptercontent and key terms by havingthem access Chapter Overview24 at .tx.wh.glencoe.comwh.glencoe.com

Dinah Zike’s Foldables are three-dimensional, interactive graphicorganizers that help students practice basic writing skills, reviewkey vocabulary terms, and identifymain ideas. Have students completethe foldable activity in the DinahZike’s Reading and Study Skills Foldables booklet.

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Why It MattersIn the 1920s, many people assumedthat Europe and the world wereabout to enter a new era of interna-tional peace, economic growth, andpolitical democracy. These hopeswere not realized, however. Mostpeople wanted peace but wereunsure how to maintain it. Plans for economic revival gave way toinflation and then to the GreatDepression. Making matters worse,economic hard times gave rise todictatorial regimes across much ofEurope. The world was filled withuncertainty.

History and You Make a dia-gram listing the problems faced bythe United States, Germany, andFrance during the Great Depression.Indicate how the problems wereinterrelated. Using what you learnfrom your diagram, explain howrecovery would also have a chaineffect.

During the Great Depression, many

people had to resort to desperate measures

to find food.

The Great Depressionfter World War I, Europe was faced with severe eco-nomic problems. Most devastating of all was the Great

Depression that began at the end of 1929. The Great Depres-sion brought misery to millions of people. Begging for foodon the streets became widespread, especially when soupkitchens were unable to keep up with the demand.

More and more people were homeless and moved aroundlooking for work and shelter. One observer in Germanyreported, “An almost unbroken chain of homeless menextends the whole length of the great Hamburg-Berlin high-way . . . [w]hole families had piled all their goods into babycarriages and wheelbarrows that they were pushing along asthey plodded forward in dumb despair.” In the United States,the homeless set up shantytowns they named “Hoovervilles”after President Herbert Hoover.

In their misery, some people saw suicide as the only solu-tion. One unemployed person said, “Today, when I am experi-encing this for the first time, I think that I should prefer to doaway with myself, to take gas, to jump into the river, or leapfrom some high place. . . . Would I really come to such a deci-sion? I do not know.”

Social unrest spread rapidly. Some of the unemployedstaged hunger marches to get attention. In democratic coun-tries, people began to listen to, and vote for, radical voicescalling for extreme measures.


TEACHIntroducing A Story That MattersDepending upon the ability levels of your students, selectfrom the following questions toreinforce the reading of A StoryThat Matters.• What were people’s hopes

during the 1920s? (interna-tional peace, economic growth,political democracy)

• Of all the severe economicproblems, which was themost devastating? (The GreatDepression) Why? (widespreadhunger, homelessness, despair)

• Why do you think socialunrest sometimes leads peo-ple to follow extremists anddemagogues? (Answers willvary.)

• Do you think that a secondGreat Depression could occurtoday? Answers should besupported by examples andlogical arguments. (Answerswill vary.) L1 L2

HISTORY AND YOUThe Great Depression was a national crisis. Unemployment led to widespread hunger and homelessness. ManyAmericans were bewildered and even despairing about their lives. Yet for the most part, they reached out to others and pulled together in the crisis. Several families might share a single-family home, or a couple would givea meal to a stranger who knocked on their door. That same kind of spirit was reflected again during the nationalcrisis of September 11, 2001, when terrorists attacked the United States. Hard times often promote unity, patriotism,and national resolve. L2



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1921German debtdetermined

1924German debtrestructured

1925Treaty ofLocarno

1929U.S. stock market crashes

Guide to Reading

The Futile Search for Stability

Preview of Events

1936Popular Front isformed in France

✦1920 ✦1925 ✦1930 ✦1935 ✦1940

Main Ideas• Peace and prosperity were short-lived

after World War I.• After 1929, a global economic

depression weakened the Westerndemocracies.

Key Termsdepression, collective bargaining, deficit spending

People to Identify John Maynard Keynes, Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Places to LocateRuhr Valley, Switzerland

Preview Questions1. What was the significance of the

Dawes Plan and the Treaty ofLocarno?

2. How was Germany affected by theGreat Depression?

Reading StrategyCompare and Contrast Use a table likethe one below to compare France’s Popu-lar Front with the New Deal in the UnitedStates.

CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars 751

Popular Front New Deal

1935WPA is established

On October 27, 1932, a group of workers marched in London to protest govern-ment policies. One observer reported:

“By mid-day approximately 100,000 London workers were moving towards HydePark from all parts of London, to give the greatest welcome to the hunger marchersthat had ever been seen in Hyde Park. . . . As the last contingent of marchers enteredthe park gates, trouble broke out with the police. It started with the special constables[police officers]; not being used to their task, they lost their heads, and, as the crowdsswept forward on to the space where the meetings were to be held, the specials drewtheir truncheons [billy clubs] in an effort to control the sea of surging humanity. Thisincensed the workers, who turned on the constables and put them to flight.”

—Eyewitness to History, John Carey, ed., 1987

Worker unrest was but one of the social problems in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s.

Uneasy Peace, Uncertain SecurityThe peace settlement at the end of World War I had tried to fulfill nineteenth-

century dreams of nationalism by creating new boundaries and new states. Fromthe beginning, however, the settlement left nations unhappy. Border disputes poi-soned relations in eastern Europe for years. Many Germans vowed to revise theterms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Voices from the Past

CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.


Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. people standing in a line 2. free food3. They are out of work and have no money to buy food.

The Futile Search for Stability


5Chapter 24

What does this pictureshow?

What do you think thepeople can get inside thebuilding?

Why do you think thepeople need food?

1 2 3

New York Bread Line

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–1


Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–1• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–1• Guided Reading Activity 24–1• Section Quiz 24–1• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–1

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–1

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section explores the GreatDepression and its effect on governments after World War I.



Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Popular Front:right to collective bargaining, forty-hour work week, two-week paidvacation, minimum wage; New Deal:active government intervention in theeconomy, increased public worksprograms, new social legislation thatbegan the U.S. welfare system

Preteaching VocabularyExplain the economic use of the worddepression. (A depression is a periodof low economic activity and risingunemployment.) L2

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CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

752 CHAPTER 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity752 CHAPTER 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity

The Great Flu EpidemicA flu epidemic at the end of World War I proved dis-

astrous to people all over the world. Some observersbelieve that it began among American soldiers inKansas. When they were sent abroad to fight, they car-ried the virus to Europe. By the end of 1918, many sol-diers in European armies had been stricken with the flu.

The disease spread quickly throughout Europe. Thethree chief statesmen at the peace conference—

the American presidentWoodrow Wilson, theBritish prime ministerDavid Lloyd George, and the French premierGeorges Clemenceau—all were sick with the fluduring the negotiationsthat led to the Treaty ofVersailles.

The Spanish flu, as this strain of influenza was called,was known for its swift and deadly action. Many peopledied within a day of being infected. Complications alsoarose from bacterial infections in the lungs, whichcaused a deadly form of pneumonia.

In 1918 and 1919, the Spanish flu spread around theworld with devastating results. Death tolls were enor-mous: in Russia, 450,000; in India, at least 6,000,000;in the United States, 550,000. It has been estimatedthat 22 million people, or more than twice the number ofpeople killed in World War I, died from the great flu epi-demic between 1918 and 1919.

Flu victim

Using outside sources, research the medicaladvancements made since 1919 in treating andpreventing influenza viruses. Could another flu epi-demic occur today? Has the flu danger beenreplaced by other medical concerns?

A Weak League of Nations President WoodrowWilson had realized that the peace settlementincluded unwise provisions that could serve as newcauses for conflict. He had placed many of his hopesfor the future in the League of Nations. This organi-zation, however, was not very effective in maintain-ing the peace.

One problem was the failure of the United Statesto join the league. Most Americans did not wish to beinvolved in European affairs. The U.S. Senate,despite Wilson’s wishes, refused to ratify, or approve,the Treaty of Versailles. That meant the United Statescould not be a member of the League of Nations,which automatically weakened the organization’seffectiveness. As time would prove, the remainingLeague members could not agree to use force againstaggression.

French Demands Between 1919 and 1924, desirefor security led the French government to demandstrict enforcement of the Treaty of Versailles. Thistough policy toward Germany began with the issueof reparations, which were the payments that theGermans were supposed to make for the damagethey had done in the war.

In April 1921, the Allied Reparations Commis-sion determined that Germany owed 132 billionGerman marks (33 billion U.S. dollars) for repara-tions, payable in annual installments of 2.5 billionmarks. The new German republic made its firstpayment in 1921.

By the following year, how-ever, the German government,faced with financial problems,announced that it was unable topay any more. France was out-raged and sent troops to occupythe Ruhr Valley, Germany’s chiefindustrial and mining center.France planned to collect repara-tions by operating and using theRuhr mines and factories.

Inflation in Germany The German governmentadopted a policy of passive resistance to French occu-pation. German workers went on strike, and the gov-ernment mainly paid their salaries by printing morepaper money. This only added to the inflation (rise inprices) that had already begun in Germany by theend of the war.




Rhine River

Ruhr River

CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 1–1

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–1

I. Uncertain Peace, Uncertain Security (pages 751–754)

A. The peace settlement at the end of World War I created repeated border disputesamong new nations and left many Germans determined to change the terms of theVersailles Treaty.

B. Though President Wilson and others hoped that the League of Nations could solvemany of the new conflicts, the League was not able to maintain peace. One reason forthis was that the United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles and could notbecome a member of the League of Nations. Americans did not want to be involved inEuropean affairs. Also, the League could not use military force and had to rely only oneconomic sanctions to stop aggression.

C. The French demanded that the Versailles Treaty be strictly enforced. The Germans saidthat due to economic problems they could no longer continue to pay back the $33 bil-lion that was required. The French army occupied the Ruhr Valley, an industrial andmining center. The French planned to take the reparations by operating German indus-tries themselves.

D. In response, German workers went on strike. The government paid them by printingmore money. This devalued the German currency and increased the inflation that hadbegun before the end of the war. The German mark became completely worthless. Bythe end of 1923, it took more than 4 trillion marks to equal one U.S. dollar.

E. The huge inflation meant that people suffered terribly. The economic problems led topolitical unrest in Germany. Other countries stepped in to help. The Dawes Planbegan by reducing reparation payments and coordinating Germany’s payments withwhat the nation could afford. The plan also loaned Germany $200 million and led toother American investments, which lasted between 1924 and 1929.


Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 24, Section 1

Did You Know? Prior to 1921, before the reparation paymentsrequired of Germany were raised to $33 billion, the British econo-mist John Maynard Keynes said, “The policy of reducing Germanyto servitude for a generation, of degrading the lives of millions ofhuman beings, and of depriving a whole nation of happinessshould be abhorrent and detestable . . . . Nations are not author-ized, by religion or by natural morals, to visit on the children oftheir enemies the misdoings of parents or rulers.” This economicpunishment of Germany had disastrous consequences in thedecades to come.


Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Guided Reading Activity 24–1C


Name Date Class

The Futile Search for Stability

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.

1. What did the settlement at the end of World War I try to accomplish?

2. What wishes of Woodrow Wilson did the U.S. Senate refuse to fulfill?

3. How did France intend to collect unpaid war reparations from Germany?

4. Name two things the Dawes plan accomplished.

5. What did the League of Nations Covenant suggest that nations do with their military?

6. List two factors that played a major role in the start of the Great Depression.

7. How bad was the Great Depression in Great Britain in 1932?

8. List three problems faced by the Weimar Republic.

9. What was the old theory of how economic depressions should be solved?

10. How did Franklin Roosevelt propose to reform capitalism in order to save it?

Guided Reading Activity 24-1

EXTENDING THE CONTENTConducting an Interview Organize the class into small groups, and ask each group to interviewpeople who lived through the Great Depression of the 1930s. (If some students have no such con-tacts, direct them to local retirement or nursing homes.) Within each group, students shouldchoose a topic, such as memories of Hoover and Roosevelt, New Deal programs, or family experi-ences, and base their interview questions on these topics. Groups should assign each member ajob, such as planning the interview questions, selecting people to interview, conducting interviews,and summarizing results. Ask each group to share their research by presenting an oral report to theclass. L2


Answer: Answers will vary but shouldbe supported by documentation andlogical arguments.





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Critical ThinkingAsk students to speculate whyEurope’s economic and politicalupturn was short-lived despitethe Dawes Plan, the Treaty ofLocarno, the League of Nations,and the Kellogg-Briand pact. L2

EnrichGuide students in a discussionand comparison of Great Britainand France’s responses to post-war economic adversity. L2

written by U.S. secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg andFrench foreign minister Aristide Briand. These nationspledged “to renounce war as an instrument of nationalpolicy.” Nothing was said, however, about whatwould be done if anyone violated the pact.

Unfortunately, the spirit of Locarno was based onlittle real substance. Promises not to go to war wereworthless without a way to enforce these promises.Furthermore, not even the spirit of Locarno couldconvince nations to cut back on their weapons. TheLeague of Nations Covenant had suggested that

The German mark soonbecame worthless. In 1914,4.2 marks equaled 1 U.S.dollar. By November 1,1923, it took 130 billionmarks to equal 1 dollar. Bythe end of November, theratio had increased to anincredible 4.2 trillion marksto 1 dollar.

Evidence of runawayinflation was everywhere.Workers used wheelbar-rows to carry home theirweekly pay. One womanleft a basket of money out-side while she went into astore. When she came out,the money was there, butthe basket had been stolen.

Economic adversity ledto political upheavals, andboth France and Germanybegan to seek a way out ofthe disaster. In August1924, an international commission produced a newplan for reparations. The Dawes Plan, named afterthe American banker who chaired the commission,first reduced reparations. It then coordinated Ger-many’s annual payments with its ability to pay.

The Dawes Plan also granted an initial $200 mil-lion loan for German recovery. This loan soonopened the door to heavy American investment inEurope. A brief period of European prosperity fol-lowed, but it only lasted from 1924 to 1929.

The Treaty of Locarno With prosperity came anew European diplomacy. A spirit of cooperationwas fostered by the foreign ministers of Germanyand France, Gustav Stresemann and Aristide Briand.In 1925, they signed the Treaty of Locarno, whichguaranteed Germany’s new western borders withFrance and Belgium.

The Locarno pact was viewed by many as thebeginning of a new era of European peace. On theday after the pact was concluded, the headlines in TheNew York Times read “France and Germany Ban WarForever.” The London Times declared “Peace at Last.”

The new spirit of cooperation grew even strongerwhen Germany joined the League of Nations in March1926. Two years later, the Kellogg-Briand pact broughteven more hope. Sixty-three nations signed this accord

753CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Territory administeredby the League of Nations

Territories administeredby the League of Nations

Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Areaprojection

500 kilometers0

500 miles0







0° 10°E 20°E 30°E








Mediterranean Sea














































Warsaw Kiev












Europe, 1923

The new nationalism, as reflected by the European politicalmap of the 1920s, did not solve Europe’s problems after the war.

1. Interpreting Maps Compare the map above to themap of Europe before World War I on page 718. List allthe countries shown on this map that are not shown onthe earlier map. What does your list tell you about thepolitical results of World War I?

2. Applying Geography Skills Again, compare the mapabove to the one on page 718. Create a two-columntable. Label one column Changed Boundaries, and theother Unchanged Boundaries. List countries under theappropriate column.

CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756

Answers:1. Turkey, Yugoslavia, Czechoslova-

kia, Austria, Hungary, Poland,Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Finland(East Prussia was a province ofGermany); old empires dissolved,new states created

2. Changed: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Serbia, Albania (Yugosla-via); Unchanged: United Kingdom,France, Spain, Switzerland, Italy,Norway, Sweden

Economics Assign interested stu-dents sections of Keynes’s GeneralTheory of Employment, Interest, andMoney. Ask them to prepare a lessonfor the class on the basics of Keyne-sian economics. L3






Write a Paragraph Economic events affected the world’s governments after World War I. Duringthe 1920s and 1930s, economic conditions resulted in unemployment, hunger, homelessness, anddespair. In Europe and Latin America, these conditions allowed dictators and military governmentsto assume power, as people became more willing to surrender personal liberties in exchange forfood, jobs, shelter, and security. In the United States, the federal government abandoned its laissez-faire policy and created public works and social programs to aid the ailing economy. Ask studentsto define the word depression and write a paragraph concluding why another depression could orcould not occur today. L2 SS.A.3.4.9

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Answer: could use only economicsanctions to stop aggression

754 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

nations reduce their military forces to make war lessprobable. Germany, of course, had been forced toreduce its military forces. At the time, it was thoughtthat other states would later do the same. However,states were simply unwilling to trust their security toanyone but their own military forces.

Explaining Why was the League ofNations unable to maintain peace?

The Great DepressionIn this section, you will learn how

Western nations suffered a major economic collapse inthe 1930s. This collapse, called the Great Depression,devastated morale, led to extremist political parties,and created the conditions for World War II.The brief period of prosperity that began in

Europe in 1924 ended in an economic collapse thatcame to be known as the Great Depression. A depres-sion is a period of low economic activity and risingunemployment.

Causes of the Depression Two factors played a major role in the start of the Great Depression. One important factor was a series of downturns inthe economies of individual nations in the secondhalf of the 1920s. By the mid-1920s, for example,prices for farm products, especially wheat, werefalling rapidly because of overproduction.

The second factor in the coming of the GreatDepression was an international financial crisisinvolving the U.S. stock market. We have seen that

Reading Check

much of the European prosperity between 1924 and1929 was built on U.S. bank loans to Germany. Ger-many needed the U.S. loans to pay reparations toFrance and Great Britain.

During the 1920s, the U.S. stock market wasbooming. By 1928, American investors had begun topull money out of Germany to invest it in the stockmarket. Then, in October 1929, the U.S. stock marketcrashed, and the prices of stocks plunged.

In a panic, U.S. investors withdrew even morefunds from Germany and other European markets.This withdrawal weakened the banks of Germanyand other European states. The Credit-Anstalt,Vienna’s most famous bank, collapsed in May 1931.By then, trade was slowing down, industrial produc-tion was declining, and unemployment was rising.

Responses to the Depression Economic depres-sion was by no means new to Europe. However, theextent of the economic downturn after 1929 trulymade this the Great Depression. During 1932, theworst year of the depression, nearly one Britishworker in every four was unemployed. About sixmillion Germans, or roughly 40 percent of the Ger-man labor force, were out of work at the same time.The unemployed and homeless filled the streets.

Governments did not know how to deal with thecrisis. They tried a traditional solution of cuttingcosts by lowering wages and raising tariffs to excludeforeign goods from home markets. These measuresmade the economic crisis worse, however, and hadserious political effects.

One effect of the economic crisis wasincreased government activity in the econ-omy. This occurred even in countries that,like the United States, had a strong laissez-faire tradition—a belief that the govern-ment should not interfere in the economy.

Another effect was a renewed interest inMarxist doctrines. Marx’s prediction thatcapitalism would destroy itself throughoverproduction seemed to be coming true.Communism thus became more popular,especially among workers and intellectuals.

Finally, the Great Depression led massesof people to follow political leaders whooffered simple solutions in return for dicta-torial power. Everywhere, democracyseemed on the defensive in the 1930s.

Summarizing What werethe results of the Great Depression?

Reading Check

Economic downturns led to labor unrest in many countries.

CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756

EXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTFolk Music Woody Guthrie was an American balladeer who rode the railroads during the GreatDepression, writing and singing songs about poverty and social justice. Although his folk music waswritten during the Great Depression, it was not at all depressing. Guthrie celebrated the indomitablehuman spirit in more than a thousand ballads. His most popular song is probably “This Land Is YourLand,” still sung by countless school children. It is a song of democracy and equality, written at a timewhen such values were being challenged throughout the world.

Dorothea Lange Ask students tobring in copies of photographs takenby Dorothea Lange during thedepression. Discuss what makesthese photographs so powerful. L1


EnrichHave students create their owntime lines of important economicevents of the 1920s and 1930s. L1ELL

Answer: increased government activ-ity in the economy; renewed interestin Marxist doctrines; led people tofollow dictatorial leaders

Connecting Across TimeGuide students in a discussion ofthe factors leading to the GreatDepression and how it differedfrom other economic downturns.Ask students to research howthe Great Depression affectedcolonial economies. Who suf-fered more, the colonial powersor those living in the colonies?L2

The Great Depression was one of themost extensive and significant eco-nomic downturns that the world hadever seen.





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3 ASSESSAssign Section 1 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

Democratic States after the WarPresident Woodrow Wilson had claimed that the

war had been fought to make the world safe fordemocracy. In 1919, his claim seemed justified. Mostmajor European states and many minor ones haddemocratic governments.

In a number of states, women could now vote.Male political leaders had rewarded women for theircontributions to the war effort by granting them vot-ing rights. (Exceptions were France, Italy, andSwitzerland. Women gained the right to vote in 1944in France, 1945 in Italy, and 1971 in Switzerland.)

In the 1920s, Europe seemed to be returning to thepolitical trends of the prewar era—parliamentaryregimes and the growth of individual liberties. Thiswas not, however, an easy process. Four years of totalwar and four years of postwar turmoil made a“return to normalcy” difficult.

Germany The Imperial Germany of William II hadcome to an end in 1918 with Germany’s defeat in thewar. A German democratic state known as theWeimar (VY•MAHR) Republic was then created. TheWeimar Republic was plagued by problems.

For one thing, the republic had no truly outstand-ing political leaders. In 1925, Paul von Hindenburg, aWorld War I military hero, was elected president atthe age of 77. Hindenburg was a traditional militaryman who did not fully endorse the republic he hadbeen elected to serve.

The Weimar Republic also faced serious economicproblems. As we have seen, Germany experiencedrunaway inflation in 1922 and 1923. With it cameserious social problems. Widows, teachers, civil ser-vants, and others who lived on fixed incomes allwatched their monthly incomes become worthless,or their life savings disappear. These losses increas-ingly pushed the middle class toward political par-ties that were hostile to the republic.

To make matters worse, after a period of relativeprosperity from 1924 to 1929, Germany was struck bythe Great Depression. In 1930, unemployment hadgrown to 3 million people by March and to 4.38 mil-lion by December. The depression paved the way forfear and the rise of extremist parties.

France After the defeat of Germany, France becamethe strongest power on the European continent. Itsgreatest need was to rebuild the areas that had beendevastated in the war. However, France, too, sufferedfinancial problems after the war.

755CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

This German woman is using her worthless money to start a firein her kitchen stove.

Because it had a more balanced economy thanother nations, France did not begin to feel the fulleffects of the Great Depression until 1932. The eco-nomic instability it then suffered soon had politicaleffects. During a nineteen-month period in 1932 and1933, six different cabinets were formed as Francefaced political chaos. Finally, in June 1936, a coalitionof leftist parties—Communists, Socialists, and Radi-cals—formed the Popular Front government.

The Popular Front started a program for workersthat some have called the French New Deal. This pro-gram was named after the New Deal in the UnitedStates (discussed later in this section). The French NewDeal gave workers the right to collective bargaining(the right of unions to negotiate with employers overwages and hours), a 40-hour workweek in industry, atwo-week paid vacation, and a minimum wage.

The Popular Front’s policies, however, failed tosolve the problems of the depression. By 1938, theFrench had little confidence in their political system.

Great Britain During the war, Britain had lost manyof the markets for its industrial products to the United

CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756

DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONReading Support Divide the class into eight small groups. Assign each group a topic from this sec-tion, as follows: the League of Nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, the United States, theDawes Plan, the Treaty of Locarno, and the Great Depression. Ask each group to discuss and writedown the important points of this topic presented in this section. Then have each group discusswhat it has written and explain why it is important. Select one representative from each group topresent the group’s findings to the class. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.


Section Quiz 24–1


ht ©








es, I


DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. general rise in prices and pay rates

2. period of low economic activity and high unemployment

3. right of unions to negotiate with employees

4. the result of a government spending more than it takes in

5. nature of Roosevelt’s New Deal

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. The League of Nations was less than effective for all of the followingreasons EXCEPTA. the U.S. did not join.B. the U.S. did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles.C. the League could use only economic sanctions.D. President Wilson did not support the idea.

7. The Great Depression was caused primarily byA. economic downturn and the U.S. stock market crash.B. failure of nations to reduce their military forces.C. new interest in Marxist theory.D. strengthening of European banks.

8. The Weimar Republic was hurt by all of the following EXCEPTA. lack of strong political leadership.B. serious social problems.too much spending on the German military.D. the Great Depression.

9. The economist, John Maynard Keynes, argued thatA depressions should be allowed to resolve themselves

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 24

Section Quiz 24-1

Column B

A. collectivebargaining

B. depression

C. active government

D. deficit

E. inflation


Have you ever read the novel The Grapes of Wrath? Have you ever seen the film?What period in history is portrayed in this novel?

In this section, you will learn about events in Europe and the United States followingWorld War I. After a brief period of peace and prosperity, the Western nations wereshaken by the Great Depression.


Use the diagram below to help you take notes. Identify two causes and three politicaleffects of the Great Depression.

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 24, Section 1

For use with textbook pages 751–756



depression a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment (page 754)

collective bargaining the right of unions to negotiate with employers over wages and hours(page 756)

deficit spending going into debt to finance government projects (page 756)

Name Date Class

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 24–1

Critical ThinkingEconomic downturns oftenoccur in free-market economies.Have students identify elementsfrom a recent recession that par-allel conditions of the GreatDepression. L2






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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Dawes Plan (p. 753); Treaty of

Locarno (p. 753); John MaynardKeynes (p. 756); Weimar Republic(p. 755); Franklin Delano Roosevelt(p. 756); New Deal (p. 756)

3. See chapter maps. 4. New Deal: a policy of active gov-

ernment intervention in the econ-

omy; featured increased publicworks and new social legislationthat began the U.S. welfare system

5. reduced reparations, coordinatedGermany’s annual payments withits ability to pay, and granted aninitial $200 million loan for Ger-man recovery

6. Answers will vary.

7. series of downturns in theeconomies of individual nations;international financial crisis; crashof the U.S. stock market

8. Answers will vary.9. Answers will vary. Communist and

Socialist parties are still active.


Answer: Governments should putpeople back to work building high-ways and public buildings, financingpublic works projects even if theyhave to engage in deficit spending.

Connecting Across TimeDuring the 1920s and 1930s, eco-nomic downturns led to laborunrest in many Western democ-racies. British workers often car-ried out strikes for better wages.A general strike is labor’sstrongest weapon, and when itoccurs society can be thrown intoupheaval. During a class discus-sion, ask students to give exam-ples of present-day strikes andtheir effects on society. L2

Reteaching ActivityAsk students to review the sec-tion and list ways in which thebitterness of national rivalrieswere fed by the World War I set-tlements and post-war events.Have students speculate aboutthe results of these new rivalries.L1

4 CLOSEGuide students in a discussionabout why democracy survivedin the United States, GreatBritain, and France after WorldWar I despite serious economicand political problems. Then askstudents to suggest examplesthat illustrate the following sen-tence: “Everywhere, democracyseemed on the defensive in the1930s.” L2

States and Japan. Such industries as coal, steel, andtextiles declined after the war, leading to a rise inunemployment. In 1921, 2 million Britons were out ofwork. Britain soon rebounded, however, and experi-enced limited prosperity from 1925 to 1929.

By 1929, Britain faced the growing effects of theGreat Depression. The Labour Party, which hadbecome the largest party in Britain, failed to solvethe nation’s economic problems and fell from powerin 1931. A new government, led by the Conserva-tives, claimed credit for bringing Britain out of theworst stages of the depression. It did so by using thetraditional policies of balanced budgets and protec-tive tariffs.

Political leaders inBritain largely ignored thenew ideas of a British econ-omist, John MaynardKeynes, who published hisGeneral Theory of Employ-ment, Interest, and Money in1936. He condemned theold theory that, in a freeeconomy, depressionsshould be left to resolvethemselves without gov-ernmental interference.

Keynes argued that unemployment came not fromoverproduction, but from a decline in demand.Demand, in turn, could be increased by putting peo-ple back to work building highways and publicbuildings. The government should finance such proj-ects even if it had to engage in deficit spending, orhad to go into debt.

756 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Checking for Understanding1. Define depression, collective

bargaining, deficit spending.

2. Identify Dawes Plan, Treaty ofLocarno, John Maynard Keynes,Weimar Republic, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, New Deal.

3. Locate Ruhr Valley, Switzerland.

4. Summarize the intent of the Rooseveltadministration’s New Deal.

5. List the provisions of the Dawes Plan.

Critical Thinking6. Evaluate Determine the validity of the

following quotation: “Promises not togo to war were worthless without away to enforce these promises.”

7. Cause and Effect Use a diagram likethe one below to list the causes of theGreat Depression.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the photograph on page 755.

How would you survive if currencybecame worthless? Who would be atan advantage?

Great Depression

The United States After Germany, no Westernnation was more affected by the Great Depressionthan the United States. By 1932, U.S. industrial pro-duction had fallen almost 50 percent from its 1929level. By 1933, there were more than 12 millionunemployed.

Under these circumstances, the DemocratFranklin Delano Roosevelt was able to win a land-slide victory in the 1932 presidential election. Abeliever in free enterprise, Roosevelt realized thatcapitalism had to be reformed if it was to be “saved.”He pursued a policy of active government interven-tion in the economy known as the New Deal.

The New Deal included an increased program ofpublic works, including the Works Progress Admin-istration (WPA). The WPA, established in 1935, was agovernment organization that employed about 3 million people at its peak. They worked at buildingbridges, roads, post offices, and airports.

The Roosevelt administration was also responsiblefor new social legislation that began the U.S. welfaresystem. In 1935, the Social Security Act created a system of old-age pensions and unemployment insurance.

The New Deal provided reforms that perhaps pre-vented a social revolution in the United States. How-ever, it did not solve the unemployment problems ofthe Great Depression. In 1938, American unemploy-ment still stood at more than 10 million. Only WorldWar II and the growth of weapons industries broughtU.S. workers back to full employment.

Explaining What did John MaynardKeynes think would resolve the Great Depression?

Reading Check

John Maynard Keynes

9. Informative Writing Research andwrite an essay that explains how theGreat Depression caused extremistpolitical parties to emerge through-out the world. Identify which partiesare still active in the United States.

CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756CHAPTER 24Section 1, 751–756


31 2



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ANSWERS TO PRACTICING THE SKILL1. The seated figure represents the Western democra-

cies; the standing figure represents dictatorships.2. Dictatorships were very powerful and very active.3. He is holding a rope, probably a fuse, which is

attached to a bomb.4. The seated figure is studying a photograph and


5. The dictators are setting the stage for another war;Western democracies seem oblivious to the danger.The caption implies that Western democracies mighthelp dictatorships to create destruction if they are notaware and careful.

Applying the Skill: Have students share their final car-toons with the class.


TEACHAnalyzing Political CartoonsBring some political cartoons toclass. Before the class reads theskill, distribute copies of the car-toons. Ask: What is the messageof each cartoon and how did youfigure it out? After a short classdiscussion, ask students to readthe skill and complete the prac-tice questions.

Ask students to bring copies ofpolitical cartoons to class. Havestudents apply what they learnedabout analyzing political cartoonsto explain the cartoons to theclass. You might wish to preparea class bulletin board with thecartoons. L2

EnrichHave interested students create apolitical cartoon about one of theevents or issues discussed in thischapter. Students should con-sider the audience for their car-toon, and what message theywish to convey. Have studentsshare their work with the classand add their cartoons to a classbulletin board. L2

Additional Practice


Applying the Skill

Choose a current issue on which you hold a strong opin-ion. Draw a political cartoon expressing your opinion onthis issue. Show it to a friend to find out if the messageis clear. If not, revise the cartoon to clarify its point.

Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,Level 2, provides instruction and practice in keysocial studies skills.

Why Learn This Skill?What is your favorite comic strip? Why do you

read it? Many people enjoy comics because they use interesting or amusing visuals to convey a storyor idea.

Cartoons do not only appear in the newspaper’sfunny pages. They are also in the editorial section,where they give opinions on political issues. Politi-cal cartoons have been around for centuries and aregood historical sources because they reflect the pop-ular views on current affairs.

Learning the SkillUsing caricature and symbols, political

cartoonists help readers see relationshipsand draw conclusions about events. A cari-cature exaggerates a detail such as a sub-ject’s features. Cartoonists use caricature tocreate a positive or negative impression. Forexample, if a cartoon shows one figure threetimes larger than another, it implies that onefigure is more powerful than the other.

A symbol is an image or object that repre-sents something else. For example, a car-toonist may use a crown to representmonarchy. Symbols often represent nationsor political parties. Uncle Sam is a commonsymbol for the United States.

To analyze a political cartoon:

• Examine the cartoon thoroughly.

• Identify the topic and principal characters.

• Read labels and messages.

• Note relationships between the figures andsymbols.

• Determine what point the cartoon is making.

Practicing the SkillIn the next section of this chapter, you will be

reading about several dictators who rose to powerin Europe in the years following World War I.

David Low, London Evening Standard


Analyzing Political CartoonsThe political cartoon on this page, published in1938, makes a statement about these dictators andthe reaction of the Western democracies towardthem. Study the cartoon and then answer thesequestions.

1 What do the figures represent?

2 Why is the standing figure so large?

3 What is the standing figure holding and what isit attached to?

4 What is the sitting figure doing?

5 What is the message of the cartoon?



FCAT LA.A.2.4.2

Skills ReinforcementActivity 23

Name Date Class

Political cartoons are a type of drawingthat can be used to present editorial opin-ions, comment on social change, criticizecurrent events, and point out political situa-tions. Political cartoonists use different tech-niques to achieve their aims. These methods

include: caricature, exaggerating a person’sdistinctive features; size distortion, makingspecific people or objects larger or smaller;symbols, using people, places, or objects torepresent abstract ideas; and captions, plac-ing words or sentences under the cartoon.

Skills Reinforcement Activity 24✎

Analyzing Political Cartoons

DIRECTIONS: The political cartoon below comments on communism. Study the political cartoon, and answer the questions below in the space provided.

1. What does the fire represent?

2 Wh d hi k h b l f fi h ?

The Red Peril


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1919Mussolini creates the Fascio di Combattimento

1924Lenin dies

1928Stalin launches hisFirst Five-Year Plan

1929Mussolini recognizes independence of Vatican City

Guide to Reading

The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

Preview of Events

1939The SpanishCivil War ends

✦1920 ✦1925 ✦1930 ✦1935 ✦1940

In 1932, Benito Mussolini, the dictator of Italy, published a statement of his move-ment’s principles:

“Anti-individualistic, the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of theState and accepts the individual only in so far as his interests coincide with those of theState. . . . The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no humanor spiritual values can exist. Thus understood, fascism is totalitarian, and the FascistState . . . interprets, develops, and potentiates [makes effective] the whole life of a people . . . fascism does not, generally speaking, believe in the possibility or utility ofperpetual peace. . . . War alone keys up all human energies to their maximum tensionand sets the seal of nobility on those people who have the courage to face it.”

—Benito Mussolini, “The Doctrine of Fascism,” Italian Fascisms,Adrian Lyttleton, ed., 1973

These were the principles of the movement Mussolini called fascism.

The Rise of DictatorsThe apparent triumph of democracy in Europe in 1919 was extremely short-

lived. By 1939, only two major European states—France and Great Britain—remained democratic. Italy, the Soviet Union, Germany, and many other Europeanstates adopted dictatorial regimes. These regimes took both old and new forms.

Voices from the Past

Main Ideas• Mussolini established a modern totali-

tarian state in Italy.• As leader of the Soviet Union, Stalin

eliminated people who threatened hispower.

Key Termstotalitarian state, fascism, New EconomicPolicy, Politburo, collectivization

People to IdentifyBenito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Francisco Franco

Places to LocateRussia, Madrid

Preview Questions1. To what extent was Fascist Italy a

totalitarian state? 2. How did Joseph Stalin establish a

totalitarian regime in the SovietUnion?

Reading StrategyCategorizing Information Use a webdiagram like the one below to list meth-ods used by Mussolini to create a Fascistdictatorship.

Methods usedby Mussolini

CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars758

CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764


Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–2• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–2• Guided Reading Activity 24–2• Section Quiz 24–2• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–2

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–2

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.


Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. 596 2. They did not have as much power as higherofficials. 3. probably because records of the executionsweren’t kept, and numbers could not be released while Stalinwas alive

The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes


5Chapter 24

How many officials andofficers were executed byStalin?

Why do you think a smallerpercentage of Division and Brigade Commanderswere killed?

Why do you think thefigures had to be based onan estimate made afterStalin’s death?

1 2 3

The Purge of the Red Army, 1937–1938POLITICAL OFFICIALS AND OFFICERS ORIGIONAL NUMBER EXICUTEDMembers of Supreme Military Soviet 80 75

Vice-Commissars of Defense 11 11

Army Commissars 17 17

Corps Commissars 28 25

Brigade Commissars 36 34


Army Commander 16 14

Corps Commanders 67 60

Division Commanders 199 136

Brigade Commanders 397 221

Note: Precise figures were never produced. These figures are based on a Soviet estimate made many years later, after Stalin’s death.


Vice-Commissars of Defense 11 11

Army Commissars 17 17

Corps Commissars 28 25

Brigade Commissars 36 34


Army Commanders 16 14

Corps Commanders 67 60

Division Commanders 199 136

Brigade Commanders 397 221

Note: Precise figures were never produced. These figures are based on a Soviet estimate made many years later, after Stalin’s death.

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–2

1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section explores the emer-gence of dictatorial regimes inItaly, Russia, and Spain.

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Methods usedby Mussolini: laws made by decree;police had unrestricted authority; out-lawed other political parties; estab-lished secret police; exercised controlover mass media; used organizationssuch as Fascist youth groups; madedeal with Catholic Church to get itssupport

Preteaching VocabularyExplain the significance of a totalitar-ian state. (a government that aims tocontrol the political, economic, social,intellectual, and cultural lives of itscitizens) L2

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Answer: to control the political, eco-nomic, social, intellectual, and cul-tural lives of its citizens

759CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

A new form of dictatorship was the modern total-itarian state. A totalitarian state is a government thataims to control the political, economic, social, intel-lectual, and cultural lives of its citizens. New totali-tarian regimes pushed the power of the central statefar beyond what it had been in the past.

These totalitarian states wanted more than passiveobedience. They wanted to conquer the minds andhearts of their subjects. They achieved this goalthrough mass propaganda techniques and high-speedmodern communication. Modern technology alsoprovided totalitarian states with an unprecedentedability to impose their wishes on their subjects.

The totalitarian states that emerged were led by asingle leader and a single party. They rejected theideal of limited government power and the guaran-tee of individual freedoms. Instead, individual free-dom was subordinated to the collective will of themasses. This collective will of the masses, however,was organized and determined by the leader. Thetotalitarian state expected the active involvement ofthe masses in the achievement of its goals, whetherthose goals included war, a socialist state, or athousand-year empire like the one Adolf Hitlerwanted to establish.

Summarizing What is the goal of atotalitarian state?

Fascism in ItalyIn the early 1920s, Benito Mussolini (MOO•suh•

LEE•nee) established the first European fascistmovement in Italy. Mussolini began his politicalcareer as a Socialist. In 1919, he created a new politi-cal group, the Fascio di Combattimento, or League ofCombat. The term fascism is derived from that name.

As a political philosophy, fascism (FA•SHIH•zuhm) glorifies the state above the individual byemphasizing the need for a strong central govern-ment led by a dictatorial ruler. In a fascist state, peo-ple are controlled by the government, and anyopposition is suppressed.

Rise of Fascism Like other European countries,Italy experienced severe economic problems afterWorld War I. Inflation grew, and both industrial andagricultural workers staged strikes. Socialists spokeof revolution. The middle class began to fear a Com-munist takeover like the one that had recentlyoccurred in Russia. Industrial and agriculturalstrikes created more division. Mussolini emergedfrom this background of widespread unrest.

Reading Check

500 kilometers0Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection

500 miles0







0° 10°E

20°E 30°E



Atlantic Ocean


Mediterranean Sea


























Politics ofEurope, 1930s

Many European countries adopted dictatorial regimes tosolve their problems in the 1920s and 1930s.

1. Interpreting Maps Which countries shown on themap above are Fascist? Which are authoritarian? Whichare democratic states?

2. Applying Geography Skills Pose and answer a question that creates a comparison between a country’spolitical status as shown on this map and the side thatcountry fought on in World War I.


In 1920 and 1921, Mussolini formed bands ofblack-shirted, armed Fascists called squadristi orBlackshirts. These bands attacked socialist officesand newspapers. They also used violence to break upstrikes. Both middle-class industrialists who fearedworking-class strikes and large landowners whoobjected to agricultural strikes began to supportMussolini’s Fascist movement.

By 1922, Mussolini’s movement was growingquickly. The middle-class fear of socialism, commu-nism, and disorder made the Fascists increasinglyattractive to many people. In addition, Mussolinirealized that the Italian people were angry overItaly’s failure to receive more land in the peace settle-ment that followed the war. He understood thatnationalism was a powerful force. Thus, hedemanded more land for Italy and won thousands ofconverts to fascism with his patriotic and nationalis-tic appeals.

CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764

Answers:1. Germany, Austria, Italy; Estonia,

Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hun-gary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bul-garia, Albania, Greece, Portugal,Spain; Ireland, United Kingdom,Norway, Sweden, Finland,Netherlands, Belgium, Luxem-bourg, France, Switzerland,Czechoslovakia

2. Answers will vary.

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–2

I. The Rise of Dictators (pages 758–759)

A. Between 1919 and 1939, all the countries of Europe except France and Great Britainhad adopted some form of dictatorial government.

B. A new form of dictatorship was the modern totalitarian state. Totalitarian govern-ments aimed to control all aspects of their citizens’ lives. Totalitarian governmentswanted to control the hearts and minds of everyone and used mass propaganda and

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 24, Section 2

Did You Know? Joseph Stalin was neither a dynamic speakernor a forceful writer. He was content to hold the dull bureaucraticjob of general secretary, while others held more public positions inthe Politburo. Stalin was an excellent organizer and for that his fel-low Bolsheviks called him “Comrade Index-Card.” In time theylearned that Stalin also held more power than anyone.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Guided Reading Activity 24–2

Name Date Class

The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 2.

By 1939 only France and Great Britain remained (1) .

Other states fell to (2) forms of government. A

(3) state is a government that aims to control the political, eco-

nomic, social, intellectual and cultural lives of its citizens. Totalitarian states wanted

to (4) the hearts and the minds of their subjects. The

(5) will of the masses was organized and determined by the


(6) glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing

the need for a strong central government led by a dictator. (7)

established the first European Fascist movement in Italy The middle class fear of

Guided Reading Activity 24-2

CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITYCRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITYAnalyzing Information Depression refers to a severe economic downturn in production and con-sumption that continues over a significant period of time. A depression can only occur in a free-market economy. Students have become familiar with the effects of the Great Depression in theUnited States. Ask students to research Latin American countries affected by the Great Depressionand select one for further research. In their reports, have students identify how individual liveswere changed, how people made ends meet, what economic measures were taken by the state,and how political developments were affected. Ask students to analyze if, and how, the impact ofthe Great Depression differed from country to country.


1 2



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Connecting Across TimeAsk students to list some of thefreedoms that we take forgranted that would be sup-pressed under Fascist rule. Havea student read the United StatesBill of Rights to stimulate afollow-up discussion. L3

Critical ThinkingIn 1936, a civil war began inSpain between the forces of General Francisco Franco andthe country’s republican govern-ment. Franco wanted to establisha dictatorship in Spain similar tothe one established by Mussoliniin Italy. Going to Spain andfighting for the republican causecaptured the imaginations ofmany British and Americanyoung people. Ask students to speculate why this bloodyconflict became important tofreedom-loving people aroundthe world. L2

In 1922, Mussolini and the Fascists threatened tomarch on Rome if they were not given power. Mus-solini exclaimed, “Either we are allowed to govern, orwe will seize power.” Victor Emmanuel III, the king ofItaly, gave in and made Mussolini prime minister.

Mussolini used his position as prime minister tocreate a Fascist dictatorship. New laws gave the gov-ernment the right to suspend any publications thatcriticized the Catholic Church, the monarchy, or thestate. The prime minister was made head of the gov-ernment with the power to make laws by decree. Thepolice were given unrestricted authority to arrest andjail anyone for either nonpolitical or political crimes.

In 1926, the Fascists outlawed all other politicalparties in Italy and established a secret police, known as the OVRA. By the end of the year, Mus-solini ruled Italy as Il Duce (eel DOO•chay), “TheLeader.”

The Fascist State Since Mussolini believed that theFascist state should be totalitarian, he used variousmeans to establish complete control over the Italianpeople. As we have seen, Mussolini created a secretpolice force, the OVRA, whose purpose was to watchcitizens’ political activities and enforce governmentpolicies. Police actions in Italy, however, were neveras repressive or savage as those in Nazi Germany(discussed later in this chapter).

The Italian Fascists also tried to exercise controlover all forms of mass media, including newspapers,

radio, and film. The media was used to spread prop-aganda. Propaganda was intended to mold Italiansinto a single-minded Fascist community. Most ItalianFascist propaganda, however, was fairly unsophisti-cated and mainly consisted of simple slogans like“Mussolini Is Always Right.”

The Fascists also used organizations to promotethe ideals of fascism and to control the population.For example, by 1939, Fascist youth groups includedabout 66 percent of the population between the agesof 8 and 18. These youth groups particularly focusedon military activities and values.

With these organizations, the Fascists hoped tocreate a nation of new Italians who were fit, disci-plined, and war-loving. In practice, however, theFascists largely maintained traditional social atti-tudes. This is especially evident in their policiesregarding women. The Fascists portrayed the familyas the pillar of the state and women as the foundationof the family. Women were to be homemakers andmothers, which was “their natural and fundamentalmission in life,” according to Mussolini.

Despite his attempts, Mussolini never achievedthe degree of totalitarian control seen in Hitler’s Ger-many or Stalin’s Soviet Union (discussed later in thischapter). The Italian Fascist Party did not completelydestroy the country’s old power structure. Someinstitutions, including the armed forces, were notabsorbed into the Fascist state but managed to keepmost of their independence. Victor Emmanuel wasalso retained as king.

Mussolini’s compromise with the traditional insti-tutions of Italy was especially evident in his relation-ship with the Catholic Church. In the Lateran Accordsof February 1929, Mussolini’s regime recognized thesovereign independence of a small area within Romeknown as Vatican City. The Church had claimed thisarea since 1870. When Mussolini formally recognizedthat claim, the pope then recognized the Italian state.

Mussolini’s regime also gave the Church a largegrant of money and recog-nized Catholicism as the“sole religion of the state.”In return, the CatholicChurch urged Italians tosupport the Fascist regime.

In all areas of Italianlife under Mussolini and the Fascists, there was alarge gap between Fascistideals and practices. TheItalian Fascists promised

760 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Benito Mussolini 1883–1945—Italian dictator

Benito Mussolini was the founder of the firstFascist movement. He was an unruly and rebel-lious child who was expelled from school oncefor stabbing a fellow pupil. Ultimately, hereceived a diploma and worked for a shorttime as an elementary school teacher.

Mussolini became a Socialist and gradu-ally became well known in Italian Socialist circles.In 1912, he obtained the important position of editor ofAvanti (Forward), the official Socialist daily newspaper.

After being expelled from the Socialist Party, heformed his own political movement, the Fascist move-ment. When the Fascists did poorly in the Italian electionof November 1919, Mussolini said that fascism had“come to a dead end.” He then toyed with the idea ofemigrating to the United States to become a journalist.


Web Activity Visitthe Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

andclick on Chapter 24–Student Web Activity to learn more about therise of fascism.


CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764

Benito Mussolini Italian dictatorBenito Mussolini dreamed of makingItaly a great nation and reviving theRoman Empire. To become Italy’sleader, he promised “something toeveryone,” then used street violenceand political pressure to destroy hisopponents and become prime minis-ter. He did not conduct purges, buthe used terror to intimidate people.



1 2




Evaluating Information Ask students the following question: Was Mussolini’s rule good for Italy?Discuss with students the possible answers for this question and have students write a paragraphbased on their conclusions. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

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Answer: He exploited the middle-class fear of socialism by having hissquadristi attack Socialist offices andnewspapers and break up strikes. Heappealed to nationalism: realizingthat the Italian people were angryover the failure of Italy to receivemore land after World War I, hedemanded more land for Italy andwon thousands of converts. He andthe Fascists threatened to march onRome, forcing the king to make himprime minister, then set about to cre-ate a Fascist dictatorship.

761CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Joseph Stalin 1879–1953—Soviet dictator

Joseph Stalin established a strongpersonal dictatorship over the SovietUnion. He joined the Bolsheviks in1903 and came to Lenin’s attentionafter staging a daring bank robbery toget funds for the Bolshevik cause. His reallast name was Dzhugashvili, but he adoptedthe name Stalin, which means “man of steel.”

Stalin was neither a dynamic speaker nor a forcefulwriter. He was a good organizer, however. His fellowBolsheviks called him “Comrade Index-Card.”

Like Hitler, Stalin was one of the greatest mass mur-derers in human history. It is estimated that his policiesand his deliberate executions led to the death of as manyas 25 million people. At the time of his death in 1953, hewas planning yet another purge of party members.

much but delivered considerably less. They wouldsoon be overshadowed by a much more powerfulFascist movement to the north—that of Adolf Hitler,a student and admirer of Mussolini.

Examining How did Mussolini gainpower in Italy?

A New Era in the Soviet UnionAs we have seen, Lenin followed a policy of war

communism during the civil war in Russia. The gov-ernment controlled most industries and seized grainfrom peasants to ensure supplies for the army.

Once the war was over, peasants began to sabo-tage the communist program by hoarding food. Thesituation became even worse when drought caused a great famine between 1920 and 1922. As many as 5 million lives were lost. With agricultural disastercame industrial collapse. By 1921, industrial outputwas only 20 percent of its 1913 level.

Russia was exhausted. A peasant banner pro-claimed, “Down with Lenin and horseflesh. Bringback the czar and pork.” As Leon Trotsky said, “Thecountry, and the government with it, were at the veryedge of the abyss.”

Lenin’s New Economic Policy In March 1921,Lenin pulled Russia back from the abyss. He aban-doned war communism in favor of his New Eco-nomic Policy (NEP). The NEP was a modifiedversion of the old capitalist system. Peasants wereallowed to sell their produce openly. Retail stores, aswell as small industries that employed fewer than 20workers, could be privately owned and operated.Heavy industry, banking, and mines, however,remained in the hands of the government.

In 1922, Lenin and the Communists formally created a new state called the Union of SovietSocialist Republics, which is also known as theUSSR (by its initials), or as the Soviet Union (by itsshortened form). By that time, a revived market anda good harvest had brought an end to famine. Sovietagricultural production climbed to 75 percent of itsprewar level.

Overall, the NEP saved the Soviet Union fromcomplete economic disaster. Lenin and other leadingCommunists, however, only intended the NEP to bea temporary retreat from the goals of communism.

The Rise of Stalin Lenin died in 1924. A strugglefor power began at once among the seven membersof the Politburo (PAH•luht•BYOOR•OH)—a commit-

Reading Check

tee that had become the leading policy-making bodyof the Communist Party. The Politburo was severelydivided over the future direction of the Soviet Union.

One group, led by Leon Trotsky, wanted to end theNEP and launch Russia on a path of rapid industrial-ization, chiefly at the expense of the peasants. Thisgroup also wanted to spread communism abroadand believed that the revolution in Russia would notsurvive without other communist states.

Another group in the Politburo rejected the idea ofworldwide communist revolution. Instead, it wantedto focus on building a socialist state in Russia and tocontinue Lenin’s NEP. This group believed that rapidindustrialization would harm the living standards ofthe Soviet peasants.

These divisions were underscored by an intensepersonal rivalry between Leon Trotsky and anotherPolitburo member, Joseph Stalin. In 1924, Trotskyheld the post of commissar of war. Stalin held thebureaucratic job of party general secretary. Becausethe general secretary appointed regional, district, city,and town party officials, this bureaucratic job actuallybecame the most important position in the party.

Stalin used his post as general secretary to gaincomplete control of the Communist Party. The thou-sands of officials Stalin appointed provided him withsupport in his bid for power. By 1929, Stalin hadeliminated from the Politburo the Bolsheviks of therevolutionary era and had established a powerfuland

CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764

EXTENDING THE CONTENTCreating an Advertisement Organize the class into three groups and have each group create anadvertising plan. One group’s plan should promote the Bolshevik policy of communism, or govern-ment control over all major industries; another group should promote Lenin’s New Economic Pol-icy (NEP) that allowed some private businesses to operate but maintained government controlover steel, railroad, and large-scale manufacturing; the last group should create an advertisementto support Stalin’s Five-Year Plan, which set Soviet economic goals for that period and broughtindustrial and agricultural production under government control. Each group should research itstopic, create an ad, and present it to the class. L2


Government Guide students in adiscussion of Stalin’s programs ofrapid industrialization coupled withthe collectivization of agriculture.What were three major results ofthese programs on the lives and for-tunes of the Russian people? L2

Connecting Across TimeIt has been said that communismis dictatorship of the lower class,fascism is dictatorship of themiddle class, and monarchy is adictatorship of the upper class.Have students find examplesfrom history they have studiedthus far to support this state-ment. If they disagree, ask themto be prepared to discuss why.L3


1 2


FCAT LA.A.2.4.4

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DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONAt-Risk Students Assign students to work in groups of two. Create a two-column chart on thechalkboard that summarizes the changes brought about by Lenin and Stalin in the Soviet Union.Label the columns Lenin and Stalin. Label the individual rows in the chart as follows: Major Indus-tries, Small Businesses, Agriculture, Non-Russian Nationalities, Communist Party, and The Arts. Askeach group to copy your chart and work together to fill it in. When groups have completed theircharts, have them present their answers. Insert students’ answers in the blank chart on the chalk-board. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.



Connecting Across TimeAs Stalin’s crimes againsthumanity became known, peo-ple sympathetic to communismhad to decide where they stood.Have students research, forexample, “destalinization” in theSoviet Union after Stalin’s deathand the changing opinions ofStalin held by American Com-munists. L2

Writing ActivityAsk students to research andwrite an essay about Socialistrealism, or the literary and artis-tic styles that became obligatoryunder Stalin’s rule. Ask studentsto explain what the aim of artwas under Socialist realism.How does this art reflect the his-tory of the culture in which itwas produced? What was therole of artistic expression in theproduction of art under Stalin’srule? L3

from 4 million to 18 million tons (3.628 to 16.326 mil-lion t) per year.

The social and political costs of industrializationwere enormous. Little provision was made for caringfor the expanded labor force in the cities. The numberof workers increased by millions between 1932 and1940, but total investment in housing actuallydeclined after 1929. The result was that millions ofworkers and their families lived in pitiful conditions.Real wages in industry also declined by 43 percentbetween 1928 and 1940. Strict laws even limitedwhere workers could move. To keep workers con-tent, government propaganda stressed the need forsacrifice to create the new socialist state.

762 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Two-Point Equidistant projection500 kilometers0

500 miles0












Sea ofOkhotsk


Arctic Ocean









lga R .












S I B E R I ASakhalin









The period from the beginning of World War I to the begin-ning of World War II was one of dramatic change in Russia.

1. Interpreting Maps From Moscow, in which directionwould you go to find the Soviet Union’s most produc-tive farming area: northeast, southwest, northwest, orsoutheast?

2. Applying Geography Skills Identify a particular areaof the Soviet Union as shown on the map and explainwhy that area would have been of particular interest toStalin during his First Five-Year Plan.

� Soviet propaganda poster

Soviet Union, 1914–1938

Western border of Russia, 1914Bolshevik-controlled area, 1919Union of Soviet Socialist Republics(USSR), 1938Main area of collective farmsIron and steel productionLabor camp

dictatorship. Trotsky, expelled from the party in 1927,eventually made his way to Mexico, where he wasmurdered in 1940, probably on Stalin’s orders.

Five-Year Plans The Stalinist Era marked thebeginning of an economic, social, and political revo-lution that was more sweeping in its results than werethe revolutions of 1917. Stalin made a significant shiftin economic policy in 1928 when he ended the NEPand launched his First Five-Year Plan. The Five-YearPlans set economic goals for five-year periods. Theirpurpose was to transform Russia virtually overnightfrom an agricultural into an industrial country.

The First Five-Year Plan emphasized maximumproduction of capital goods (goods devoted to theproduction of other goods, such as heavy machines)and armaments. The plan quadrupled the produc-tion of heavy machinery and doubled oil produc-tion. Between 1928 and 1937, during the first twoFive-Year Plans, steel production in Russia increased

CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764

Answers:1. Southwest

2. the area near Odessa and theBlack Sea; strong concentrationof iron and steel production


1 2



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Answer: a modified version of theold capitalist system intended to saveRussian communism

3 ASSESSAssign Section 2 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

With rapid industrialization came an equallyrapid collectivization of agriculture. Collectivizationwas a system in which private farms were elimi-nated. Instead, the government owned all of the land,while the peasants worked it.

Strong resistance to Stalin’s plans came from peas-ants, who responded by hoarding crops and killinglivestock. However, these actions only led Stalin to step up the program. By 1930, 10 million peas-ant households had been collectivized. By 1934, 26 million family farms had been collectivized into 250,000 units.

Costs of Stalin’s Programs Collectivization wasdone at tremendous cost. The hoarding of food andthe slaughter of livestock produced widespreadfamine. Stalin himself is supposed to have said that 10million peasants died in the famines of 1932 and 1933.The only concession Stalin made to the peasants wasthat each collective farm worker was allowed to haveone tiny, privately owned garden plot.

Stalin’s programs had other costs as well. Toachieve his goals, Stalin strengthened his control overthe party bureaucracy. Those who resisted were sentinto forced labor camps in Siberia.

Stalin’s desire to make all decisions by himself alsoled to purges, or removals, of the Old Bolsheviks—those who had been involved in the early days of themovement. Between 1936 and 1938, the most promi-

763CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

nent Old Bolsheviks were put on trial and con-demned to death.

During this same time, Stalin purged army offi-cers, diplomats, union officials, party members, intel-lectuals, and numerous ordinary citizens. Anestimated eight million Russians were arrested. Mil-lions were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia, fromwhich they never returned. Others were executed.

The Stalin Era also overturned much of the per-missive social legislation that was enacted in theearly 1920s. To promote equal rights for women, theCommunists had made the divorce process easier,and they had also encouraged women to work out-side the home. After Stalin came to power, the familywas praised as a small collective in which parentswere responsible for teaching the values of hardwork, duty, and discipline to their children. Divorcedfathers who did not support their children wereheavily fined.

Summarizing What was Lenin’sNew Economic Policy?

Authoritarian States in the WestA number of governments in the Western world

were not totalitarian but were authoritarian. Thesestates adopted some of the features of totalitarianstates, in particular, their use of police powers. How-ever, the main concern of these authoritarian govern-ments was not to create a new kind of mass society,but to preserve the existing social order.

Eastern Europe Some of these governments werefound among the new states of eastern Europe. Atfirst, it seemed that political democracy wouldbecome well established in eastern Europe after thewar. Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia(known as the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, andSlovenes until 1929), Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary all adopted parliamentary systems. How-ever, most of these systems were soon replaced byauthoritarian regimes.

Parliamentary systems failed in most easternEuropean states for several reasons. These states had little tradition of political democracy. In addi-tion, they were mostly rural and agrarian. Many ofthe peasants were illiterate, and much of the landwas still dominated by large landowners who feared the peasants. Ethnic conflicts also threatened these countries.

Powerful landowners, the churches, and evensome members of the small middle class feared land

Reading Check

Trotsky had succeeded Lenin?Lenin’s death in 1924 caused a bitter political

struggle to determine his successor. Although hehad no influence over the final outcome, Lenin’stestament, written in December 1922, predicted asplit between Trotsky and Stalin. In his testament,read to delegates at the Thirteenth Congress, Leninadvised removing Stalin from his post as generalsecretary to prevent a power struggle.

Consider the Consequences Consider whatwould have happened if Stalin had not main-tained his position of influence and had lost toTrotsky. Research Trotsky’s beliefs, then write ashort essay describing the direction the SovietUnion would have taken under his leadership.

CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764

Section Quiz 24–2

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. government that aims to rule by broad control

2. philosophy that values the state over the individual

3. Lenin’s scheme to replace war communism

4. leading policy-making committee in the U.S.S.R.

5. elimination of private farms by Stalin

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

✔ ScoreChapter 24

Section Quiz 24-2

Column B

A. New EconomicPolicy

B. totalitarian state

C. collectivization

D. Politburo

E. fascism

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 24–2

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 24, Section 2

For use with textbook pages 758–764



totalitarian state a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual,and cultural lives of its citizens (page 759)

fascism a political philosophy that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing theneed for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler (page 759)

New Economic Policy an economic policy in Russia under Lenin that was a modified version ofthe old capitalist system (page 761)

Politburo a seven-member committee that was the leading policy-making body of theCommunist Party in the Soviet Union (page 761)

Name Date Class Name Date Class

EXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTJoseph Stalin was born in 1879. He was forced to learn Russian in school, although neither of hisparents spoke it at home. As the best student in his church school, Stalin earned a full scholarshipto a theological seminary. While there, he read the works of Karl Marx and converted to RussianMarxism; he then left the seminary to become a full-time revolutionary. He joined the Social-Democratic Party and spent years being arrested and imprisoned on various charges. He proved hisabilities with the Social-Democratic Party as an organizer and became its leader after Lenin’s death.

Answers should be supported by documentation and logicalarguments. Trotsky believed in a world revolution and rapidindustrialization.


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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Benito Mussolini (p. 759); Joseph

Stalin (p. 761); Five-Year Plan (p.762); Francisco Franco (p. 764)

3. See chapter maps. 4. As Politburo party general secre-

tary, Stalin appointed all party officials. Then he eliminated therevolutionary era Bolsheviks fromthe Politburo.

5. Germany, the Soviet Union, andItaly

6. intended to rapidly increase theSoviet Union’s industrial capacityby setting economic goals for five-year periods

7. rapid industrialization; collectiviza-tion of agriculture; strengthenedcontrol over the party bureaucracy;purged Old Bolsheviks and the

opposition; undid permissive sociallegislation of the early 1920s

8. Guernica shows the death anddestruction resulting from war. Therally shows the strength and disci-pline of the military. Answers willvary.

9. Answers will vary.


Answer: It had a large middle class,a liberal tradition, and a strongindustrial base.

Critical ThinkingAsk students to analyze thenature of the totalitarian regimein the Soviet Union. Studentsshould be asked to include, identify, and describe examplesof politically motivated massmurders, as well as examples of political, economic, and socialoppression and violations ofhuman rights in the SovietUnion. L1

Reteaching ActivityAsk students to list the majorfeatures of Mussolini’s andStalin’s dictatorships. Ask themto explain how Franco seizedpower in Spain. L1

4 CLOSEAsk students to discuss the per-sonal qualities of Mussolini andStalin that helped bring them topower. Have them describe howeach leader represented hisnation and his culture. L2

in April 1937 was immortalized in a painting by theSpanish artist Pablo Picasso.

The Spanish republican government was aided by forty thousand foreign volunteers and by trucks,planes, tanks, and military advisers from the Soviet Union.

The Spanish Civil War came to an end whenFranco’s forces captured Madrid in 1939. Francoestablished a dictatorship that favored largelandowners, businesspeople, and the Catholic clergy.Because it favored traditional groups and did not tryto control every aspect of people’s lives, Franco’s dic-tatorship is an example of a regime that was authori-tarian rather than totalitarian.

Explaining How did Czechoslovakiamaintain its political democracy?

Reading Check

764 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Checking for Understanding1. Define totalitarian state, fascism,

New Economic Policy, Politburo, collectivization.

2. Identify Benito Mussolini, JosephStalin, Five-Year Plan, Francisco Franco.

3. Locate Russia, Madrid.

4. Explain how Stalin gained control ofthe Communist Party after Lenin died.

5. List the countries that participated inthe Spanish Civil War.

Critical Thinking6. Evaluate What was the major purpose

of the Five-Year Plans during the 1920sand 1930s in the Soviet Union?

7. Organizing Information Use a dia-gram like the one below to identifyways in which Stalin changed the SovietUnion. Include the economic, social,and political results of his programs.

Analyzing Visuals8. Contrast the above painting with the

rally photo on page 749. Both imagesmake political statements about warand militarism. How do they differ?How are they similar? Which makes the strongest statement?

History through Art

Guernica by Pablo Picasso, 1937This famous painting is a strong anti-war statement. What do the imagessay about the realities of war?

How Stalin Changed the Soviet Union

reform, communist upheaval, and ethnic conflict. Forthis reason these groups looked to authoritarian gov-ernments to maintain the old system. Only Czecho-slovakia, which had a large middle class, a liberaltradition, and a strong industrial base, maintained its political democracy.

Spain In Spain, too, political democracy failed tosurvive. Led by General Francisco Franco, Spanishmilitary forces revolted against the democratic gov-ernment in 1936. A brutal and bloody civil war began.

Foreign intervention complicated the SpanishCivil War. The Fascist regimes of Italy and Germanyaided Franco’s forces with arms, money, and men.Hitler used the Spanish Civil War as an opportunityto test the new weapons of his revived air force. Thehorrible destruction of Guernica by German bombers

9. Persuasive Writing What were thepros and cons of Mussolini’s rule? Inan essay, argue whether or not Mus-solini was good for Italy. Conductresearch to support your position.

CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764CHAPTER 24Section 2, 758–764

Answer: War is brutal, and no livingcreature is spared.

History through Art






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1. The peasants made even less money on the collectivefarms than they had made on their own. They alsohad less time to devote to their own holdings.

2. Answers should be supported by examples and logicalarguments. The author, Max Belov, seems to share the

point of view of the villagers, that collectivization wasnot very successful, but he has used facts to back uphis description. Students might cite the quote, “Youwill live, but you will be very, very thin.”


TEACHAnalyzing Primary SourcesGuide students in a discussionabout Belov’s description of howcollective farms were formed inthe Soviet Union. Ask studentswhat Belov’s description of theviolent end to the village meet-ing and the results of that rebel-lion suggests about the Sovietgovernment’s attitude towardcollectivization. Although theyheld meetings with local people,how did Communist Party rep-resentatives actually get collec-tive farms instituted? Whobenefited from these “commu-nal” farms? Also ask studentswhat they can infer about theauthor and his possible biasesfrom reading this passage.(a peasant living in a village, prob-ably hostile to collectivization) L2



transformed Russia’s 26 million family farms into250,000 collective farms (kolkhozes). In this first-hand account, we see how the process worked.

“General collectivization in our village was broughtabout in the following manner: Two representativesof the [Communist] Party arrived in the village. Allthe inhabitants were summoned by the ringing ofthe church bell to a meeting at which the policy ofgeneral collectivization was announced. . . . Althoughthe meeting lasted two days, from the viewpoint ofthe Party representatives, nothing was accomplished.

After this setback, two more officials were sent toreinforce the first two. A meeting of our section ofthe village was held in a stable which had previouslybelonged to a kulak [wealthy peasant farmer]. Themeeting dragged on until dark. Suddenly someonethrew a brick at the lamp, and in the dark the peas-ants began to beat the Party representatives whojumped out the window and escaped from the vil-lage barely alive. The following day seven peoplewere arrested. The militia was called in and stayedin the village until the peasants, realizing their help-lessness, calmed down. . . .

By the end of 1930 there were two kolkhozes inour village. Though at first these collectivesembraced at most only 70 percent of the peasanthouseholds, in the months that followed they grad-ually absorbed more and more of them.

In these kolkhozes the great bulk of the land washeld and worked communally, but each peasanthousehold owned a house of some sort, a smallplot of ground and perhaps some livestock. All themembers of the kolkhoz were required to work onthe kolkhoz a certain number of days each month;the rest of the time they were allowed to work ontheir own holdings. They derived their income partlyfrom what they grew on their garden strips andpartly from their work in the kolkhoz.

When the harvest was over, and after the farmhad met its obligations to the state and to various

special funds and had sold on the market whateverundesignated produce was left, the remaining pro-duce and the farm’s monetary income were dividedamong the kolkhoz members according to the num-ber of ‘labor days’ each one had contributed to thefarm’s work. . . . After they had received their earn-ings, one of them remarked, ‘You will live, but youwill be very, very thin. . . .‘ By late 1932 more than80 percent of the peasant households had been collectivized.”

—Max Belov, The History of a Collective Farm

Russian peasants using scythes to harvest grain

Analyzing Primary Sources

1. Why did the peasants resist the collective farms?

2. How would you characterize the writer’sdescription of the collectivization processin his village? Was he fair and objec-tive; or was he biased either for oragainst the process? Explain and sup-port your answer using excerpts fromhis description.

Economics Ask students to writeparagraphs describing why collectivefarms were a failure and why Stalin’sagricultural policies contributed tofamine in the Soviet Union. L2



FCAT LA.A.2.4.7

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1889Hitler is born

1921Hitler takes control of the NationalSocialist German Workers’ Party

1933Reichstag passesEnabling Act

1935Nazis enactNuremberg laws

Guide to Reading

Hitler and Nazi Germany

Preview of Events

1938The Kristallnachtoccurs

✦1880 ✦1890 ✦1900 ✦1910 ✦1920 ✦1930 ✦1940

In September 1936, Adolf Hitler spoke to a mass rally in the city of Nuremberg:

“Do we not feel once again in this hour the miracle that brought us together? Onceyou heard the voice of a man, and it struck deep into your hearts; it awakened you,and you followed this voice. . . . When we meet each other here, the wonder of ourcoming together fills us all. Not everyone of you sees me, and I do not see everyone of you. But I feel you, and you feel me. It is the belief in our people that has made ussmall men great, that has made brave and courageous men out of us wavering, timidfolk; this belief . . . joined us together into one whole! . . . You come, that you may,once in a while, gain the feeling that now we are together; we are with him and hewith us, and we are now Germany!”

—The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, Norman Baynes, ed., 1942

Hitler worked to create an emotional bond between himself and the German people.

Hitler and His ViewsAdolf Hitler was born in Austria on April 20, 1889. A failure in secondary

school, he eventually traveled to Vienna to become an artist but was rejected bythe Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. He stayed in the city, supported at first by aninheritance. While in Vienna, however, Hitler developed his basic ideas, which heheld for the rest of his life.

Voices from the Past

Main Ideas• Hitler and the Nazi Party established

a totalitarian state in Germany.• Many Germans accepted the Nazi dicta-

torship, while other Germans sufferedgreatly under Hitler’s rule.

Key TermsReichstag, concentration camp

People to IdentifyAdolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler

Places to LocateMunich, Nuremberg

Preview Questions1. How did Adolf Hitler rise to power?2. What were the chief features of the

Nazi totalitarian state?3. How did the rise of Nazism affect


Reading StrategyCategorizing Information Use a chartlike the one below to list anti-Semitic poli-cies enforced by the Nazi Party.

Anti-Semitic Policies

766 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771


Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–3• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–3• Guided Reading Activity 24–3• Section Quiz 24–3• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–3

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–3

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.


Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. .63 DM 2. 200,999,999,999.37 DM 3. They wereprobably fearful, growing poorer, and losing the ability to buy basic necessities.

Hitler and Nazi Germany


5Chapter 24

How much did a loaf ofbread cost in 1918, indeutsche marks?

How much more did a loafof bread cost in 1923?

What effect do you thinkthis inflation had on theGerman people?

1 2 3

0.63 DM163 DM 250 DM

3,465 DM

DM = deutsche mark

1,512,000 DM

201,000,000,000 DM

1918 1922 Jan. 1923 July 1923 Sept. 1923 Nov. 1923

German Inflation of the Early 1920s As Shown in the Cost of a Loaf of Bread

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–3

1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section explores how Hitlerand the Nazi Party seized con-trol of Germany, and the tacticsthey employed to discriminateagainst a large portion of theGerman population.

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Anti-SemiticPolicies: Jews excluded from Germancitizenship, forbidden to marry citi-zens, required to wear Stars of Davidand carry identification cards, barredfrom public buildings and transporta-tion, prohibited from owning, manag-ing, or working in any retail stores;urged to emigrate, sent to concentra-tion camps

Preteaching VocabularyDefine concentration camp. (a largeprison camp where people whoopposed Germany’s Nazi regimewere sent) L2

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At the core of Hitler’s ideas was racism, especiallyanti-Semitism. Hitler was also an extreme nationalistwho understood how political parties could effec-tively use propaganda and terror. Finally, during hisViennese years, Hitler came to believe firmly in theneed for struggle, which he saw as the “granite foun-dation of the world.”

At the end of World War I, after four years of serv-ice on the Western Front, Hitler remained in Germanyand decided to enter politics. In 1919, he joined thelittle-known German Workers’ Party, one of severalright-wing extreme nationalist parties in Munich.

By the summer of 1921, Hitler had taken total con-trol of the party, which by then had been renamed the National Socialist German Workers’ Party(NSDAP), or Nazi for short. Within two years, partymembership had grown to 55,000 people, with 15,000in the party militia. The militia was variously knownas the SA, the Storm Troops, or the Brownshirts, afterthe color of their uniforms.

An overconfident Hitler staged an armed uprisingagainst the government in Munich in November1923. This uprising, called the Beer Hall Putsch, wasquickly crushed, and Hitler was sentenced to prison.During his brief stay in jail, Hitler wrote MeinKampf, or My Struggle, an account of his movementand its basic ideas.

In Mein Kampf, extreme German nationalism,strong anti-Semitism, and anticommunism are linkedtogether by a Social Darwinian theory of struggle. Thistheory emphasizes the right of superior nations tolebensraum (LAY•buhnz•ROWM)—living space—

through expansion. It also upholds the right of supe-rior individuals to gain authoritarian leadership overthe masses.

Summarizing What main ideas doesHitler express in his book Mein Kampf?

Rise of NazismWhile he was in prison, Hitler realized that the

Nazis would have to attain power by legal means,and not by a violent overthrow of the Weimar Repub-lic. This meant that the Nazi Party would have to bea mass political party that could compete for voteswith the other political parties.

After his release from prison, Hitler expanded theNazi Party to all parts of Germany. By 1929, it had anational party organization. Three years later, it had800,000 members and had become the largest partyin the Reichstag—the German parliament.

No doubt, Germany’s economic difficulties were acrucial factor in the Nazi rise to power. Unemploy-ment had risen dramatically, growing from 4.35 mil-lion in 1931 to 6 million by the winter of 1932. Theeconomic and psychological impact of the GreatDepression made extremist parties more attractive.

Hitler promised to create a new Germany. Hisappeals to national pride, national honor, and tradi-tional militarism struck an emotional chord in his listeners. After attending one of Hitler’s rallies, aschoolteacher in Hamburg said, “When the speechwas over, there was roaring enthusiasm andapplause. . . . —How many look up to him with

Reading Check

CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

In Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote thatmass meetings were importantbecause individuals who feelweak and uncertain becomeintoxicated with the power of thegroup. How do you think Hitlerviewed the average person?


CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771

DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONReading Support Have students work in pairs to create charts comparing the characteristics oftotalitarian states with those of a democracy. Have students make two columns and label themTotalitarian and Democratic. Then have them list the countries that were democracies and thosethat were totalitarian. Students should list characteristics of each form of government in the rowsbeneath the type of government. For example, democracies allow citizens to vote, have a congressor parliament, etc. Ask groups to share their charts. L2

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

Hitler viewed the average person asone to be manipulated; who wouldrespond to an appeal to national prideand honor.


Answer: extreme German national-ism, a strong anti-Semitism, and anti-communism linked together by asocial Darwinian theory of strugglethat emphasizes the right of superiornations to living space throughexpansion and the right of superiorindividuals to gain authoritarian lead-ership over the masses

Guided Reading Activity 24–3

Name Date Class

Hitler and Nazi Germany

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 3.

I. Adolph Hitler developed his basic ideas while in .

A. At the core of Hitler's ideas was , especially


B. By 1921 Hitler took control of a right-wing party, the Nazis.

C. While in jail in 1923 he wrote Mein Kampf, or .

II. In 1931 the Nazis had become the largest party in the German .

A. Hitler's appeals to national struck an emotional chord in his


B. The elites of Germany began to look to Hitler for leadership.

C. With the , Hitler became a dictator appointed by Parliament.

Guided Reading Activity 24-3

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–3

I. Hitler and His Views (pages 766–767)

A. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria, failed secondary school, and was rejected by theVienna Academy of Fine Arts. It was in Vienna that he developed his ideas. Racism,particularly against the Jewish people, was at the core of Hitler’s ideas. He was anextreme nationalist and understood the use of propaganda and terror.

B. Hitler served on the Western Front for four years during World War I. Then he entered

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 24, Section 3

Did You Know? In Mein Kampf, Hitler spelled out the ideas thatdirected his actions once he took power in Germany. In 1923, heessentially wrote for anyone to read what he planned to do. It wasto his great advantage that other people did not take his extremeideas seriously. If they had from the beginning, the course of historymight have been very different.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.





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Answer: economic difficulties; Hitlerappealed to national pride, nationalhonor, and traditional militarism

Answer: It gave Hitler and his gov-ernment the legal right to ignore theGerman constitution for four years;in essence, he was a dictatorappointed by the parliament.

Charting ActivityAsk students to chart the fourmain ways the Nazis createdtheir totalitarian state. (massdemonstrations, control of economy,terror and repression, control ofinstitutions) L1

Connecting Across TimeGuide students in a discussion ofHitler’s main preoccupationsand beliefs, as described in MeinKampf. Ask them to compare andcontrast Hitler’s beliefs to thoseof present-day individuals andgroups who operate outside ofmainstream society. What threatsdo these contemporary fringeelements pose to civilizednations? L3

Critical ThinkingHave students identify andexplain the causes and effects ofthe rise of Nazism in Germanyand the rise of fascism in Italy. L2


Nazi Germany

In setting up a totalitarian state, the Nazisrecognized the importance of winning

young people over to their ideas. TheHitler Youth, an organization foryoung people between the agesof 10 and 18, was formed in1926 for that purpose.

By 1939, all German youngpeople were expected to join theHitler Youth. Upon entering, eachtook an oath: “In the presence ofthis blood banner [Nazi flag],which represents our Führer, Iswear to devote all my energiesand my strength to the savior ofour country, Adolf Hitler. I am

willing and ready to give up my life forhim, so help me God.”

Members of the Hitler Youth had theirown uniforms and took part in a numberof activities. For males, these included

camping and hiking trips,sports activities, and eveningstogether in special youth“homes.” Almost all activitieswere competitive and meantto encourage fighting andheroic deeds.

Above all, the Hitler Youthorganization worked to fostermilitary values and virtues,such as duty, obedience,strength, and ruthlessness.Uniforms and drilling became


Young Germans waving flags

touching faith as their helper, their saviour, theirdeliverer from unbearable distress.”

Explaining What factors helped theNazi Party to gain power in Germany?

Victory of NazismAfter 1930, the German government ruled by

decree with the support of President Hindenburg.The Reichstag had little power, and thus Hitlerclearly saw that controlling the parliament was notvery important.

More and more, the right-wing elites of Ger-many—the industrial leaders, landed aristocrats,military officers, and higher bureaucrats—looked toHitler for leadership. He had the mass support to cre-ate a right-wing, authoritarian regime that wouldsave Germany and people in privileged positionsfrom a Communist takeover. In 1933, Hindenburg,under pressure, agreed to allow Hitler to becomechancellor and create a new government.

Within two months, Hitler had laid the foundationfor the Nazis’ complete control over Germany. Thecrowning step of Hitler’s “legal seizure” of powercame on March 23, 1933, when a two-thirds vote of

Reading Check

the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act. This law gavethe government the power to ignore the constitutionfor four years while it issued laws to deal with thecountry’s problems.

The Enabling Act gave Hitler’s later actions a legalbasis. He no longer needed the Reichstag or Presi-dent Hindenburg. In effect, Hitler became a dictatorappointed by the parliamentary body itself.

With their new source of power, the Nazis actedquickly to bring all institutions under Nazi control.The civil service was purged of Jews and democraticelements. Large prison camps called concentrationcamps were set up for people who opposed the newregime. Trade unions were dissolved. All politicalparties except the Nazis were abolished.

By the end of the summer of 1933, only sevenmonths after being appointed chancellor, Hitler hadestablished the basis for a totalitarian state. WhenHindenburg died in 1934, the office of president wasabolished. Hitler became sole ruler of Germany. Pub-lic officials and soldiers were all required to take apersonal oath of loyalty to Hitler as their Führer(FYUR•uhr), or “Leader.”

Examining Why was the EnablingAct important to Hitler’s success in controlling Germany?

Reading Check

CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771

EXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTThe Berlin Olympics in 1936 were so controversial that many nations planned on attending analternate “People’s Olympics” in Barcelona, Spain. However, when the Spanish Civil War broke outthose games were canceled. The event that the world attended in Germany was a landmark inOlympic history for several reasons. It was the first Olympics to transmit results immediatelythroughout Europe, via a telex. The Germans also used zeppelins to quickly send newsreel footageto other countries. Furthermore, the 1936 games were the first televised Olympics. The Germansused a closed circuit to show the games in specially-equipped theaters in Berlin. Finally, the BerlinGames mark the beginning of the torch relay, a tradition that has since become synonymous withthe Olympics.


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The Nazi State, 1933–1939Hitler wanted to develop a totalitarian state. He

had not simply sought power for power’s sake. Hehad a larger goal—the development of an Aryanracial state that would dominate Europe and possiblythe world for generations to come. (Aryan was a termlinguists used to identify people speaking Indo-European languages. The Nazis misused the termand identified the Aryans with the ancient Greeksand Romans and twentieth-century Germans andScandinavians.) Nazis thought the Germans were thetrue descendants and leaders of the Aryans andwould create another empire like the one ruled by theancient Romans. The Nazis believed that the worldhad already seen two German empires or Reichs: theHoly Roman Empire and the German Empire of 1871to 1918. It was Hitler’s goal to create a Third Reich,the empire of Nazi Germany.

To achieve his goal, Hitler needed the activeinvolvement of the German people. Hitler stated:

“We must develop organizations in which an indi-vidual’s entire life can take place. Then every activityand every need of every individual will be regulatedby the collectivity represented by the party. There is

a way of life. By 1938, training in themilitary arts was also part of the rou-tine. Even boys 10 to 14 years oldwere given small-arms drill and prac-tice with dummy hand grenades.Those who were 14 to 18 years oldbore army packs and rifles while oncamping trips in the countryside.

The Hitler Youth had a femaledivision, known as the League ofGerman Girls, for girls aged 10 to 18.They, too, had uniforms: whiteblouses, blue ankle-length skirts, andsturdy hiking shoes. Camping andhiking were also part of the girls’activities. More important, however,girls were taught domestic skills—how to cook, clean houses, and takecare of children. In Nazi Germany,women were expected to be faithfulwives and dutiful mothers.

Many German children were proud of being part of the Hitler Youth.


1. Explaining What ideals and values did the HitlerYouth promote?

2. Analyzing How did the Hitler Youth help supportthe Nazi attempt to create a total state?

3. Writing about History Do organizations like theHitler Youth exist today in the United States? Howare they similar or different?

no longer any arbitrary will, there are no longer anyfree realms in which the individual belongs to him-self. . . . The time of personal happiness is over.”

The Nazis pursued the creation of the totalitarianstate in a variety of ways. Economic policies, massspectacles, and organizations—both old and new—were employed to further Nazi goals. Terror wasfreely used. Policies toward women and, in particu-lar, Jews reflected Nazi aims.

The State and Terror Nazi Germany was the sceneof almost constant personal and institutional conflict.This resulted in administrative chaos. Struggle was abasic feature of relationships within the party, withinthe state, and between party and state. Hitler, of course,was the ultimate decision maker and absolute ruler.

For those who needed coercion, the Nazi totalitarianstate used terror and repression. The Schutzstaffeln(“Guard Squadrons”), known simply as the SS, werean important force for maintaining order. The SS wasoriginally created as Hitler’s personal bodyguard.Under the direction of Heinrich Himmler, the SS cameto control not only the secret police forces that Himm-ler had set up, but also the regular police forces.

CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771

CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITYCRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITYAnalyzing Advise the students that Hitler and his followers were elected to power by a culturedand civilized people who experienced a drastic change in their way of life following World War I.The German people were searching for a leader and an identity to help them escape their eco-nomic woes. While Nazism at first glance seemed appealing, the Nazis began their reign of slaugh-ter and extermination with incremental acts of prejudice and persecution, using innocent peopleas scapegoats. It is important to study the pattern in the rise of Nazism to ensure it never surfacesagain in a similar form in our present world. Ask students to write an essay analyzing the totalitar-ian nature of Nazi Germany.

Answers:1. military values and virtues, such

as duty, obedience, strength,and ruthlessness

2. by winning young people overto Nazi ideas

3. Answers will vary. Studentsshould make careful distinctionsamong groups they choose tocompare.

Connecting Across TimeSome attribute the Nazi rise topower to their talent for propa-ganda. Ask students if they seeany similarity to the use of prop-aganda during wartime, forexample, during World War I. L3

Critical ThinkingGuide students in a discussion of the status of women underNazism. Compare it to theirstatus in Mussolini’s Italy andStalin’s Soviet Union. L2

The Arts The musical stage playand film, The Sound of Music, byRodgers and Hammerstein, depictsthe Nazi takeover of Austria.





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770 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

The SS was based on two principles: terror andideology. Terror included the instruments of repres-sion and murder—secret police, criminal police, con-centration camps, and later, execution squads anddeath camps (concentration camps where prisonersare killed). For Himmler, the chief goal of the SS wasto further the Aryan master race.

Economic Policies In the economic sphere, Hitlerused public works projects and grants to private construction firms to put people back to work andend the depression. A massive rearmament program,however, was the key to solving the unemploymentproblem.

Benito Mussolini(1883–1945)

Joseph Stalin(1879–1953)

Adolf Hitler(1889–1945)


Prime Minister


Fascist Party


Middle-class industrialists and large land owners

Secret police (OVRA), imprisonment, outlawing other parties, propaganda, censorship of the press

Support for Catholic Church, nationalism, antisocialism, anticommunism


General Secretary


Communist Party


Party officials

Purges, prison camps, secret police, state-run press, forced labor camps, executions

Five-Year Plans for rapid industrialization, collectivization of farms




National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP, or Nazi)


Industrial leaders, landed aristo- crats, military, and bureaucracy

Schutzstaffeln (SS) police force, propaganda, state-run press, terror, repression, racial laws, concentration and death camps

Rearmament, public projects to put people to work, anti-Semitism, racism, Social Darwinism, extreme nationalism


Political Title

Date in Power

Political Party

Type ofGovernment

Source(s) ofSupport

Methods ofControllingOpposition


Three Dictators: Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler

Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler all came to powerafter World War I.

1. Making Comparisons Compare the gov-ernments of Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler.How were they similar?

2. Identifying What methods do people in ademocracy use to express their opposition togovernment policies? Why would these meth-ods not have worked under these dictators?

Unemployment, which had reached 6 million peo-ple in 1932, dropped to 2.6 million in 1934 and lessthan 500,000 in 1937. The regime claimed full creditfor solving Germany’s economic woes. The newregime’s part in bringing an end to the depressionwas an important factor in leading many Germans toaccept Hitler and the Nazis.

Spectacles and Organizations Mass demonstra-tions and spectacles were also used to make the Ger-man people an instrument of Hitler’s policies. Thesemeetings, especially the Nuremberg party rallies thatwere held every September, had great appeal. Theyusually evoked mass enthusiasm and excitement.

Institutions, such as the Catholic and Protestantchurches, primary and secondary schools, and uni-versities, were also brought under the control of theNazi totalitarian state. Nazi professional organiza-tions and leagues were formed for civil servants,teachers, women, farmers, doctors, and lawyers. Inaddition, youth organizations taught Nazi ideals.

Women and Nazism Women played a crucial rolein the Aryan state as bearers of the children who, it

CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771


1. Methods for controlling theopposition were similar. All hadone political leader who domi-nated the single political party.

2. Freedom of speech, oppositionparties, and open and free elec-tions are hallmarks of democ-racy. Opposition under dictatorsis either tightly controlled, pro-hibited, or eliminated.

3 ASSESSAssign Section 3 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

Section Quiz 24–3

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. Hitler’s birthplace

2. National Socialist German Workers’ Party

3. Hitler’s philosophical work

4. Hitler’s right of superior nations to “living space”

5. legislation that gave Hitler supreme power

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. Hitler inaccurately associated the concept of an Aryan race with all of thefollowing groups EXCEPT

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 24

Section Quiz 24-3

Column B

A. Nazi

B. Lebensraum

C. Enabling Act

D. Mein Kampf

E. Austria

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 24–3


Have you ever read The Diary of Anne Frank? What does Anne Frank describe in herdiary?

In the last section, you read about the rise of dictatorial regimes in several countriesin Europe. In this section, you will read about the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party in

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 24, Section 3

For use with textbook pages 766–771



Reichstag the German parliament (page 767)

concentration camp large prison camps in which members of minority groups and political dissi-dents are confined (page 768)

Name Date Class






Comparing and Contrasting Ask each student to create a chart comparing and contrasting com-munism and fascism. The items to list in the chart include who holds authority in each system,how and why the authority is held, and what social and economic groups support the system. Askstudents to list who owns the means of production, who makes decisions regarding production,and who owns the land and makes decisions on its use. Have students review their charts todetermine in which ways the two systems are similar and in which ways they differ. Ask studentsto share their results during a class discussion. L2 FCAT MA.E.1.4.1

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Adolf Hitler (p. 766); National

Socialist German Workers’ Party(p. 767); Mein Kampf (p. 767);lebensraum (p. 767); Enabling Act(p. 768); Aryan (p. 769); HeinrichHimmler (p. 769); Nuremberg laws(p. 771); Kristallnacht (p. 771)

3. See chapter maps.

4. increased size of Nazi Party inReichstag; appointed chancellor;passed the Enabling Act

5. German citizenship; to marry Ger-man citizens; to use public trans-portation and buildings; to own,manage, or work in any retail store

6. They evoked mass enthusiasm andexcitement.

7. Program: totalitarian state; Goal:control of citizens’ lives; Program:Aryan racial state; Goals: elimina-tion of Jews and domination ofGermany and the world

8. Answers will vary.9. Answers will vary depending on

the passage selected.


Answer: Hitler used mass demon-strations, control of economy, terrorand repression, and control of insti-tutions.

destroyed some seven thousand Jewish businesses.At least a hundred Jews were killed. Thirty thousandJewish males were rounded up and sent to concen-tration camps.

Kristallnacht led to further drastic steps. Jews werebarred from all public transportation and all publicbuildings including schools and hospitals. They wereprohibited from owning, managing, or working inany retail store. The Jews were forced to clean up allthe debris and damage due to Kristallnacht. Finally,under the direction of the SS, Jews were encouragedto “emigrate from Germany.”

Summarizing What steps did Hitlertake to establish a Nazi totalitarian state in Germany?

Reading Check

771CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Checking for Understanding1. Define Reichstag, concentration camp.

2. Identify Adolf Hitler, National SocialistGerman Workers’ Party, Mein Kampf,lebensraum, Enabling Act, Aryan, Heinrich Himmler, Nuremberg laws,Kristallnacht.

3. Locate Munich, Nuremberg.

4. Summarize the steps that Hitler took tobecome the sole ruler of Germany.

5. List the rights taken from the Jews bythe Nazi government.

Critical Thinking6. Analyze How did mass demonstra-

tions and meetings contribute to thesuccess of the Nazi Party?

7. Organizing Information Use a tableto describe the policies and programsused by the Nazis to create a ThirdReich. Identify the goals for each policyor program.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine any two photos from this sec-

tion. Compare and contrast the twophotos. How do you think they relate to Hitler’s vision of Nazi Germany?

“The broad massof a nation . . .will more easily fall victim to a big lie than to a small one.”—Adolf Hitler

Policy/Program Goals

was believed, would bring about the triumph of theAryan race. The Nazis believed men were destined tobe warriors and political leaders, while women weremeant to be wives and mothers. By preserving thisclear distinction, each could best serve to “maintainthe whole community.”

Nazi ideas determined employment opportunitiesfor women. Jobs in heavy industry, it was thought,might hinder women from bearing healthy children.Certain professions, including university teaching,medicine, and law, were also considered unsuitablefor women, especially married women. The Nazisinstead encouraged women to pursue other occupa-tions, such as social work and nursing. The Naziregime pushed its campaign against working womenwith poster slogans such as “Get ahold of pots andpans and broom and you’ll sooner find a groom!”

Anti-Semitic Policies From its beginning, the NaziParty reflected the strong anti-Semitic beliefs of AdolfHitler. Once in power, the Nazis translated anti-Semitic ideas into anti-Semitic policies.

In September 1935, the Nazis announced newracial laws at the annual party rally in Nuremberg.These Nuremberg laws excluded Jews from Germancitizenship and forbade marriages between Jews andGerman citizens. In 1941, German Jews were alsorequired to wear yellow Stars of David and to carryidentification cards saying they were Jewish.

A more violent phase of anti-Jewish activity beganon the night of November 9, 1938—the Kristallnacht,or “night of shattered glass.” In a destructive ram-page against the Jews, Nazis burned synagogues and

9. Expository Writing Find a librarybook by a German who lived underNazism. Read several chapters onthe author’s life. Write a reportabout whether that person couldhave resisted the government andwhy.

CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771CHAPTER 24Section 3, 766–771

Literature Anne Frank was a Jew-ish girl who kept a diary during thetwo years she spent hiding with herfamily in an attic in Amsterdam. Shewas arrested in 1944 and sent to theNazi concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen, where she died at the age of15. Her account, The Diary of aYoung Girl, was published in 1947.In 1987, more than thirty years later,Miep Gies, the woman who helpedto hide the Frank family, wrote herown story, Anne FrankRemembered, about life under Nazioccupation and what she remembersof Anne Frank.

Reteaching ActivityHave students list the steps inHitler’s rise to power. They maybegin with his forming theBrownshirts and conclude withhis taking the title Der Führer. L2

4 CLOSEHold a class discussion to helpstudents outline what led to theNazis’ rise to power in Germany.Have students create a flowcharton the chalkboard. Ask them tocopy it and use it for reference.L1 ELL





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1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section explores culturaland intellectual trends betweenWorld War I and World War II.

1920First Dada showin Berlin

1922James Joyce’s Ulyssesis published

1927Werner Heisenberg explainsthe uncertainty principle

Guide to Reading

Cultural and Intellectual Trends

Preview of Events

Main Ideas• Radios and movies were popular forms

of entertainment that were used tospread political messages.

• New artistic and intellectual trendsreflected the despair created by WorldWar I and the Great Depression.

Key Termsphotomontage, surrealism, uncertaintyprinciple

People to IdentifySalvador Dalí, James Joyce, HermannHesse

Places to LocateBerlin, Dublin

Preview Questions1. What trends dominated the arts and

popular culture after 1918?2. How did the new movements in arts

and literature reflect the changes afterWorld War I?

Reading StrategyCategorizing Information Use a tablelike the one below to list literary works by Hesse and Joyce. Describe the tech-niques used in each work.

Literary Works Techniques

✦1915 ✦1920 ✦1925 ✦1930

In 1922, Tristan Tzara, a Romanian-French poet, gave a lecture on the new artisticmovement called dadaism:

“I know that you have come here today to hear explanations. Well, don’t expect tohear any explanations about Dada. You explain to me why you exist. You haven’t thefaintest idea. . . . Dada is a state of mind. Dada applies itself to everything, and yet it isnothing, it is the point where the yes and the no and all the opposites meet, notsolemnly in the castles of human philosophies, but very simply at street corners, likedogs and grasshoppers. Like everything in life, Dada is useless. Dada is without preten-sion, as life should be.”

—Tristan Tzara, The Dada Painters and Poets, Robert Motherwell, ed., 1922

Influenced by the insanity of World War I, dadaists attempted to give expression towhat they saw as the absurdity of life.

Mass Culture: Radio and MoviesA series of inventions in the late nineteenth century had led the way for a rev-

olution in mass communications. Especially important was Marconi’s discoveryof wireless radio waves. A musical concert transmitted in June of 1920 had a majorimpact on radio broadcasting. Broadcasting facilities were built in the UnitedStates, Europe, and Japan during 1921 and 1922. At the same time, the mass

Voices from the Past

772 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775


Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 24–4• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–4• Guided Reading Activity 24–4• Section Quiz 24–4• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 24–4

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–4

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.


Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. C 2. D 3. B 4. AUNIT

5Chapter 24

Cultural and Intellectual Trends

DIRECTIONS: The column on the left lists four causes. The column on the right lists foureffects. Match each cause on the left with the appropriate effect on the right.

Cause Effect

1. A series of inventions A. Mass leisure activities gainincluding Marconi’s wireless popularityradio waves

2. Goebbels creates a film B. Surrealist movement developsdivision in his PropagandaMinistry

3. The sentiment of some is C. Revolution in massthat the world does not make communication and the masssense, so why should art production of radios

4. People have more leisure D. Popular feature films carryingtime after World War I Nazi messages are produced

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 24–4



Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Ulysses; Joyceuses stream of consciousness toexamine a day in the life of ordinarypeople. Siddhartha and Steppenwolf;Hesse uses Buddhist ideas to showthe psychological confusion of mod-ern existence.

Preteaching VocabularyExplain why surrealism arose duringthis period. (Events in the materialworld were grim and made peoplewant to escape. Surrealism sought areality beyond the material worldand found it in the world of theunconscious.) L2

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INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYINTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYArt and Language Arts Motion pictures became a major industry in the 1920s. One of the earliestsilent film stars was British comedian Charlie Chaplin. Sound was added to films in the late 1920s.Have students research the movie industry and the technological advances it made during thepostwar decade. Have students work in pairs to write a report on their findings and then design aposter advertising a movie of the era. Suggest that students bring a video of one of the old films toclass, such as Dracula, starring Bela Lugosi; Mata Hari with Greta Garbo; Rose Marie with JeanetteMacDonald and Nelson Eddy; or Top Hat with Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. Ask students whatvalues or ideals the films portray. L2


Answer: Radio offered great oppor-tunities to reach the masses, andHitler’s fiery speeches were just aseffective over the radio as in person.

Answer: It provided a new way tocontrol the people—through leisure.

production of radios began. In 1926, therewere 2.2 million radios in Great Britain. Bythe end of the 1930s, there were 9 million.

Although motion pictures had first emerged in the1890s, full-length features did not appear untilshortly before World War I. The Italian film Quo Vadisand the American film Birth of a Nation made itapparent that cinema was an important new form ofmass entertainment. By 1939, about 40 percent ofadults in the more industrialized countries wereattending a movie once a week. That figure hadincreased to 60 percent by the end of World War II.

Of course, radio and the movies could be used forpolitical purposes. Hitler said, “Without motor-cars,sound films, and wireless, [there would be] no vic-tory of Nazism.” Radio offered great opportunitiesfor reaching the masses. This became obvious whenit was discovered that Adolf Hitler’s fiery speechesmade just as great an impact on people when heardover the radio as they did in person. The Nazi regimeencouraged radio listening by urging manufacturersto produce inexpensive radios that could be boughton an installment plan.

Film, too, had propaganda potential, a fact not loston Joseph Goebbels (GUH[R]•buhlz), the propa-ganda minister of Nazi Germany. Believing that filmwas one of the “most modern and scientific means ofinfluencing the masses,” Goebbels created a specialfilm division in his Propaganda Ministry.

The Propaganda Ministry supported the making ofboth documentaries—nonfiction films—and popularfeature films that carried the Nazi message. The Tri-umph of the Will, for example, was a documentary ofthe 1934 Nuremberg party rally. This movie was filmedby Leni Riefenstahl, an actress turned director. It force-fully conveyed to viewers the power of NationalSocialism.

Explaining Why was the radio animportant propaganda tool for the Nazis?

Reading Check

More Goods, More LeisureAfter World War I, the assembly line and mass

production took hold in industry. More consumergoods were available, and more people could buythem because they had more income or credit. By1920, the eight-hour day had been established formany workers. Gradually, it became the norm.

This new work pattern meant more free time forthe leisure activities that had developed at the turn ofthe century. Professional sporting events were animportant part of mass leisure. Travel was anotherfavorite activity. Trains, buses and cars made trips tobeaches or holiday resorts popular and affordable. InGreat Britain, for example, people of all social classesmobbed the beach at Brighton.

Mass leisure offered new ways for totalitarianstates to control the people. The Nazi regime, forexample, adopted a program called Kraft durch Freude(“Strength through Joy”). The program offered avariety of leisure activities to fill the free time of theworking class. These activities included concerts,operas, films, guided tours, and sporting events.Especially popular were the program’s inexpensivevacations. A vacation could be a cruise to Scandi-navia or the Mediterranean. More likely for workers,it was a shorter trip within Germany.

Examining How did the “Strengththrough Joy” program help to support the Nazi regime?

Reading Check

773CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

This 1920s movie camera (far right) andradio were part of a communications rev-olution. Millions of people could nowhear or see the same entertainment,news, and advertisements. A morehomogeneous, or uniform, cultureresulted. What are the positive andnegative results of a uniform culture?


CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775

Answer: Positive results include help-ing members of a society bond; nega-tive results include stifling creativity.



Guided Reading Activity 24–4

Name Date Class

Cultural and Intellectual Trends

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 4.

1. A series of inventions in the late nineteenth-century led the way for a revolution in

communications, especially discovery of

radio waves.

2. facilities were built in the United States, Europe, and Japan during

1921 and 1922.

3. The Italian film and the American film

made it apparent that cinema was an important new form of mass entertainment.

4. Hitler said, “Without motor-cars, sound films, and wireless, [there would be] no victory

of .”

5. By 1920 the day had become the norm for many office and factory

Guided Reading Activity 24-4

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 24–4

I. Mass Culture: Radio and Movies (pages 772–773)

A. In the late nineteenth century, inventions such as motion pictures and discoveries suchas wireless radio waves changed mass communication.

B. In the early 1920s, radio broadcasting facilities were built in the United States, Europe,and Japan. The mass production of radios began. Radio production grew at a great

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 24, Section 4

Did You Know? In the 1930s, sports and politics grew closertogether. Mussolini poured huge sums of money into the Italiansoccer team, which won the World Cup twice during the 1930s. The1936 Olympics were held in Germany and became a showcase forthe power of the new Germany and the Nazi idea of the superiorAryan race. When the African-American athlete Jesse Owens wonfour gold medals, the Nazis were humiliated.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.




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3 ASSESSAssign Section 4 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

Artistic and Literary TrendsFour years of devastating war had left many Euro-

peans with a profound sense of despair. To manypeople, the horrors of World War I meant that some-thing was dreadfully wrong with Western values, thathuman beings were violent animals who were inca-pable of creating a sane and rational world. The GreatDepression and the growth of violent fascist move-ments only added to the despair created by the war.

With political, economic, and social uncertaintiescame intellectual uncertainties. These were evident inthe artistic and intellectual achievements of the yearsfollowing World War I.

Art: Nightmares and New Visions After 1918,artistic trends mainly reflected developments madebefore the war. Abstract art, for example, becameever more popular. In addition, a prewar fascinationwith the absurd and the unconscious content of themind seemed even more appropriate in light of thenightmare landscapes of the World War I battlefronts.“The world does not make sense, so why should

art?” was a common remark.This sentiment gave rise toboth the Dada movement andsurrealism.

The dadaists were artistswho were obsessed with theidea that life has no purpose.They were revolted by whatthey saw as the insanity of lifeand tried to express that feel-ing in their art. Dada artistHannah Höch, for example,used photomontage (a pic-ture made of a combination ofphotographs) to comment onwomen’s roles in the newmass culture. Her work waspart of the first Dada show inBerlin in 1920.

A more important artisticmovement than dadaism was

surrealism. This movement sought a reality beyondthe material world and found it in the world of theunconscious. By portraying fantasies, dreams, andeven nightmares, the surrealists sought to show thegreater reality that exists beyond the world of physi-cal appearances.

The Spaniard Salvador Dalí was the high priest ofsurrealism. Dalí painted everyday objects but sepa-rated them from their normal contexts. By placingrecognizable objects in unrecognizable relationships,Dalí created a strange world in which the irrationalbecame visible.

Not everybody accepted modern art forms. Manypeople denounced what they saw as decay in thearts. Nowhere was this more evident than in NaziGermany. In the 1920s, Weimar Germany was one ofthe chief European centers for modern arts and sci-ences. Hitler and the Nazis, however, rejected mod-ern art as “degenerate.” In a speech in July 1937,Hitler proclaimed:

“The people regarded this art [modern art] as theoutcome of an impudent and shameless arroganceor of a simply shocking lack of skill; it felt that . . .these achievements which might have been pro-duced by untalented children of from eight to tenyears old—could never be valued as an expressionof our own times or of the German future.”

Hitler and the Nazis believed that they could createa new and genuine German art. It would glorify thestrong, the healthy, and the heroic—the qualities

774 CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

History through Art

The Persistence of Memory by SalvadorDalí, 1931 Surrealism gave everydayobjects a dream-like quality. Dalí, like manysurrealist artists, was influenced by SigmundFreud’s theory of the unconscious. Analyzewhy surrealism developed in the periodbetween the wars.

CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775

Answer: After the nightmare land-scapes of World War I battlefronts, the prewar fascination with the uncon-scious content of the mind seemedeven more appropriate. Ask interestedstudents to research and bring inexamples of dadaist and surrealist art.L1 ELL

History through Art

Section Quiz 24–4

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. non-fiction films

2. art movement that sought a reality in the unconscious

3. literary technique of portraying innermost thoughts

4. absurdist art form

5. combination of individual photographs

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. Artistic trends between the wars reflected a fascination with

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

✔ ScoreChapter 24

Section Quiz 24-4

Column B

A. surrealism

B. dadaism

C. documentaries

D. stream ofconsciousness

E. photomontage

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 24–4


What do you like to do with your free time? Do you go to movies and sportingevents? Or do you spend most of your free time at home?

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 24, Section 4

For use with textbook pages 772–775



photomontage a picture made of a combination of photographs (page 774)

surrealism an artistic movement that sought a reality beyond the material world and found itin the world of the unconscious (page 774)

uncertainty principle a theory of the German physicist Werner Heisenberg that suggests that allphysical laws are based on uncertainty (page 775)

Name Date Class






Activating Prior Knowledge Organize the class into small groups and assign a topic, such as sci-ence, literature, music, art, or technology to each group. Ask each group to compile a list of innova-tions in its assigned field between 1919 and 1939. Have each group try to connect the variousinnovations to changes in society. For example, innovations in transportation and communicationhave affected social mobility. Then have each group create a list of innovations during their lifetimeand describe their effects on contemporary society. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

ELL FCAT SC.H.3.4.6; SC.H.3.4.2

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. The Triumph of the Will (p. 773);

Salvador Dali (p. 774); JamesJoyce (p. 775); Hermann Hesse (p. 775)

3. See chapter maps. 4. Dadaists believed that life had no

purpose, and surrealists sought areality beyond the physical world.Their work reflected the nightmare

mood caused by the Great Depres-sion and totalitarian regimes.Answers will vary.

5. supposed to glorify the strong, thehealthy, and the heroic; answerswill vary

6. more free time, new leisure activi-ties, rise in travel, mass entertain-ment

7. Dadaism: life has no purpose, tried

to express the insanity of life in art;Surrealism: sought a realitybeyond the material world; Both:reflect fascination with the absurdand the unconscious content of themind

8. answers will vary; the Internet 9. Students will create posters.


Answer: A fascination with Freud’stheory of the unconscious content ofthe mind began before the war, butit seemed even more appropriate inlight of the nightmare landscapes ofthe World War I battlefields.

Answer: Newton’s physics had beenbased on certainty and natural laws,while Heisenberg’s theory empha-sizes randomness.

Critical ThinkingAsk students to discuss the fol-lowing sentence: “More andmore, mass culture and massleisure had the effect of givingall the people in a nation similarideas and similar experiences.”L3

Reteaching ActivityDiscuss with students howWorld War I changed the waypeople viewed the world.Review the artistic and scientificadvances and cultural move-ments of the time. L1

4 CLOSEAsk students to explain the sig-nificance of “mass entertain-ment,” especially radio andmovies. Discuss the growth of“mass leisure” and professionalsports. Summarize develop-ments in the areas of art, music,and literature. Identify the“heroic age of physics.” L2

valued by the Aryan race. The new German artdeveloped by the Nazis, however, was actuallyderived from nineteenth-century folk art and emphasized realistic scenes of everyday life.

Literature: The Search for the Unconscious Theinterest in the unconscious that was evident in artwas also found in new literary techniques. For exam-ple, “stream of consciousness” was a technique usedby writers to report the innermost thoughts of eachcharacter. The most famous example of this approachis the novel Ulysses, published by the Irish writerJames Joyce in 1922. Ulysses tells the story of one dayin the life of ordinary people in Dublin by followingthe flow of their inner thoughts.

The German writer Hermann Hesse dealt with theunconscious in a quite different fashion. His novelsreflect the influence of both Freud’s psychology andAsian religions. The works focus on, among otherthings, the spiritual loneliness of modern humanbeings in a mechanized urban society. In both Sid-dhartha and Steppenwolf, Hesse uses Buddhist ideas toshow the psychological confusion of modern exis-tence. Hesse’s novels had a great impact on Germanyouth in the 1920s. He won the Nobel Prize for liter-ature in 1946.

Examining Why were artists andwriters after World War I attracted to Freud’s theory of theunconscious?

Reading Check

775CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars

Dadaism Surrealism

The Heroic Age of PhysicsThe prewar revolution in physics begun by Albert

Einstein continued in the years between the wars. Infact, Ernest Rutherford, one of the physicists whoshowed that the atom could be split, called the 1920sthe “heroic age of physics.”

The new picture of the universe that was unfold-ing in physics undermined the old certainties of theclassical physics of Newton. Newtonian physics hadmade people believe that all phenomena could becompletely defined and predicted. In 1927, this beliefwas shaken when the German physicist WernerHeisenberg explained an observation he called theuncertainty principle.

Physicists knew that atoms were made up ofsmaller parts (subatomic particles). The fact that thebehavior of these subatomic particles is unpre-dictable provides the foundation for the uncertaintyprinciple. Heisenberg’s theory essentially suggeststhat all physical laws are based on uncertainty. Thetheory’s emphasis on randomness challenges New-tonian physics and thus, in a way, represents a newworldview. It is unlikely that many nonscientistsunderstood the implications of Heisenberg’s work.Nevertheless, the principle of uncertainty fit in wellwith the other uncertainties of the interwar years.

Explaining How did Heisenberg’suncertainty principle challenge the Newtonian world view?

Reading Check

Checking for Understanding1. Define photomontage, surrealism,

uncertainty principle.

2. Identify The Triumph of the Will, Sal-vador Dalí, James Joyce, Hermann Hesse.

3. Locate Berlin, Dublin.

4. Explain how dadaism and surrealismreflected economic and political devel-opments after World War I. Alsoexplain how the painting on page 774,Dalí’s The Persistence of Memory, sup-ports your explanation.

5. List the qualities that the Nazis wantedGerman art to glorify. Why do youthink Hitler was concerned with issuessuch as the content and style of art?

Critical Thinking6. Evaluate What impact did technologi-

cal advances in transportation andcommunication have on Western cul-ture between the wars?

7. Compare and Contrast Use a Venndiagram like the one below to comparethe Dada movement and surrealism.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the photographs on page

773. Describe how our culture hasbeen influenced by radio and movies.What communication technology ismost influential today?

9. Informative Writing Prepare aposter that shows the developmentof mass communication from theradio to modern technologicaladvances in computers. Include photos and illustrations in yourposter. Write a brief paragraph that summarizes twentieth-centuryinnovations.

CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775CHAPTER 24Section 4, 772–775


1 2



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MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz to review Chapter 24 content.

Available in VHS.

CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars776

Using Key Terms1. A is a picture made of a combination of photographs.

2. A is a period of low economic activity and risingunemployment.

3. The Soviet government followed a policy of when ittook private property after World War I without payments tothe former owners.

4. A exists when almost all power in a nation is held bythe central government.

5. Lenin abandoned war communism in 1921 in favor of his, a modified version of the old capitalist system.

6. The government policy of going into debt to pay for publicworks projects, such as building highways, is called .

7. According to the , no one could determine the pathof subatomic particles, meaning all physical laws had elements of unpredictability.

8. The German parliament is known as the .

9. The was the leading policy maker of the CommunistParty.

10. is the right of unions to negotiate with employers.

Reviewing Key Facts11. History What did President Roosevelt call the program

designed to fight the depression in the United States?

12. Economics Why were the Germans unable to pay all of thereparations assessed by the Treaty of Versailles?

13. History Why did Germany choose to become involved in the Spanish Civil War?

14. Culture Why did Hitler label modern art as degenerate?

15. Economics What did Germany do to cause high rates of inflation after World War I?

16. Government Describe how Stalin defeated Trotsky.

17. Culture What was the significance of the Italian Fascist slogan “Woman into the Home”?

18. Economics Describe Lenin’s New Economic Policy.

19. History What was the basic purpose of the Nuremberg laws?

20. Government Why did Trotsky and his followers want tospread communism to other nations?

Critical Thinking21. Cause and Effect Why did the depression help extremist

leaders gain power in many nations?

22. Compare and Contrast How was Roosevelt’s New Dealboth similar to and different from Stalin’s Five-Year Plan?

Writing About History23. Expository Writing Write an essay in which you relate one

of the following to the uncertainties and disillusionment of theinterwar years: mass entertainment, mass leisure, professionalsports, dadaism, surrealism, or “stream of consciousness” inliterature. Research your topic and provide references and abibliography with your essay.

• In Britain, the Conservative Partyimplements traditional economicpolicies.

• In the United States, PresidentRoosevelt develops the New Deal,a policy of active governmentintervention in the economy.

• In France, the Popular Frontestablishes the French New Deal,which promotes workers’ rights.

• In Italy, Mussolini leads the Fasciststo power.

• Stalin becomes dictator of theSoviet Union and purges theCommunist Party of Old Bolsheviks.

• In Germany, Hitler establishes atotalitarian Nazi regime and startsthe large-scale persecution of Jews.

• The artistic movements of dadaismand surrealism reflect the uncertaintyof life created by World War I.

• Radio and film transformcommunications.

• Literary techniques reflect an interestin the unconscious.

• Heisenberg’s uncertainty principlesuggests that physical laws arebased on uncertainty.

Political andEconomic Changes

Rise ofTotalitarianism

Innovationsand Ideas

Between 1919 and 1939, the West experienced great economic and political challenges.


Using Key Terms1. photomontage 2. depression3. collectivization 4. totalitarian state5. New Economic Policy 6. deficitspending 7. uncertainty principle8. Reichstag 9. Politburo 10. collectivebargaining

Reviewing Key Facts11. the New Deal

12. Germany was faced with financialproblems after the war.

13. It was an opportunity to test newweapons.

14. He felt that it was the outcome ofarrogance or of a lack of skill thatcould never be valued as an expres-sion of the German future. Hewanted art to glorify the qualities of the Aryan race.

15. paid salaries by printing moremoney, which forced prices up

16. Because he was party general secre-tary, Stalin was in charge of appoint-ing regional, district, city, and townparty officials. The thousands of offi-cials he appointed supported his bidfor power. He then eliminated fromthe Politburo all the Bolsheviks ofthe revolutionary era.

17. Women were to be homemakersand mothers.

18. put heavy industry, banks, andmines under government control;permitted retail stores and smallindustries to be privately owned;allowed peasants to sell their pro-duce openly

19. to exclude Jewish people from therights of German citizenship

20. because they did not believe that the revolution in Rus-sia could survive without other Communist states

Critical Thinking21. During the Great Depression, many people who were

in economic distress were willing to listen to anyleader who promised improved economic conditions.

22. Both plans brought enormous changes in the twocountries and increased the governments’ involvementin social and economic affairs. Unlike the Five-YearPlans, the New Deal did not demand great sacrificesfrom the people.

Writing About History23. Answers should be supported by logical arguments and

include an accurate bibliography.

CHAPTER 24Assessment and Activities

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CHAPTER 24Assessment and Activities



Have students visit the Web site atto review Chapter

24 and take the Self-Check Quiz.tx.wh.glencoe.com

StandardizedTest Practice

Answer: CAnswer Explanation: Studentsshould use the process of elimina-tion to arrive at the best answer.

Self-Check QuizVisit the Glencoe World History Web site at

and click on Chapter 24–Self-CheckQuiz to prepare for the Chapter Test.wh.glencoe.com


StandardizedTest Practice

CHAPTER 24 The West Between the Wars 777

Analyzing SourcesThe crisis of confidence in Western civilization ran deep. It waswell captured in the words of the French poet Paul Valéry in theearly 1920s:

“The storm has died away, and we are still restless,Uneasy, as if the storm were about to break. Almostall the affairs of men remain in a terrible uncertainty.We think of what has disappeared, and we are almostdestroyed by what has been destroyed; we do notknow what will be born, and we fear the future. . . .Doubt and disorder are in us and with us. There is nothinking man, however shrewd or learned he may be,who can hope to dominate this anxiety, to escape fromthis impression of darkness.”

24. Pretend you do not know when Valéry wrote this poem.What might you be able to conclude about the time in whichValéry lived from this passage?

25. What do the first two lines of this poem convey?

Applying Technology Skills26. Creating a Multimedia Presentation Search the Internet

for sources on the Great Depression. Based on yourresearch, create a multimedia presentation about the causesleading up to the depression and the effect the depressionhad on Europe and the United States. Use images from theInternet in your presentation. Include a plan describing thetype of presentation you would like to develop and the stepsyou will take to ensure a successful presentation.

Making Decisions27. Imagine that you are living in 1928. Pretend that you know

everything that is going to occur because of the GreatDepression and that you have the ability to move to anymajor country in the world. Where would you go and why?Would being part of a particular social class influence your decision?

28. Imagine that you are a young person living in Germanyduring 1935. Write a letter to your cousin who lives in theUnited States describing the influence of the powerful Naziregime upon your life. Do you support Hitler, or are youconcerned about his policies?




Lambert AzimuthalEqual-Area projection

200 kilometers

200 miles0




10°W 0°5°W


Mediterranean Sea

















Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939

Nationalist-controlled area, February 1939Republican-controlled area, February 1939Area of intense fighting

Analyzing Maps and ChartsStudy the map above to answer the following questions.

29. What advantage would the Nationalists seem to have hadover the Republicans in February 1939?

30. How would the geographic location of the Republicans in1939 have affected their supply routes?

31. Where was the most intense fighting concentrated?

Directions: Choose the best answer to thefollowing question.

The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Moneyby John Maynard Keynes was published in 1936. The bookargued for

A mercantilism.

B disarmament.

C deficit spending.

D isolationism.

Test-Taking Tip: If you do not know the right answer to this question, use common sense to eliminate answerchoices that do not make sense. Recall the context in whichKeynes has been discussed in class or in your textbook.Think about the title of his book. These clues may help you eliminate incorrect answer choices.

Analyzing Sources24. Answers will vary but should be supported by exam-

ples and logical arguments. The use of the word stormindicates that there has been a period of greatupheaval, such as a war or revolution, that has notbeen resolved.

25. The war has ended, but there is great uncertainty as towhat is yet to come.

Applying Technology Skills26. Students will create multimedia presentations.

Making Decisions27. Answers will vary but should be consistent with mate-

rial presented in this chapter and supported by logicalarguments.


28. Answers will vary but should be con-sistent with material presented inthis chapter and supported by logi-cal arguments.

Analyzing Maps and Charts29. Nationalists controlled much more

territory than the Republicans.

30. The Republicans controlled a num-ber of major Mediterranean Seaports but had no land routes toEurope and no water access to theAtlantic Ocean.

31. Intense fighting occurred in centralSpain near Toledo and Madrid andalong the northern border nearFrance.




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