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426A Chapter 14 Resources Timesaving Tools Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition and your classroom resources with a few easy clicks. Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize your week, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to make teaching creative, timely, and relevant. Use Glencoe’s Presentation Plus! multimedia teacher tool to easily present dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu- dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint ® you can customize the presentations to create your own personalized lessons. The following videotape program is available from Glencoe as a supplement to Chapter 14: Michelangelo (ISBN 1–56501–425–1) To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To find classroom resources to accompany this video, check the following home pages: A&E Television: www.aande.com The History Channel: www.historychannel.com R R TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES Chapter Transparency 14 L2 Graphic Organizer Student Activity 14 Transparency L2 CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe (1550–1715) A king cannot suspend any laws without the consent of Parliament. A king needs the approval of Parliament to raise taxes and maintain an army. This bill guarantees the right of trial by jury for anyone accused of a crime. A king is required to call frequent Parliamentary sessions for amending, strengthening, and preserving the laws. These are the true, ancient, indubitable rights and liberties of the people of England. Causes Effects Graphic Organizer 14: Cause–Effect Chart Map Overlay Transparency 14 L2 Europe After the Peace of Westphalia, 1648 V is tul a R. Pyre nees Mts. Alps Mts. Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean North Sea Baltic Sea Crete Sicily Corsica Sardinia Balear ic Islands SPAIN PORTUGAL FRANCE ENGLAND IRELAND SCOTLAND DENMARK NORWAY SWEDEN HUNGARY AUSTRIA OTTOMAN EMPIRE BRANDENBURG BOHEMIA SILESIA PRUSSIA SPANISH NETHERLANDS SWITZERLAND PAPAL STATES UNITED PROVINCES Madrid Metz Verdun Berlin Danzig Vienna Rome Naples Ebro R. S e ine R. L o ir e R . Rh ine R. R. D an ube 0 200 400 Miles 0 200 400 600 Kilometers Map Overlay Transparency 1 4 Enrichment Activity 14 L3 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name Date Class By 1558, when Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of England at the age of 25, she could read and write Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German, and, of course, English. During the era that was named for her, she was celebrated in many poems and plays. Her own writing, how- Enrichment Activity 14 ever, reveals the same intelligence and learning that distinguished much of six- teenth-century writing. Below is the speech that Elizabeth deliv- ered to the British troops assembled at Tilbury in 1588 waiting for the landing of the Spanish Armada. Addressing the Troops My loving people, We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and therefore I come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dis- honour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom prince never commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my gen- eral, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people. DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided. 1. According to Elizabeth, why is she at Tilbury with the troops? ________________________ 2. What does Elizabeth’s presence at Tilbury with the soldiers tell you about her character? 3. How would you describe the tone or mood of this speech? ___________________________ 4. What effect do you think this speech had on the soldiers? ____________________________ 5. Imagine that Philip II of Spain was addressing his troops as they set off to invade England. How do you think his speech might be the same as Elizabeth’s? How might it be different? Primary Source Reading 14 L2 Name Date Class Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Day at the Court of the Sun King T he luxurious and elaborate lifestyle of royal courts in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries seems almost unbelievable today. The French court, especially during the long reign of Louis XIV, set the style for the rest of Europe. The colorful picture of court life in this selection was written by Louis de Rouvroy, duke of Saint-Simon, a noble whose Memoirs are consid- ered a masterpiece of French literature. Saint-Simon’s multivolume journals describe court life and personalities in the years 1694–1723, which include the final years of the reign of Louis XIV and the regency that followed. GUIDED READING In this selection, read to learn what a “typical” day entailed in the life of King Louis XIV. At eight o’clock the chief valet de chambre [personal servant] on duty, who alone had slept in the royal chamber, and who had dressed him- self, awoke the King [Louis XIV]. The chief physician, the chief surgeon, and the nurse (as long as she lived) entered at the same time. . . . At the quarter [8:15], the grand chamberlain was called . . . and those who had what was called the grandes entrées [greatest access]. The cham- berlain (or chief gentleman) drew back the curtains which had been closed again, and presented the holy water from the vase at the head of the bed. These gentlemen stayed but a moment, and that was the time to speak to the King, if anyone had anything to ask of him; in which case the rest stood aside. . . . Then all passed into the cabinet of the council. A very short religious service being over, the King called [and] they re-entered. The same officer gave him his dressing-gown; immediately after, other privileged courtiers entered, and then everybody, in time to find the King putting on his shoes and stockings, for he did almost every- thing himself, and with address [attention] and grace. Every other day we saw him shave him- self; and he had a little short wig in which he always appeared, even in bed, and on medicine days. . . . As soon as he was dressed, he prayed to God, at the side of his bed, where all the clergy present knelt, the cardinals without cushions, all the laity [those outside the clergy] remaining standing; and the captain of the guards came to the balustrade during the prayer, after which the King passed into his cabinet. He found there, or was followed by all who had the entrée, a very numerous company, for it included everybody in any office. He gave orders to each for the day; thus within a half a quarter of an hour it was known what he meant to do; and then all this crowd left directly. . . . All the Court meantime waited for the King in the gallery. . . . During this pause the King gave audiences when he wished to accord any, spoke with whoever he might wish to speak secretly to, and gave secret interviews to foreign ministers. . . . The King went to mass, where his musicians always sang an anthem. . . . The King amused himself a little upon returning from mass and asked almost immediately for the council. Then the morning was finished. On Sunday, and often on Monday, there was a council of state; on Tuesday a finance council; on Wednesday council of state; on Saturday finance council. Rarely were two held in one day or any on Thursday or Friday. . . . Often on the days when there was no council the dinner hour was advanced more or less for the chase [hunt] or promenade. The ordinary hour was one o’clock; if the council still lasted, then the dinner waited and nothing was said to the King. The dinner was always au petit couvert, that is, the King ate by himself in his chamber upon a square table in front of the middle window. It was more or less abundant, for he ordered in the morning whether it was to be “a little,” or “very little” service. But even at this last, there were always many dishes, and three courses without counting the fruit. . . . Upon leaving the table the King immediately entered his cabinet [private room]. That was the P RIMARY S OURCE READING14 APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT History Simulation Activity 14 L1 Name Date Class Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. HANDOUT MATERIAL King or Queen for a Day—Worksheet Complete the following worksheet as you discuss the actions, policies, and personal objectives of the absolute monarchs. Use the information to come to an agreement on who should receive the King- or Queen-for-a-Day award. Political achievements Religious policy Military successes or failures Domestic policy Foreign policy Innovations during the monarch’s rule State of the empire after the monarch’s reign Choice for King- or Queen-for-a-Day award: . . Monarchs to Be Considered 14 H ISTORY S IMULATION A CTIVITY Historical Significance Activity 14 L2 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name Date Class The English speaking theater achieved its greatest height in Elizabethan England. No playwright of this time was more important than William Shakespeare, and no theater more important than the “wooden O” referred to in the next to the last line below—the Globe—where Shakespeare pre- sented and acted in his works, and devel- oped his genius. Yet in 1598 the future of Shakespeare and his acting company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, were in jeopardy. They were then performing at The Theatre, and their lease was up. Evidently unim- pressed by the work of the man who would become the most important dramatist in world history, the landlord, Giles Allen, told the company he planned to tear the building down and “convert the wood and timber thereof to some better use.” Faced with homelessness, the company took action. Under the cover of darkness the members disassembled the theater themselves and shipped the pieces across the River Thames to an area called Bankside, where two new theaters had just been built. The company’s new home would be built there. All were counting on Bankside becoming London’s next theatri- cal center, and they were correct. In 1599 the Globe—made of wood and probably round, like the letter O—opened its doors to the public and much success. Its sign showed Hercules bearing the world on his shoulders. Apparently Shakespeare believed that not only the “vastly fields of France” and “the casques [helmets] that did affright the air at Agincourt,” but the whole world, could be crammed imaginatively into the wooden O of the theater. Shakespeare died in 1616, but the English stage continued to enjoy its greatest period until 1642. In that year the Puritans closed London’s theaters. They thought theatrical entertainment would corrupt the citizens, and the royalty, whom the Puritans opposed, supported the acting troupes. Historical Significance Activity 14 Saving the “Wooden O” ! DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Elizabethan plays often referred to figures from Greek and Roman mythology. Who is Mars and why does he fit in the prologue about King Henry the Fifth (Harry)? 2. What event happened at Agincourt? 3. Why did the Puritans object to plays being performed? O, for a Muse of fire, that would ascend The brightest heaven of invention! A kingdom for a stage, princes to act, And monarchs to behold the swelling scene! Then would the warlike Harry, like himself, Assume the port of Mars . . . But pardon, gentles all . . . Can this cockpit hold The vastly fields of France? Or may we cram Within this wooden O the very casques That did affright the air at Agincourt? —William Shakespeare, Prologue to Act I, The Life of King Henry the Fifth Cooperative Learning Activity 14 L1/ELL Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name Date Class Influential Europeans in Absolute Profile Cooperative Learning Activity 14 BACKGROUND The late sixteenth century through to the beginning of the eighteenth century was a time of great change in the nations of Europe. European monarchs sought to con- solidate and expand their authority, often in the context of religious wars and dis- putes wrapped around political power agendas. A number of absolute monarchs and rulers played key roles in the European theater. In this activity, your group will choose one historical figure from the era of state building in Europe, research the subject’s role in the great changes that took place in Europe, and present their find- ings as a multimedia presentation to the class. GROUP DIRECTIONS 1. Your group should discuss, then select, one of the following figures to research. Elizabeth I Peter the Great William and Mary Oliver Cromwell Louis XIV Frederick William the Great Charles II James II Philip II Henry of Navarre 2. As a group, decide on the aspects of the subject to be researched and presented, including details from his or her personal life and the impact that the person had on changes in Europe as a whole. Assign specific areas of research to indi- vidual group members. 3. Complete your research assignment and include ideas for visuals and props that can be included in the multimedia presentation about your subject. 4. Present your multimedia presentation to the class and have the class complete the “listener’s guide.” ORGANIZING THE GROUP 1. Decision Making/Group Work Decide on a subject from the list provided or suggest another subject to your teacher for approval. Brainstorm as a group the general criteria or areas that will be used to organize the research on the sub- ject’s life and historical significance. Record the results. Assign specific topics or criteria to individual team members to research. Team members should be aware of all organizing criteria determined by the team, not just their own, so they can point teammates to sources of information for their own, different research assignments. 2. Individual Work Start with your textbook, but draw upon at least three sources of information to research your subject under the criteria you were assigned. Be sure to include personal information you can find about the subject and identify sources of maps, paintings, documents, information about personal effects, and other information that can be used in visuals. Share any information you find that

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Page 1: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES

426A

Chapter 14 ResourcesTimesaving Tools

• Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition andyour classroom resources with a few easy clicks.

• Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize yourweek, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to maketeaching creative, timely, and relevant.

™ Use Glencoe’sPresentation Plus!multimedia teacher tool to easily present

dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu-dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint® you can customize the presentations to create your ownpersonalized lessons.

The following videotape program is available from Glencoe as a supplement to Chapter 14:

• Michelangelo (ISBN 1–56501–425–1)

To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To findclassroom resources to accompany this video,check the following home pages:A&E Television: www.aande.comThe History Channel: www.historychannel.com

R

R

TEACHING TRANSPARENCIESTEACHING TRANSPARENCIESChapter Transparency 14 L2

Graphic Organizer StudentActivity 14 Transparency L2

CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 14

Crisis and Absolutism in Europe (1550–1715)

A king cannot suspend any laws without the consent of Parliament.

A king needs the approval of Parliament to raise taxes and maintain an army.

This bill guarantees the right of trial by jury for anyone accused of a crime.

A king is required to call frequent Parliamentary sessions for amending, strengthening, and preserving the laws.

These are the true, ancient, indubitable rights and liberties of the people of England.

Causes Effects

Graphic Organizer 14: Cause–Effect Chart

Map OverlayTransparency 14 L2

Europe After the Peace of Westphalia, 1648

VistulaR.

Pyrenees Mts.

AlpsMts.

M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a

A t l a n t i cO c e a n

No r t hS ea

Baltic Sea

Crete

Sicily

Corsica

Sardinia

Balear icIs

land

s

SPAIN

PORTUGAL

FRANCE

ENGLANDIRELAND

SCOTLAND

DENMARK

NORWAYSWEDEN

HUNGARY

AUSTRIA

OTTOMANEMPIRE

BRANDENBURG

BOHEMIA

SILESIA

PRUSSIA

SPANISHNETHERLANDS

SWITZERLAND

PAPAL STATES

UNITEDPROVINCES

Madrid

MetzVerdun

Berlin

Danzig

Vienna

Rome

Naples

EbroR.

Seine

R.L o ire R.

Rhine

R.

R.

Danube

0 200 400 Miles

0 200 400 600 Kilometers

Map Overlay Transparency 14

Enrichment Activity 14 L3

Copyright ©

by The M

cGraw

-Hill C

ompanies, Inc.

Name Date Class

By 1558, when Elizabeth Tudor ascendedto the throne of England at the age of 25,she could read and write Greek, Latin,French, Italian, Spanish, German, and, ofcourse, English. During the era that wasnamed for her, she was celebrated in manypoems and plays. Her own writing, how-

★ Enrichment Activity 14 ★★

ever, reveals the same intelligence andlearning that distinguished much of six-teenth-century writing.

Below is the speech that Elizabeth deliv-ered to the British troops assembled atTilbury in 1588 waiting for the landing ofthe Spanish Armada.

Addressing the Troops

My loving people,

We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commitour selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live todistrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that,under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will ofmy subjects; and therefore I come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreationand disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst youall; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood,even in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heartand stomach of a king, and king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or anyprince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dis-honour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, andrewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, for your forwardness you havedeserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be dulypaid you. In the mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom prince nevercommanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my gen-eral, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famousvictory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided.

1. According to Elizabeth, why is she at Tilbury with the troops? ________________________

2. What does Elizabeth’s presence at Tilbury with the soldiers tell you about her character?

3. How would you describe the tone or mood of this speech? ___________________________

4. What effect do you think this speech had on the soldiers? ____________________________

5. Imagine that Philip II of Spain was addressing his troops as they set off to invade England.How do you think his speech might be the same as Elizabeth’s? How might it be different?

Primary Source Reading 14 L2

Name Date Class

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A Day at the Court of the Sun King

The luxurious and elaborate lifestyle of royal courts in the seventeenthand eighteenth centuries seems almost unbelievable today. The Frenchcourt, especially during the long reign of Louis XIV, set the style for the

rest of Europe. The colorful picture of court life in this selection was writtenby Louis de Rouvroy, duke of Saint-Simon, a noble whose Memoirs are consid-ered a masterpiece of French literature. Saint-Simon’s multivolume journalsdescribe court life and personalities in the years 1694–1723, which includethe final years of the reign of Louis XIV and the regency that followed.

GUIDED READING In this selection, read to learn what a “typical” day entailed in the life of King Louis XIV.

At eight o’clock the chief valet de chambre[personal servant] on duty, who alone had sleptin the royal chamber, and who had dressed him-self, awoke the King [Louis XIV]. The chiefphysician, the chief surgeon, and the nurse (aslong as she lived) entered at the same time. . . .At the quarter [8:15], the grand chamberlain wascalled . . . and those who had what was calledthe grandes entrées [greatest access]. The cham-berlain (or chief gentleman) drew back the curtains which had been closed again, and presented the holy water from the vase at thehead of the bed. These gentlemen stayed but amoment, and that was the time to speak to theKing, if anyone had anything to ask of him; inwhich case the rest stood aside. . . . Then allpassed into the cabinet of the council. A veryshort religious service being over, the Kingcalled [and] they re-entered. The same officergave him his dressing-gown; immediately after,other privileged courtiers entered, and theneverybody, in time to find the King putting onhis shoes and stockings, for he did almost every-thing himself, and with address [attention] andgrace. Every other day we saw him shave him-self; and he had a little short wig in which healways appeared, even in bed, and on medicinedays. . . .

As soon as he was dressed, he prayed toGod, at the side of his bed, where all the clergypresent knelt, the cardinals without cushions, allthe laity [those outside the clergy] remainingstanding; and the captain of the guards came tothe balustrade during the prayer, after which theKing passed into his cabinet. He found there, orwas followed by all who had the entrée, a very

numerous company, for it included everybody inany office. He gave orders to each for the day;thus within a half a quarter of an hour it wasknown what he meant to do; and then all thiscrowd left directly. . . .

All the Court meantime waited for the Kingin the gallery. . . . During this pause the Kinggave audiences when he wished to accord any,spoke with whoever he might wish to speaksecretly to, and gave secret interviews to foreignministers. . . .

The King went to mass, where his musiciansalways sang an anthem. . . . The King amusedhimself a little upon returning from mass andasked almost immediately for the council. Thenthe morning was finished.

On Sunday, and often on Monday, there wasa council of state; on Tuesday a finance council;on Wednesday council of state; on Saturdayfinance council. Rarely were two held in one dayor any on Thursday or Friday. . . . Often on thedays when there was no council the dinner hourwas advanced more or less for the chase [hunt]or promenade. The ordinary hour was oneo’clock; if the council still lasted, then the dinnerwaited and nothing was said to the King.

The dinner was always au petit couvert, thatis, the King ate by himself in his chamber upon asquare table in front of the middle window. Itwas more or less abundant, for he ordered in themorning whether it was to be “a little,” or “verylittle” service. But even at this last, there werealways many dishes, and three courses withoutcounting the fruit. . . .

Upon leaving the table the King immediatelyentered his cabinet [private room]. That was the

P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 14

APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTAPPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTHistory SimulationActivity 14 L1

Name Date Class

Copyright ©

by The M

cGraw

-Hill C

ompanies, Inc.

HANDOUT MATERIAL

King or Queen for a Day—Worksheet

Complete the following worksheet as you discuss the actions, policies, and personal objectives of theabsolute monarchs. Use the information to come to an agreement on who should receive the King- orQueen-for-a-Day award.

Political achievements

Religious policy

Military successes or failures

Domestic policy

Foreign policy

Innovations during the monarch’s rule

State of the empire after the monarch’s reign

Choice for King- or Queen-for-a-Day award:

..

Monarchs to Be Considered

14H I S T O R Y

S I M U L A T I O N

AC T I V I T Y

Historical SignificanceActivity 14 L2

Cop

yrig

ht ©

by

The

McG

raw

-Hill

Com

pani

es, I

nc.

Name Date Class

The English speaking theater achieved itsgreatest height in Elizabethan England. Noplaywright of this time was more importantthan William Shakespeare, and no theatermore important than the “wooden O”referred to in the next to the last linebelow—the Globe—where Shakespeare pre-sented and acted in his works, and devel-oped his genius. Yet in 1598 the future ofShakespeare and his acting company, theLord Chamberlain’s Men, were in jeopardy.They were then performing at The Theatre,and their lease was up. Evidently unim-pressed by the work of the man who wouldbecome the most important dramatist inworld history, the landlord, Giles Allen,told the company he planned to tear thebuilding down and “convert the wood andtimber thereof to some better use.”

Faced with homelessness, the companytook action. Under the cover of darknessthe members disassembled the theaterthemselves and shipped the pieces across

the River Thames to an area calledBankside, where two new theaters had justbeen built. The company’s new homewould be built there. All were counting onBankside becoming London’s next theatri-cal center, and they were correct.

In 1599 the Globe—made of wood andprobably round, like the letter O—openedits doors to the public and much success. Itssign showed Hercules bearing the world onhis shoulders. Apparently Shakespearebelieved that not only the “vastly fields ofFrance” and “the casques [helmets] that didaffright the air at Agincourt,” but the wholeworld, could be crammed imaginativelyinto the wooden O of the theater.

Shakespeare died in 1616, but the Englishstage continued to enjoy its greatest perioduntil 1642. In that year the Puritans closedLondon’s theaters. They thought theatricalentertainment would corrupt the citizens,and the royalty, whom the Puritansopposed, supported the acting troupes.

Historical Significance Activity 14

Saving the “Wooden O”

!

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

1. Elizabethan plays often referred to figures from Greek and Roman mythology. Who isMars and why does he fit in the prologue about King Henry the Fifth (Harry)?

2. What event happened at Agincourt? 3. Why did the Puritans object to plays being performed?

O,for a Muse of fire, thatwould ascend

The brightest heaven ofinvention!

A kingdom for a stage,princes to act,

And monarchs to beholdthe swelling scene!

Then would the warlikeHarry, like himself,

Assume the port of Mars . . .

But pardon, gentles all . . .Can this cockpit hold The vastly fields of France?

Or may we cramWithin this wooden O the

very casquesThat did affright the air at

Agincourt?

—William Shakespeare,Prologue to Act I,

The Life of King Henry the Fifth

Cooperative LearningActivity 14 L1/ELL

Cop

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by

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-Hill

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nc.

Name Date Class

Influential Europeans in Absolute Profile

★ Cooperative Learning Activity 14 ★★

BACKGROUNDThe late sixteenth century through to the beginning of the eighteenth century was atime of great change in the nations of Europe. European monarchs sought to con-solidate and expand their authority, often in the context of religious wars and dis-putes wrapped around political power agendas. A number of absolute monarchsand rulers played key roles in the European theater. In this activity, your group willchoose one historical figure from the era of state building in Europe, research thesubject’s role in the great changes that took place in Europe, and present their find-ings as a multimedia presentation to the class.

GROUP DIRECTIONS1. Your group should discuss, then select, one of the following figures to research.

Elizabeth I Peter the GreatWilliam and Mary Oliver CromwellLouis XIV Frederick William the GreatCharles II James IIPhilip II Henry of Navarre

2. As a group, decide on the aspects of the subject to be researched and presented,including details from his or her personal life and the impact that the personhad on changes in Europe as a whole. Assign specific areas of research to indi-vidual group members.

3. Complete your research assignment and include ideas for visuals and propsthat can be included in the multimedia presentation about your subject.

4. Present your multimedia presentation to the class and have the class completethe “listener’s guide.”

ORGANIZING THE GROUP1. Decision Making/Group Work Decide on a subject from the list provided or

suggest another subject to your teacher for approval. Brainstorm as a group thegeneral criteria or areas that will be used to organize the research on the sub-ject’s life and historical significance. Record the results. Assign specific topics orcriteria to individual team members to research. Team members should beaware of all organizing criteria determined by the team, not just their own, sothey can point teammates to sources of information for their own, differentresearch assignments.

2. Individual Work Start with your textbook, but draw upon at least three sources ofinformation to research your subject under the criteria you were assigned. Be sureto include personal information you can find about the subject and identifysources of maps, paintings, documents, information about personal effects, andother information that can be used in visuals. Share any information you find that

0426A-0426D C14 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 9:12 AM Page 426

Page 2: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES

426B

Chapter 14 Resources

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIESINTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES

REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENTREVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT

Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROMInteractive Tutor Self-AssessmentCD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMAudio ProgramWorld History Primary SourceDocument Library CD-ROM

MindJogger VideoquizPresentation Plus! CD-ROMTeacherWorks CD-ROMInteractive Student Edition CD-ROMThe World History Video Program

MULTIMEDIAMULTIMEDIAThe following Spanish language materialsare available:

• Spanish Guided Reading Activities• Spanish Reteaching Activities• Spanish Quizzes and Tests• Spanish Vocabulary Activities• Spanish Summaries• Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide

SPANISH RESOURCESSPANISH RESOURCES

Linking Past and PresentActivity 14 L2

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Name ____________________________________ Date ________________ Class __________

Then As the leaders of the Holy RomanEmpire, the Hapsburgs of Austria tried to unifythe countries under their rule by convertingtheir populations to Catholicism. In Bohemia(present-day Czechoslovakia), Catholics andProtestants had once coexisted in peace.However, when a Hapsburg monarch closeddown the Protestant churches there, civil warbroke out. This conflict ignited the Thirty Years’War, which raged from 1618 to 1648.

The Bohemians’ reaction to an attack ontheir religion demonstrated the strength ofpeople’s attachment to their culture. However,the Hapsburgs ignored this message. Afterputting down the Bohemian revolt, theHapsburgs attempted to force Catholicism onother German states. By the end of the ThirtyYears’ War, the Hapsburg king, Ferdinand III,had abandoned this effort.

In the meantime, Ferdinand created astrong central government within the countriesstill under his control. He then wrestedHungary and Transylvania from the OttomanEmpire.

Under the Turks, the Hungarians had beenfree to practice Protestantism and otherwiseexpress their own culture. This toleranceenabled Hungarians to develop a strong senseof national identity, which would help themlater on as they resisted the rule of Austria.Although unable to completely break awayfrom the Austro-Hungarian Empire, theHungarians did manage to thwart theHapsburgs’ attempts to establish a totally cen-tralized empire. Over time, strong feelings ofnationalism would develop within other coun-tries of the Empire, and these countries, too,began to challenge the authority of Austria.

Now Some governments still ignore peoples’right to choose their own way of life. The“empire” of the former Soviet Union includedcountries in Eastern Europe, in which theSoviets had set up puppet governments. Likethe countries in the Austro-Hungarian Empire,Eastern Europe under the Soviets also had avariety of ethnic groups living within theregion. Hoping to maintain a strong central-ized rule, the Soviets did not allow thedifferent groups of people in Eastern Europe toexpress their cultures: Traditional religions,economies, family structures, art, and litera-ture were all banned.

Hungary and Czechoslovakia were amongseveral Soviet-ruled countries that had been partof the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The national-ism that developed during Austrian ruleintensified under Soviet control. Repeatedly,Hungary and Czechoslovakia tried to free them-selves from the Soviets. Finally they succeededas the Soviet Union began to crumble.

Communist China has also tried to revisethe cultures of the peoples living under itsdomain. Tibet is a notable example. Buddhistleaders, called lamas, once ran the Tibetan gov-ernment. Consequently, religion formed thecore of Tibetan culture.

When China first took over Tibet, Chineseleaders promised the Tibetans that their reli-gious freedom would be respected. However,in 1956 that promise was broken: ManyBuddhist monasteries were closed and theDalai Lama was forced to seek refuge in India.

Buddhism forbids the use of violence.Therefore, the Dalai Lama has tried to free hiscountry of Chinese tyranny through peacefulmeans—so far without much success.

Linking Past and Present Activity 14

Attempts to Maintain Centralized Power: Past and Present

Critical Thinking

Directions: Answer the following questionson a separate sheet of paper.1. Making comparisons: How were the

Hapsburgs and the Soviets similar in theway they ruled conquered countries? Howwere they different?

2. Making inferences: Why might leadersfeel that controlling a group’s culturewould help them govern that group?

3. Synthesizing information: Do you thinkthat peaceful resistance, such as strikes andboycotts, are worthwhile methods of

Time Line Activity 14 L2

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Time Line Activity 14

Crisis and Absolutism in EuropeDIRECTIONS: The monarchs who ruled Spain, England, France, the German states, andRussia from 1500 to 1750 were intent on expanding their territory and power. Their efforts atnational expansion set the stage for Europe’s future territorial conflicts. The time line belowshows some of the key events in their power struggles. Read the time line, then answer thequestions that follow.

1. Whom did Queen Elizabeth I put to death in 1587?

2. When did the Thirty Years’ War begin?

3. What common factor links the event that occurred in 1566 with the event in 1625?

4. Which country became independent in the mid-seventeenth century?

5. Based on the entire time line, how would you characterize Europe in the sixteenth,seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries?

1500 1600 1700 1800

1558 Elizabeth I becomesqueen of England.

1668 Spain recognizesPortugal’s independence.

1748 European powers signthe Treaty of Alx-la-Chapelle.

1721 Russia defeats Swedenand wins control of the easternend of the Baltic region.

1700 Charles II dies; Europe isplunged into the War of theSpanish Succession.

1566 Dutch Protestants rebel against Philip II’sefforts to impose Catholicism on the Netherlands.

1587 Elizabeth I orders the execu-tion of Mary Stuart, her cousin.

1588 England defeats theSpanish Armada.

1598 Russian Time of Troubles begins.

1625 Huguenots revoltagainst Louis XIII.

1618 Thirty Years War begins.

1642 English civil war begins.

1685 The Edictof Nantesis repealed.

Reteaching Activity 14 L1

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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

The monarchs who ruled England, France, Spain, the German states, and Russia from1500 to 1750 battled to expand their domain and their power. Their struggles laid thefoundation for the ensuing territorial strife in Europe.

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following “KWL” chart to review the information in Chapter19. A few sample questions have been filled in for you.

Reteaching Activity 14‘

Name Date Class

Royal Power and Conflict, 1500–1750

K W L

What I Already Know What I Want to Know What I Learned

Section 1: Spain Why did Philip II and other Spanish monarchs have difficulty ruling the Spanish Empire?

Section 2: England How did the Tudor monarchs influence English and European affairs?

Section 3: France

Section 4: The German States

Section 5: Russia

Vocabulary Activity 14 L1

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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe: 1550–1715DIRECTIONS: Write one of the following terms on each numbered line below to complete theparagraphs.

Vocabulary Activity 14f

• absolutism

• armada

• baroque

• boyars

• commonwealth

• czar

• divine right

• heretics

• inflation

• Mannerism

• natural rights

• witchcraft

In Spain the rule of Philip II was an example of (1) as he held

virtually unlimited power over his subjects. About 15,000 Spanish soldiers died as a result

of the disastrous defeat of the (2) Philip had sent to invade England.

Another result of the defeat was (3) , which sent prices soaring.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries an intense hysteria over the belief in

(4) , or magic, affected the lives of many Europeans. The religious

zeal that led to the Inquisition and the hunt for (5) was extended to

concern about witchcraft.

Following the death of England’s Queen Elizabeth I, James I ascended to the throne

with his belief in (6) , the conviction that a ruler derives complete

authority to govern directly from God and is responsible to God alone.

In 1642 England slipped into a civil war between the supporters of the king and the par-

liamentary forces. Following their victory, Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House

of Lords and declared England a republic, or (7) .

In the sixteenth century, Russia’s Ivan IV became the first ruler to take the title of

(8) , the Russian word for caesar. Ivan IV took steps against the

(9) to reduce their potential threat to his throne.

The artistic Renaissance came to an end when a new movement, called

(10) , emerged in Italy and distorted elements such as scale and

perspective. This movement was eventually replaced by (11) , known

for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions.

John Locke, an English political thinker, argued against absolutism. Locke believed that

humans had certain (12) , including life, liberty, and property.

Chapter 14 TestForm A L2

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DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

Column A

1. French Protestants influenced by John Calvin

2. recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France

3. Thirty Years’ War

4. his execution horrified much of Europe

5. the invasion of England by William of Orange

6. granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right of free publicworship

7. Louis XIII’s chief minister

8. sought to increase France’s wealth and power by followingthe ideas of mercantilism

9. his work reflected the high point of Mannerism

10. integrated Western customs and ways of doing things intoRussia

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

11. The house of ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre.A. Valois C. BourbonB. Nantes D. Annecy

12. Phillip II of Spain was known as theA. “Huguenot King.” C. “King of the World.”B. “Most Catholic King.” D. “Papal King.”

13. James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which isA. the belief that a king was granted the wisdom of God upon ascending to the

throne, and therefore was faultless.B. the concept that kings were equal to God, and therefore did not have to live by

the laws of the Church.C. the theory that kings alone could know the mind of God, and therefore could

determine the future through divination.D. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 14 Test, Form A

Column B

A. Toleration Act of 1689

B. El Greco

C. Charles I

D. Cardinal Richelieu

E. Edict of Nantes

F. Peter the Great

G. “GloriousRevolution”

H. Huguenots

I. Jean-BaptisteColbert

J. Peace ofWestphalia

Chapter 14 TestForm B L2

Performance AssessmentActivity 14 L1/ELL

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

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★ Performance Assessment Activity 14

Use with Chapter 14.

Crisis and Absolutism in EuropeBACKGROUND

The term multimedia means “many media.” Multimedia presentations are excitingand effective because they stimulate many different senses—especially sight andhearing—at the same time. Multimedia presentations include some or all of the fol-lowing elements:

TASKCreate a multimedia show to capture the excitement of the great social upheavals

that took place in Europe from 1500 to 1700. Working with a small group of classmates,use a variety of different media to describe what happened in Spain, England, France,the German states, and Russia. Your show should be no more than 10 minutes long.

AUDIENCEYour audience is your classmates and teacher.

PURPOSEThe purpose of your multimedia show is to give your audience an accurate,

detailed description of royal power and conflict (political, social, and economic) inEurope during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries.

PROCEDURES1. Summarize what you know about Spain, England, France, the German states, and

Russia from 1500 to 1700.

2. Research any additional information you need.

3. Plan and outline what you will include in your presentation. Select the differentmedia you will use to present each aspect of your show.

4. Prepare a complete script, including each speaker’s dialogue and cues for each mediadisplay. Prepare any illustrations and make any recording to be included in yourshow. Prepare a time management plan and allocate tasks to each group member.

5. Construct the multimedia show. Check and double-check any machinery (such asvideo players, CD players, and slide projectors) to make sure that they are work-ing correctly.

6 Present your show. If possible, videotape it so you can critique your performancelater.

• music • photographs • sound effects

• drawings • computer graphics • television show

• computer text • movies • posters

• maps • slides • videotapes

• radio broadcasts • speech • diorama

ExamView® ProTestmaker CD-ROM

Mapping History Activity 14 L2

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The Hapsburg EmpireThe Hapsburgs reached their greatest power before the end of the 1500s: CharlesV annexed Milan in 1535, Philip II conquered Portugal in 1580, and Spanishholdings in the Americas were expanding. However the Hapsburg power structure would collapse over the next decades.

DIRECTIONS: The map below shows the Hapsburg holdings in the mid-1500s.Use the map to complete the activities that follow. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.

Mapping History Activity 14

1. Based on the map, in what ways was the Hapsburg Empire powerful in themid-1500s?

2. Did Philip II make a strategic error in locating the capital of the SpanishHapsburg possessions in Madrid? Explain your answer.

3. Locate each of the lands held by the Spanish Hapsburgs. Based on the arrange-ment of countries, what location might have made a better capital than Madrid?Why?

4. The Spanish Armada suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the English.

BalticSea

SPAIN

Sicily

Paris

Calais

Rome

London

Milan

ENGLAND

IRELAND

FRANCE

BOHEMIA

HUNGARY

POLAND

AUSTRIA

OTTOMANEMPIRE

Brandenburg

DENMARK

AFRICA

Sardinia

Corsica

NETHERLANDS

Seville

Madrid

English Channel

PORT

UGAL

ATLANTICOCEAN

40°N

50°N

10°W 10°E0° 20°E

NorthSea

Medi ter ranean Sea

Lambert Conic Conformal Projection

0 200

200

400 miles

0 400 kilometers

Spanish HapsburgsAustrian HapsburgsHoly Roman Empire

N

SE

W

Hapsburg Possessions in Europe 1560

World Art and MusicActivity 14 L2

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Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–1669) was born in Leyden, the son of a miller. He received a

classical education at the Latin School and spentone year at the university. He left school at theage of 15 to study art under a local artist.Recognition and fame came early, andRembrandt was soon sought after to produceportraits and other paintings for collectors. Hewas also an excellent teacher; in fact, hundredsof works thought to have been painted byRembrandt are now known to be the work ofhis students.

One of Rembrandt’s specialties was large oilpaintings—some of biblical stories, others on his-torical subjects. These include The Blinding ofSamson, The Return of the Prodigal Son, TheSacrifice of Abraham, Aristotle Contemplating theBust of Homer, and The Night Watch. Much ofhis genius was in his use of chiaroscuro, or theplay between light and dark. Sometimes in hispaintings light pours in from outside, illuminatingthe important figures. More often the figuresthemselves seem to radiate their own light, as inthe self-portrait shown here. Also, each facepainted by Rembrandt is different—Samson lookswretched; the father forgiving his son is full oftenderness and compassion; the soldiers onnight watch are alert. There is also balance andan attention to detail. The emotions portrayed

draw the viewer into an intimate relationshipwith the art. It is not necessary to know the storybehind the painting to feel its emotions andshare the experience. Rembrandt’s appeal is saidto lie in his “profound humanity”—the compas-sion he has for all his subjects.

Rembrandt

WoWorld Art and Music Activity 14

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Name Date Class

In the 1600s, the Netherlands was a newly independent country.Consequently, Dutch artists were not supported by a system of commissionsfrom church and state, as were the artists in older, Catholic countries. Instead,artists were dependent on private collectors. There were many wealthy collec-tors, which encouraged an explosion of artistic talent. The master of all theDutch artists was Rembrandt, who produced in his lifetime more than 600paintings, 300 etchings, and 2,000 drawings. Yet he died alone, penniless, andlargely unappreciated.

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about this Dutch painter, then answerthe questions that follow.

History and GeographyActivity 14 L2

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Since 1704, England and Spain have beenquarreling over Gibraltar, a 2.25 square milerocky outcropping in the Straits of Gibraltarlinked to Spain by a narrow isthmus. Whydo the two powers contest control of “theRock”?

England plucked Gibraltar from Spainduring the War of the Spanish Succession,which began when Louis XIV accepted theSpanish crown on behalf of his grandson,Philip of Anjou. In the spring of 1704,Britain and the Netherlands dispatchedfleets to the Mediterranean to assist Charlesof Austria in his claim to the crown. Unableto attain their original objective and notwishing to return empty-handed, the fleet’scommanders attacked Gibraltar on July 23and took possession of its gates the next

day. To the naval commanders of Britain,control of the point at the southern tip ofSpain where the Atlantic joins theMediterranean proved irresistible.

Some 200 years later during World War II,Britain’s judgment of Gibraltar’s strategicimportance proved correct. In November of1942, General Eisenhower set up a commandcenter in Gibraltar from which he launchedthe invasion of North Africa known asOperation Torch. Troop convoys assembledin Gibraltar’s harbor. A cave within the rocksserved as the point from which Eisenhowercommunicated with Washington, London,and the field commanders landing in Africa.From this strategic point, the Allies launchedthe campaign that eventually allowed themto regain Europe.

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITY 14★

Britain’s Toehold in Europe

0°0° 10°E

30°W

10°E

10°W10°W

20°W

40°W

20°W

40°W

30°W

10°W10°W

SPAIN

FRANCEFRANCE SWITZERLAND

BELGIUM

NETHERLANDS

SWITZERLAND

GERMANYPOLAND

LUX.

GERMANYPOLAND

BELGIUM

ENGLANDENGLAND NETHERLANDS

LUX.

AUSTRIAAUSTRIA

CZECHOSLOVAKIACZECHOSLOVAKIA

MOROCCO ALGERIATUNISIATUNISIA

ITALY

SICILY

CORSICA

SARDINIA

ATLANTICOCEAN

SARDINIA

LIBYA

PORT

UGAL

ATLANTICOCEAN

MEDITERRANEANSEA

BRITISHBRITISH

Casablanca

Gibraltar

MadridLisbonLisbon

MarseilleCannes

Rome

Milan

SalernoTaranto

CannesRome

Milan

AnzioAnzio SalernoTaranto

OranAlgiers Tunis

Tripoli

OranAlgiers Tunis

Dijon

Tripoli

ADRIATIC SEA

0 150

150

0 150

0 150 300 kilometers

300 miles

World War II Allied Troop Movements

Launched from Gibraltar, landings near Casablanca,Oran, and Algiers started the campaign that eventu-ally allowed Allied forces to occupy Europe duringWorld War II.

People in World History Activity 14 L2

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Remember, remember the fifth of November,Gunpowder treason and plot;I see no reason why Gunpowder TreasonShould ever be forgot.

chant sung by children on Guy Fawkes Day

Each November 5 in the BritishCommonwealth, children repeat thisGunpowder Treason chant. It’s Guy FawkesDay! On this day in 1605, a man namedGuy Fawkes nearly blew up King James Iand his government.

Robert Catesby was one of the conspira-tors’ leaders. A Roman Catholic extremist, hewanted to avenge the anti-Catholic laws ofEngland. He enlisted at least 11 other peopleto help him carry out his plans. The mostfamous of these was Guy Fawkes, a soldierwho had been serving in Flanders. Thegroup rented a house next to Parliament andtunneled into a cellar beneath the House ofLords. There, Fawkes and the other conspir-ators stacked 36 barrels of gunpowder, cov-ered with iron bars and firewood. All thatremained was to set the gunpowder off. Thedate selected for the explosion wasNovember 5, when King James himself wasscheduled to appear for the opening ofParliament. The conspirators hoped that themassive explosion would kill James and themembers of Parliament, and in turn set off aCatholic uprising throughout Britain.

Although the plan required secrecy, wordgot out. Since the conspirators needed more

money to finance the planned uprising,they invited several wealthy men to jointhem. One of these men, Sir FrancisTresham, revealed the plot to his brother-in-law Lord Monteagle, through a letter warn-ing him not to attend Parliament.Monteagle had the cellar searched. Fawkeswas captured, and what came to be knownas the Gunpowder Plot was ended.Ironically, the Gunpowder Plot, which wasconceived to help the plight of persecutedRoman Catholics, actually caused RomanCatholic persecution to be more vigorousand bitter in England.

The conspirators were tried and convict-ed. On January 31, 1606, Fawkes and 7 ofthe other conspirators were beheaded. Ofthe 11 conspirators, Guy Fawkes—becausehe intended to light the fuse—is the mostremembered. In 1606, a year after the gunpowder was discovered, Parliamentenacted a law establishing November 5 as a day of public thanksgiving. To this day,children make effigies of Guy Fawkes. The“Guys” are then burned in bonfires, andfireworks fill the skies.

Guy Fawkes (1570–1606)

People in WoWorld History: Activity 14 Profile 1

REVIEWING THE PROFILE

Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

1. What role did Guy Fawkes play in the Gunpowder Plot?

2. What was the purpose of the plot, and what were its results?

3. Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions. Why did the Parliament choose November 5 tobe a day of thanksgiving?

Guy Fawkes, kneeling, being interrogated by James I

Critical Thinking SkillsActivity 14 L2

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Critical Thinking Skills Activity 14 Drawing Conclusions

1. From the information above, what can you conclude about Sir Francis Drake’s perso-

nality? State and support at least two conclusions.

2. What conclusion can you draw about why Sir Francis Drake changed the name of the

flagship from the Pelican to the Golden Hind? Explain your answer.

3. At sea, captains took the law into their own hands. Explain why this conclusion is or is

not supported by the information above.

When you draw conclusions, you makedecisions about information presented. Aconclusion is a logical generalization youmake by putting together the details youread about with what you already know

about the topic. For example, you mightread about a king who, without consultinghis advisers, invades a neighboring country.From this information, you might concludethat the king is impulsive or aggressive.

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow to drawconclusions.

From 1577 to 1580, the great English explorer Sir Francis Drake sailedaround the world in a ship called the Golden Hind. However, the ship

started its voyage with a different name—the Pelican. Sir Francis Drakesuddenly renamed the ship right after one of his sailors, Thomas Doughty,sparked a mutiny. Drake ruthlessly suppressed the mutiny by beheadingDoughty, but this action created a political crisis. Doughty had been thesecretary to Sir Christopher Hatton, a major investor in the voyage and oneof Queen Elizabeth’s favorites. The Hatton family coat of arms (a family crestor shield) was decorated with a golden female deer, called a hind. A fewdays after Doughty’s execution, Drake renamed the Pelican the Golden Hind.Under that name, the ship achieved great fame.

Standardized Test PracticeWorkbook Activity 14 L2

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Standardized Test Practice

Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________

Writing Objective 1: The student will respond appropriately in a written composition to thepurpose/audience specified in a given topic.

A writer uses persuasion to express his or her opinion and to make readers agree with it,change their own opinion, and sometimes take action. Like other types of writing, persuasivewriting consists of a topic, a main idea about the topic, and supporting details. However, yourmain purpose in persuasive writing is to influence other people. Therefore, you need to pay specialattention to your audience, presenting your supporting ideas in a way that will persuade youraudience to accept your opinion.

★ Practicing the SkillRead the selection below and complete the activity that follows.

★ Learning to Write PersuasivelyUse the following guidelines to help you write persuasively.

• Direct your argument to a particularaudience.

• Present your viewpoint in a main ideastatement.

• Support your main idea statement with factsand relevant opinion.

• Use supporting evidence that appeals to bothreason and emotion.

• Anticipate and respond to possible opposingviewpoints.

• End by summarizing your ideas and, ifappropriate, give a clear call to action.

ACTIVITY 14Persuasive Writing About an Issue

Louis XIV is recognized asthe most powerful king who

ever ruled France. His 72-yearreign set the style for Europeanmonarchies during the 1600s and1700s.

Although Louis relied on abureaucracy, he was the source ofall political authority in France.Jacques Bossuet, the leadingchurch official of France duringthe 1600s, supported Louis’sfeelings about absolutemonarchy. Bossuet wrote:

“What grandeur that a singleman should embody so much!…Behold this holy power, paternaland absolute, contained in asingle head: you see the imageof God in the king, and youhave the idea of royal majesty.”

According to Bousset, subjects hadno right to revolt. Kings needaccount to no one except God, butthey should act with humility andrestraint because “God’s judgmentis heaviest for those whocommand.”

King Louis XIV

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DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

Column A

1. ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre

2. the “Most Catholic King”

3. the idea that kings receive their power from God and areresponsible only to God

4. Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas

5. soldiers in the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell

6. laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy inEngland

7. system of government in which a ruler holds total power

8. fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King

9. marked the end of the artistic Renaissance

10. his novel Don Quixote has been hailed as one of thegreatest literary works of all time

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

11. Although only 7 percent of the total French population were _____ , 40 to50 percent of the nobility became part of that religion.A. Catholics C. JewsB. Huguenots D. Jesuits

12. The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholicism as the official religion ofFrance, butA. also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges,

such as holding public office.B. was intended to bring about an end to the battles between the Catholics and the

Huguenots, but actually only served to inflame tensions.C. declared all Huguenots to be enemies of the state, starting the French Wars

of Religion.D. was largely ignored by the Huguenots, and served only to appease the pope.

13. The Thirty Years’ War involved all the major European powers exceptwhich nation?A. France C. EnglandB. Spain D. Germany

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 14 Test, Form B

Column B

A. Roundheads

B. Bourbon

C. Louis XIV

D. divine right of kings

E. absolutism

F. Puritans

G. Miguel deCervantes

H. Bill of Rights

I. Phillip II

J. Mannerism

0426A-0426D C14 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 9:13 AM Page 427

Page 3: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES

426C

Blackline Master

Poster

DVD

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Transparency

Music Program

CD-ROM

Audio Program

*Also Available in Spanish

Daily Objectives Reproducible Resources Multimedia Resources

SECTION RESOURCES

SECTION 1Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion1. Discuss the situation in many

European nations in whichProtestants and Catholics fought forpolitical and religious control.

2. Summarize how, during the six-teenth and seventeenth centuries,many European rulers extendedtheir power and their borders.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–1Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1Guided Reading Activity 14–1*Section Quiz 14–1*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–1*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 3Response to Crisis: Absolutism1. Identify and describe Louis XIV, an

absolute monarch whose extrava-gant lifestyle and military campaignsweakened France.

2. Discuss how Prussia, Austria, andRussia emerged as great Europeanpowers in the seventeenth and eigh-teenth centuries.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–3Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–3Guided Reading Activity 14–3*Section Quiz 14–3*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–3*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–3Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 4The World of European Culture1. Describe the artistic movements of

Mannerism and the baroque, whichbegan in Italy and reflected the spiri-tual perceptions of the time.

2. Identify Shakespeare and Lope deVega, prolific writers of dramas andcomedies that reflected the humancondition.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–4Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–4Guided Reading Activity 14–4*Section Quiz 14–4*Reteaching Activity 14*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–4*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–4Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 2Social Crises, War, and Revolution1. Explain how the Thirty Years’ War

ended the unity of the Holy RomanEmpire.

2. Relate how democratic ideals werestrengthened as a result of theEnglish and Glorious Revolutions.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–2Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–2Guided Reading Activity 14–2*Section Quiz 14–2*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–2*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

Assign the Chapter 14 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.

Chapter 14 Resources

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Chapter 14 Resources

Teacher’s Corner

The following articles relate to this chapter:

• “The Tale of the San Diego,” by Frank Goddio, July 1994.• “The Living Tower of London,” by William R. Newcott,

October 1993.• “St. Petersburg: Capital of the Tsars,” by Steve Raymer,

December 1993.• “Inside the Kremlin,” by Jon Thompson, January 1990.• “Shakespeare Lives at the Folger,” by Merle Severy,

February 1987.• “Legacy from the Deep: Henry VIII’s Lost Warship,” by

Margaret Rule, May 1983.

INDEX TONATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

Access National Geographic’s new dynamic MapMachineWeb site and other geography resources at:www.nationalgeographic.comwww.nationalgeographic.com/maps

KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS

Teaching strategies have been coded.

L1 BASIC activities for all studentsL2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average

studentsL3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students

ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activitiesELL

Activities that are suited to use within the blockscheduling framework are identified by:

Candice FrumsonLadue Horton Watkins High SchoolSt. Louis, Missouri

What Kind of King am I?Have students analyze and discuss primary source

documents to gain an understanding of Louis XIVand absolutism. Choose from the writings of Louis ormembers of his court and distribute copies to stu-dents. Read the document aloud and provide timefor students to take their own notes as to the mainpoints and their interpretation. Then have studentswork in pairs to discuss the main points and takenotes. Follow this activity with a class discussion. Askif Louis’s problems have a modern equivalent (useHitler, the United States, the Soviet Union, and so onas examples). Ask students to write a “talk back” toLouis XIV telling him what they think of his ideas.

From the Classroom of…

WORLD HISTORY

Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content iscovered in the Student Edition.

You and your students can visit , theWeb site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovativeintegration of electronic and print media offers your students awealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to theWeb site for the following options:

• Chapter Overviews • Self-Check Quizzes

• Student Web Activities • Textbook Updates

Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in theWeb Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources andInteractive Tutor Puzzles are also available.

www.wh.glencoe.com

MEETING SPECIAL NEEDSMEETING SPECIAL NEEDSIn addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found ineach section, the following resources are also suitable foryour special needs students:

• ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers totailor tests by reducing answer choices.

• The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of thestudent edition so that less-proficient readers can listen tothe words as they read them.

• The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides thesame content as the student edition but is written twograde levels below the textbook.

• Guided Reading Activities give less-proficient readerspoint-by-point instructions to increase comprehension asthey read each textbook section.

• Enrichment Activities include a stimulating collection ofreadings and activities for gifted and talented students.

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The Impact TodayHave students explain the many ways inwhich their daily lives are affected by theU. S. Constitution. Remind students thatEuropean ideas and ideals influenced theConstitution’s Framers as they preparedthis living document that has profoundlyshaped the way we live.

426

Crisis and Absolutismin Europe

1550–1715

Key EventsAs you read this chapter, look for these key events in the history of Europe during the

sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries.• The French religious wars of the sixteenth century pitted Protestant Calvinists

against Catholics.• From 1560 to 1650, wars, including the devastating Thirty Years’ War, and economic

and social crises plagued Europe.• European monarchs sought economic and political stability through absolutism and

the divine right of kings.• Concern with order and power was reflected in the writings of Thomas Hobbes and

John Locke.

The Impact TodayThe events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.

• The ideas of John Locke are imbedded in the Constitution of the United States.• The works of William Shakespeare continue to be read and dramatized all over

the world.

World History Video The Chapter 14 video,“Louis XIV: The Sun King,”chronicles the practice of absolutism in France during the 1600s.

1500 1550

1558Elizabeth I becomesqueen of England

c. 1520Mannerismmovementbegins in Italy

1566Violence eruptsbetween Calvinistsand Catholics in theNetherlands

St. Francis, as paintedby Mannerist El Greco

Elizabeth I

IntroducingCHAPTER 14

IntroducingCHAPTER 14

Refer to Activity 14 in thePerformance Assessmentand Rubrics booklet.

PerformanceAssessment

The World HistoryVideo ProgramTo learn more about early seventeenth-century France, studentscan view the Chapter 14 video, “LouisXIV: The Sun King,” from The WorldHistory Video Program.

MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz topreview Chapter 14 content.

Available in VHS.

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

PURPOSE FOR READING

K-W-L Charts What do you Know, what do you Want to know, what have you Learned? This strategyhelps students utilize their knowledge and generates interest. Have the students create a three-boxchart on Monarchy. Label the top two boxes “What do you Know about Monarchies?” and “What doyou Want to know about Monarchies?” Label the third box “What have you Learned about Monar-chies?” Ask students to fill in the first two boxes, and then discuss what they wrote with a partner andthe class. Finally, ask them to add information to the “Learned” box as they study the chapter. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

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Dinah Zike’s Foldables are three-dimensional, interactive graphicorganizers that help students practice basic writing skills, reviewkey vocabulary terms, and identifymain ideas. Have students completethe foldable activity in the DinahZike’s Reading and Study Skills Foldables booklet.

427

Versailles was the center of court life during the reign of Louis XIV.

HISTORY

Chapter OverviewVisit the Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

and click on Chapter 14–ChapterOverview to preview chapter information.

wh.glencoe.com

Art or Photo here

1600 1650 1700

1598French Wars ofReligion end

1618Thirty Years’War begins inGermany

1648Peace ofWestphalia endsThirty Years’ War

1689Toleration Act of1689 is passed inEnglish Parliament

1690John Lockedevelopstheory ofgovernment

1701Frederick Ibecomes kingof Prussia

Gustavus Adolphus, the king ofSweden, on the battlefield

John Locke

427

IntroducingCHAPTER 14

IntroducingCHAPTER 14

The Palace of Versailles is one of the most famous structures of Western architecture. It was origi-nally a hunting lodge but was expanded by Louis XIV beginning in 1661 to reflect his power andgrandeur. On several occasions during Louis’s reign, the palace was the scene of elaborate andenormously expensive festivals that lasted for as long as a week. From 1682 to 1789, the Palace ofVersailles was the official residence of the kings of France. In 1919, the treaty that ended World War Iwas signed in the palace’s famous Hall of Mirrors. Today the Palace of Versailles is a nationalmuseum that draws about 3 million visitors a year. Restoration work on its interiors and exteriors,begun in the early 1900s, is still continuing.

MORE ABOUT THE ART

Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, stu-dents should be able to:1. describe the causes of the

French Wars of Religion andhow they were resolved;

2. explain militant Catholicismand its effects on Europe;

3. list the causes and results ofthe Thirty Years’ War;

4. discuss the significance of theEnglish and Glorious Revolutions;

5. explain the absolutism ofLouis XIV, Ivan the Terrible,and Peter the Great;

6. distinguish an absolute from a constitutional monarchy;

7. explain significant movmentsin art, literature, and philosophy in the sixteenthand seventeenth centuries.

Time Line Activity

Have students list events on the timeline that reflect religious struggles.(violence between Calvinists andCatholics in the Netherlands, FrenchWars of Religion, Toleration Act) L1

HISTORY

Chapter OverviewIntroduce students to chaptercontent and key terms by havingthem access Chapter Overview14 at .wh.glencoe.com

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428

ouis XIV has been regarded by some as the perfectembodiment of an absolute monarch. Duc de Saint-Simon,

who had firsthand experience of French court life, said in hismemoirs that Louis was “the very figure of a hero, so imbuedwith a natural majesty that it appeared even in his mostinsignificant gestures and movements.”

The king’s natural grace gave him a special charm: “He wasas dignified and majestic in his dressing gown as when dressedin robes of state, or on horseback at the head of his troops.” Heexcelled at exercise and was never affected by the weather:“Drenched with rain or snow, pierced with cold, bathed insweat or covered with dust, he was always the same.”

He spoke well and learned quickly. He was naturally kind,and “he loved truth, justice, order, and reason.” His life wasorderly: “Nothing could be regulated with greater exactitudethan were his days and hours.” His self-control was evident:“He did not lose control of himself ten times in his whole life,and then only with inferior persons.”

Even absolute monarchs had imperfections, however, andSaint-Simon had the courage to point them out: “Louis XIV’svanity was without limit or restraint.” This trait led to his “dis-taste for all merit, intelligence, education, and most of all, for allindependence of character and sentiment in others.” It led aswell as “to mistakes of judgment in matters of importance.”

LThe Majesty of Louis XIV

Louis XIV with his army

Louis XIVholding court

Why It MattersThe religious upheavals of the six-teenth century left Europeans sorelydivided. Wars, revolutions, and eco-nomic and social crises hauntedEurope, making the 90 years from1560 to 1650 an age of crisis inEuropean life. One response tothese crises was a search for order.Many states satisfied this search byextending monarchical power. Otherstates, such as England, created sys-tems where monarchs were limitedby the power of a parliament.

History and You As you readthrough this chapter, you will learnabout a number of monarchs. Cre-ate either a paper or electronic chartlisting the following information:name of the ruler; country; religion;challenges; accomplishments. Usingoutside sources, add another category to your chart to reflectwhat you learn about the personallife of each king.

IntroducingA Story That MattersDepending upon the ability levelof your students, select from the following questions to rein-force the reading of A Story ThatMatters.• What evidence is there in the

story that suggests Louis XIVenjoyed being in control? (Healways appeared the same anddid not lose control of himself.)

• What was the one characteris-tic about himself that LouisXIV could not seem to con-trol? (his vanity)

• Why do you think a monarchlike Louis XIV, with limitless,unrestrained vanity, mightmake “mistakes of judg-ment”? (He was too concernedwith his own appearance and egoand did not always see the big-ger picture.) L1 L2

About the ArtLouis XIV was a great patron ofthe arts and quickly increased the number of paintings in hisgalleries. He demanded thatartists meet classical standardsthat reflected elegance, self-restraint, and polish. French artbecame the expression of thenation and the king, but not ofthe people. French styles in bothart and architecture spread toruling classes all over Europe.

HISTORY AND YOUMaintaining order and increasing political and economic stability has been the primary goal ofmost governments. What is the best way to do this—by extending governmental controls and pow-ers or by guaranteeing individual rights and limiting government? Have students analyze this ques-tion by researching current examples of at least two governments that have taken differentapproaches to solving this issue. Students should familiarize themselves with John Locke andThomas Hobbes, who are discussed in Section 4 of this chapter, before conducting their research.Have students write a brief report stating their opinion about this issue, as supported by the resultsof their research. L2

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1FCAT LA.A.2.2.7

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1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section explores the strug-gles between Catholics andProtestants during this period.

1562French Wars ofReligion begin

1571Spain defeats Turksin Battle of Lepanto

1588England defeats theSpanish Armada

Guide to Reading

Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion

Preview of Events✦1560 ✦1570 ✦1580 ✦1590 ✦1600

In August of 1572, during the French Wars of Religion, the Catholic party decided tokill Protestant leaders gathered in Paris. One Protestant described the scene:

“In an instant, the whole city was filled with dead bodies of every sex and age, andindeed amid such confusion and disorder that everyone was allowed to kill whoeverhe pleased. . . . Nevertheless, the main fury fell on our people [the Protestants]. . . .The continuous shooting of pistols, the frightful cries of those they slaughtered, thebodies thrown from windows . . . the breaking down of doors and windows, the stonesthrown against them, and the looting of more than 600 homes over a long period canonly bring before the eyes of the reader an unforgettable picture of the calamityappalling in every way.”

—The Huguenot Wars, Julian Coudy, 1969

Conflict between Catholics and Protestants was at the heart of the French Wars of Religion.

The French Wars of ReligionBy 1560, Calvinism and Catholicism had become highly militant (combative)

religions. They were aggressive in trying to win converts and in eliminating eachother’s authority. Their struggle for the minds and hearts of Europeans was thechief cause of the religious wars that plagued Europe in the sixteenth century.

Voices from the Past

CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe 429

1598Edict of Nantes recognizes rightsof Huguenots in Catholic France

Main Ideas• In many European nations, Protestants

and Catholics fought for political andreligious control.

• During the sixteenth and seventeenthcenturies, many European rulersextended their power and their borders.

Key Termsmilitant, armada

People to IdentifyHuguenots, Henry of Navarre, King PhilipII, William the Silent, Elizabeth Tudor

Places to LocateNetherlands, Scotland, Ireland

Preview Questions1. What were the causes and results

of France’s wars of religion?2. How do the policies of Elizabeth I of

England and Philip II of Spain com-pare?

Reading StrategyCompare and Contrast As you read thissection, complete a chart like the onebelow comparing characteristics of France,Spain, and England.

France Spain England

Government

Religion

Conflicts

CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432

SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–1• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1• Guided Reading Activity 14–1• Section Quiz 14–1• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–1

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 14-1

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. 130 2. about 1900 3. England; the English ships hadmore cannons per ship than did the Spanish.

Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion

UNIT

3Chapter 14

How many ships were in the Spanish Armada?

How many cannons did the English have?

Which side had more cannons?What does that tell you about the number ofcannons carried by each ship?

1 2 3

The English Fleet Versus the Spanish Armada

= 10 ships = 100 cannons

Number of Ships

England

Spain

Number of Cannons

England

Spain

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: France: Gov-ernment: monarchy (Henry IV); Reli-gion: Catholic; Conflicts: French Warsof Religion (1562–1598); Spain: Gov-ernment: monarchy (Philip II); Reli-gion: Catholic; Conflicts: Battle ofLepanto (1571), revolt in Netherlands(1566–1609), Armada attacked Eng-land (1588); England: Government:monarchy (Elizabeth I); Religion:Protestant; Conflicts: defeated Span-ish Armada (1588)

Preteaching VocabularyHave students define militant and use the word in their own sentence,applying it to a contemporary situation. L1

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2 TEACH

To solve the religious problem, the king issued theEdict of Nantes in 1598. The edict recognizedCatholicism as the official religion of France, but italso gave the Huguenots the right to worship and toenjoy all political privileges, such as holding publicoffices.

Identifying List the sequence ofevents that led to the Edict of Nantes.

Philip II and Militant CatholicismThe greatest supporter of militant Catholicism in

the second half of the sixteenth century was KingPhilip II of Spain, the son and heir of Charles V. Thereign of King Philip II, which extended from 1556 to1598, ushered in an age of Spanish greatness, bothpolitically and culturally.

The first major goal of Philip II was to consolidatethe lands he had inherited from his father. Theseincluded Spain, the Netherlands, and possessions inItaly and the Americas. To strengthen his control,Philip insisted on strict conformity to Catholicismand strong monarchical authority.

The Catholic faith was important to both Philip IIand the Spanish people. During the late Middle Ages,Catholic kingdoms in Spain had reconquered Mus-lim areas within Spain and expelled the SpanishJews. Driven by this crusading heritage, Spain sawitself as a nation of people chosen by God to saveCatholic Christianity from the Protestant heretics.

Philip II, the “Most Catholic King,” became a cham-pion of Catholic causes, a role that led to spectacularvictories and equally spectacular defeats. Spain’s lead-ership of a Holy League against the Turks, for exam-ple, resulted in a stunning victory over the Turkishfleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Philip was not sofortunate in his conflicts with England (discussed inthe following section) and the Netherlands.

The Spanish Netherlands, which consisted of 17provinces (modern Netherlands and Belgium), wasone of the richest parts of Philip’s empire. Philipattempted to strengthen his control in this importantregion. The nobles of the Netherlands, who resentedthe loss of their privileges, strongly opposed Philip’sefforts. To make matters worse, Philip tried to crushCalvinism in the Netherlands. Violence erupted in1566 when Calvinists—especially nobles—began todestroy statues in Catholic churches. Philip sent tenthousand troops to crush the rebellion.

In the northern provinces, the Dutch, under theleadership of William the Silent, the prince of

Reading Check

430 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

However, economic, social, and political forces alsoplayed an important role in these conflicts.

Of the sixteenth-century religious wars, none wasmore shattering than the French civil wars known asthe French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). Religionwas at the center of these wars. The French kings per-secuted Protestants, but the persecution did little tostop the spread of Protestantism.

Huguenots (HYOO•guh•NAWTS) were FrenchProtestants influenced by John Calvin. They made uponly about 7 percent of the total French population,but 40 to 50 percent of the nobil-ity became Huguenots. Includedin this group of nobles was thehouse of Bourbon, which ruledthe southern French kingdom ofNavarre and stood next to theValois dynasty in the royal lineof succession. The conversion ofso many nobles made theHuguenots a powerful politicalthreat to the Crown.

Still, the Catholic majority greatly outnumberedthe Huguenot minority, and the Valois monarchy wasstrongly Catholic. In addition, an extreme Catholicparty—known as the ultra-Catholics—stronglyopposed the Huguenots. Possessing the loyalty ofsections of northern and northwestern France, theultra-Catholics could recruit and pay for largearmies.

Although the religious issue was the most impor-tant issue, other factors played a role in the Frenchcivil wars. Towns and provinces, which had longresisted the growing power of the French monarchy,were willing to assist nobles in weakening themonarchy. The fact that so many nobles wereHuguenots created an important base of oppositionto the king.

For 30 years, battles raged in France between theCatholic and Huguenot sides. Finally, in 1589, Henryof Navarre, the political leader of the Huguenots anda member of the Bourbondynasty, succeeded to thethrone as Henry IV. Herealized that as a Protes-tant he would never beaccepted by CatholicFrance, so he converted toCatholicism. When hewas crowned king in 1594,the fighting in Francefinally came to an end.

F R A N C E

S P A I N

Bay ofBiscay

Navarre

MediterraneanSea

Henry of Navarre

CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432

EnrichUnder Philip II, Spain was intol-erant of any diversity of belief,ready to undertake “holy war”against any who did not professthe Catholic faith. Philip II’sreign was also the time whenwriters and artists such as Cer-vantes and El Greco lived andflourished. Ask students to spec-ulate about how religious intoler-ance and artistic freedom mightcoexist. L2

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1

I. The French Wars of Religion (pages 429–430)

A. Calvinism and Catholicism had become militant (combative) religions by 1560. Theirstruggle for converts and against each other was the main cause of Europe’s sixteenth-century religious wars.

B. The French civil wars known as the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) were shatter-ing. The Huguenots were French Protestants influenced by John Calvin. Only 7

t f th l ti H t d l t 50 t f th bilit

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 14, Section 1

Did You Know? During the reign of her half-sister Mary,Elizabeth was arrested and sent to the Tower of London on suspi-cion of contributing to a plot to overthrow the government andrestore Protestantism. After two months of interrogation and spyingrevealed no conclusive evidence of treason, Elizabeth was releasedfrom the Tower and placed in close custody for a year.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Guided Reading Activity 14–1

Name Date Class

Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.

1. Name the chief cause of religious wars that plagued Europe in the sixteenth century.

2. Who were the Huguenots?

3. What issues besides the religious played a role in the French civil wars?

4. What event brought the French Wars of Religion to an end?

5. How did Philip II strengthen his control over Spain?

6. How did Spain see herself as a Catholic nation?

Guided Reading Activity 14-1

Answer: Wars of Religion occurred;Henry of Navarre succeeded tothrone; Henry converted to Catholi-cism and issued Edict of Nantes,making Catholicism the official reli-gion of France.

L1/ELL

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1 23

READING THE TEXT

Monitoring Comprehension One of the most important reading strategies students can learn isthat they can monitor their own reading comprehension. Instruct them to try to be aware of theexact point when they have missed something. They can do this by periodically asking themselveskey questions, such as “Can I re-phrase the main point of this paragraph?” or “How does this sec-tion connect to the one before it?” If they do not understand an important idea, students shouldre-read, review, or read further to clarify what is unclear. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

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431CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Orange, offered growing resistance. The struggledragged on until 1609, when a 12-year truce endedthe war. The northern provinces began to call them-selves the United Provinces of the Netherlands andbecame the core of the modern Dutch state. In fact,the seventeenth century has often been called thegolden age of the Dutch Republic because the UnitedProvinces held center stage as one of Europe’s greatpowers.

Philip’s reign ended in 1598. At that time, Spainhad the most populous empire in the world. Spaincontrolled almost all of South America and a numberof settlements in Asia and Africa. To most Euro-peans, Spain still seemed to be the greatest power ofthe age.

In reality, however, Spain was not the great powerthat it appeared to be. Spain’s treasury was empty.Philip II had gone bankrupt from spending toomuch on war, and his successor did the same byspending a fortune on his court. The armed forceswere out-of-date, and the government was ineffi-cient. Spain continued to play the role of a greatpower, but real power in Europe had shifted to Eng-land and France.

Describing How important wasCatholicism to Philip II and the Spanish people?

Reading Check

N

S

EW

Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection500 kilometers0

500 miles0

0° 20°E

10°W

50°N

Lepanto1571

1566

NorthSea

M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a

BalticSea

FRANCE

SPAIN

AUSTRIAHUNGARY

POLAND

OTTOMANEMPIRE

AFRICA

Corsica

Sardinia

Sicily

ENGLAND

DENMARK

NETHER

LAND

S

PORTU

GAL

NAPLES

Madrid

Paris

London

Rome

Height of Spanish Power, c. 1560

Spanish lands were locatedthroughout Europe.

1. Applying Geogra-phy Skills What dif-ficulties must Philip IIhave encounteredadministering an empire of this size?

Philip II of Spain �

Austrian Hapsburglands (under Ferdinand I,Holy Roman Emperor), 1560

Spanish Hapsburglands (under Philip II,King of Spain), 1560

Boundary of theHoly Roman Empire

Battle

Organized revolt

The England of ElizabethIn this section, you will learn how

the defeat of the Spanish Armada guaranteed that Eng-land would remain a Protestant country and signaledthe beginning of Spain’s decline as a sea power. When Elizabeth Tudor ascended the throne in

1558, England had fewer than four million people.During her reign, the small island kingdom becamethe leader of the Protestant nations of Europe andlaid the foundations for a world empire.

Intelligent, careful, and self-confident, Elizabethmoved quickly to solve the difficult religious prob-lem she inherited from her Catholic half-sister,Queen Mary Tudor. She repealed the laws favoringCatholics. A new Act of Supremacy named Elizabethas “the only supreme governor” of both church andstate. The Church of England under Elizabeth wasbasically Protestant, but it followed a moderateProtestantism that kept most people satisfied.

Elizabeth was also moderate in her foreign policy.She tried to keep Spain and France from becomingtoo powerful by balancing power. If one nationseemed to be gaining in power, England would sup-port the weaker nation. The queen feared that warwould be disastrous for England and for her ownrule, but she could not escape a conflict with Spain.

CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432

Answer: communication, travel,enforcing laws, collecting taxes

Critical ThinkingHave students discuss the waysElizabeth I of England pursuedpolicies based on moderation.(religious policy, foreign policy,stayed out of alliances that mightcause war) L1

3 ASSESSAssign Section 1 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONAt-Risk Students Divide the class into groups. Assign each group one of the three major religiouswars of the period: French Wars of Religion, Philip II’s battles in the Netherlands, and the SpanishArmada’s battles with England. Allow ten minutes for each group to list the religious, social, andpolitical issues involved in these wars. Then, as a class, combine the ideas into a chart or poster.You may want to assign a follow-up writing activity in which each student describes which war wasthe most important and explains why. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

Why was the defeat of the SpanishArmada significant for England?(strengthened England and Protes-tantism) L1

Answer: They saw themselves aschosen by God to save Catholicismfrom Protestant heretics.

Section Quiz 14–1

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. combative

2. French grant of rights to Huguenots

3. fleet of warships

4. it made Elizabeth governor of church and state

5. anti-Huguenot party

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. When Henry of Navarre became Henry IV, he A. invaded England. C. converted to Catholicism.

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 14

Section Quiz 14-1

Column B

A. Edict of Nantes

B. ultra-Catholics

C. Act of Supremacy

D. armada

E. militant

SS.A.3.4.6

L2

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

21SS.A.3.4.2

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Huguenots (p.430); Henry of

Navarre (p.430); Edict of Nantes(p.430); King Philip II (p.430);William the Silent (p.430); Eliza-beth Tudor (p.431)

3. See chapter maps. 4. Catholicism: state religion;

Huguenots: gained religious, politi-cal rights

5. repealed laws favoring Catholics,moderate Protestantism

6. believed in cause, had faith in amiracle

7. Henry: converted to Catholicism,moderate, kept Catholicism asstate religion, gave Huguenotsrights; Philip: Catholic, militantchampion of Catholic causes; Eliza-beth: Protestant, moderate in reli-

gion and politics, Henry/Elizabeth:moderate policies; Henry/Philip:Catholicism state religion

8. Answers should be supported byevidence.

9. Answers will vary. He had beenassured that the English wouldrevolt against their queen.

432

Answer: He had been assured thatthe English would rise up againstElizabeth when the Spanish arrived.

CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432CHAPTER 14Section 1, 429–432

Answers:1. length: 350 miles (560 km);

width: west end: 112 miles (180 km); east end: 21 miles (34 km)

2. getting trapped in narrow eastend of channel

Reteaching Activity Ask students to give oral sum-maries of the French Wars ofReligion, Philip II’s reign, andthe Spanish Armada’s defeat. L1

4 CLOSEAsk students to discuss whichwars of religion they considerthe most important and why. L2

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 14–1

DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII

Do you think having a single individual with total power to govern a nation couldever be good for a nation? Why or why not?

In this section, you will learn how conflict between Catholics and Protestants led towars in many European nations. At the same time, many European rulers increasedtheir power and their territories.

ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII

Use the chart below to help you take notes. Identify the country and religion of thefollowing rulers, and summarize their achievements.

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 14, Section 1

For use with textbook pages 429–433

EUROPE IN CRISIS: THE WARS OF RELIGION

KEY TERMS

militant combative (page 429)

armada a fleet of warships (page 433)

Name Date Class

Ruler Country Religion Achievements

Henry IV 1. 2. 3.

L1/ELL

SS.A.3.4.2

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

213

N

S

EW 200 kilometers0Chamberlin Trimetric projection

200 miles0

10°W

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Isle ofWight

ATLaNTICOCEaN

NorthSea

EnglishChan

nel

FRANCE

SPAIN

PORTU

GAL

ENGLAND

SCOTLAND

IRELAND

Lisbon

La Coru˜naSantander

CalaisGravelinesPlymouth

Portland

Philip II of Spain had toyed for years with the ideaof invading England. His advisers assured him thatthe people of England would rise against their queenwhen the Spaniards arrived. In any case, a successfulinvasion of England would mean the overthrow ofProtestantism and a return to Catholicism.

In 1588, Philip ordered preparations for anarmada—a fleet of warships—to invade England. Thefleet that set sail had neither the ships nor the man-power that Philip had planned to send. An officer ofthe Spanish fleet revealsthe basic flaw: “It is wellknown that we fight inGod’s cause. . . . Butunless God helps us by amiracle, the English, whohave faster and handierships than ours, andmany more long-rangeguns . . . will . . . standaloof and knock us topieces with their guns,without our being able todo them any serioushurt.”

The hoped-for miracle never came. The Spanishfleet, battered by a number of encounters with theEnglish, sailed back to Spain by a northward routearound Scotland and Ireland, where it was poundedby storms. Many of the Spanish ships sank.

Explaining Why was Philip II confi-dent that the Spanish could successfully invade England?

Reading Check

432 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Route of the Spanish Armada

Battle

Shipwreck

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

Defeat of the SpanishArmada, 1588

England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.

1. Interpreting Maps Use the map to estimate the lengthand width of the English Channel.

2. Applying Geography Skills What were the Spanishhoping to avoid by taking the northern route back toSpain?

Checking for Understanding1. Define militant, armada.

2. Identify Huguenots, Henry of Navarre,Edict of Nantes, King Philip II, Williamthe Silent, Elizabeth Tudor.

3. Locate Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland.

4. Describe how the Edict of Nantesappeased both Catholics andHuguenots.

5. List the ways Elizabeth demonstratedmoderation in her religious policy.

Critical Thinking6. Making Generalizations Why did

Philip II send out his fleet knowing he did not have enough ships ormanpower?

7. Compare and Contrast Use a Venndiagram like the one below to compareand contrast the reigns of Henry ofNavarre, Philip II, and Elizabeth Tudor.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the painting of the Saint

Bartholomew’s Day massacre shownon page 429 of your text. Is the workan objective depiction of the event, orcan you find evidence of artistic bias inthe painting?

9. Persuasive Writing Write a persua-sive essay arguing whether it was agood idea for Philip II to sail againstEngland. Identify the main reasonthe king of Spain decided to invade.

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ANSWERS TO ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES

1. This passage is full of such phrases; for example: “I doesteem it [your love] more than any treasure orriches;” “. . . I have reigned with your love;” “. . . thatnever thought was cherished in my heart that tendednot unto my people’s good.”

2. God (“a higher Judge”)3. Answers will vary, but students should support their

point of view with logical arguments. You might wish to

compare and contrast how modern-day citizens feelabout their governments. You might also wish to dis-cuss and compare how citizens living today canexpress their feelings toward government with themeans that were available to citizens living during thetime of absolute monarchs.

433

433

Queen Elizabeth’s Golden SpeechIN 1601, NEAR THE END OFher life, Queen Elizabethmade a speech to Parliament,giving voice to the feeling thatexisted between the queenand her subjects.

“I do assure you there isno prince that loves his sub-jects better, or whose love cancontradict our love. There is nojewel, be it of never so rich aprice, which I set before thisjewel; I mean your love. For Ido esteem it more than anytreasure or riches.

And, though God has raisedme high, yet this I count theglory of my crown, that I havereigned with your love. Thismakes me that I do not somuch rejoice that God hasmade me to be a Queen, as to be a Queen over so thankful a people.

Of myself I must say this: I never was any greedy,scraping grasper, nor a strait, fast-holding Prince, noryet a waster. My heart was never set on any worldlygoods, but only for my subjects’ good. What youbestow on me, I will not hoard it up, but receive itto bestow on you again. Yea, mine own properties Iaccount yours, to be expended for your good. . . .

I have ever used to set the Last-Judgement Daybefore mine eyes, and so to rule as I shall be judgedto answer before a higher Judge, to whose judge-ment seat I do appeal, that never thought was cher-ished in my heart that tended not unto my people’sgood. . . .

There will never Queen sit in my seat with morezeal to my country, care for my subjects, and thatwill sooner with willingness venture her life for yourgood and safety, than myself. For it is my desire tolive nor reign no longer than my life and reign

Queen Elizabeth of England, Faced with the Spanish Armada 1588,Reviews Her Troops by Ferdinand Piloty the Younger, 1861.

should be for your good. And though you have hadand may have many princes more mighty and wisesitting in this seat, you never had nor shall have anythat will be more careful and loving.”

—Queen Elizabeth I, The Golden Speech

Analyzing Primary Sources

1. Identify phrases that convey Queen Elizabeth’sfeeling for her subjects.

2. To whom does Elizabeth feel accountable?

3. Which is more important: how subjects and rulers feel about each other or the policies and laws that rulers develop?

TEACHAnalyzing Primary Sources Inthis speech, Elizabeth character-izes her feelings toward her sub-jects. Have students, in a briefessay, compare and contrast herideas about a ruler’s attitudetoward his or her subjects withLouis XIV’s ideas, as reflected inhis speech excerpted on page 443of this chapter. How do theirattitudes reflect the differencebetween a constitutional monar-chy and an absolute monarchy?Ask students to incorporate spe-cific quotations that supporttheir conclusions. L2

Critical ThinkingIn her speech, Elizabethacknowledges the divine right ofrulers when she says, “God hasraised me high,” and “God hasmade me to be a queen.” How-ever, her beliefs about divineright differ sharply from otherrulers discussed in this chapter.Have students, in a brief essay,compare her views about divineright with the views of JacquesBossuet, a seventeenth-centuryFrench bishop, excerpted onpage 441 of this chapter. Ask stu-dents to incorporate specificquotations that support theirconclusions. L2 L3

FCAT LA.A.2.2.7

SS.A.3.4.6

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1

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1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section describes the resultsof the Thirty Years’ War and the English and Glorious Revolutions.

1603Elizabeth I dies

1642Civil war in England begins

1649Charles I is executed

1688Glorious Revolution

Guide to Reading

Social Crises, War, and Revolution

Preview of Events✦1600 ✦1620 ✦1640 ✦1660 ✦1680 ✦1700

The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) was a devastating religious war. A resident ofMagdeburg, Germany, a city sacked ten times during the war, reported:

“There was nothing but beating and burning, plundering, torture, and murder. Mostespecially was every one of the enemy bent on securing [riches]. . . . In this frenziedrage, the great and splendid city was now given over to the flames, and thousands ofinnocent men, women and children, in the midst of heartrending shrieks and cries,were tortured and put to death in so cruel and shameful a manner that no wordswould suffice to describe. Thus in a single day this noble and famous city, the pride ofthe whole country, went up in fire and smoke.”

—Readings in European History, James Harvey Robinson, 1934

This destruction of Magdeburg was one of the disasters besetting Europe during this time.

Economic and Social CrisesFrom 1560 to 1650, Europe witnessed severe economic and social crises.

One major economic problem was inflation, or rising prices. What caused this risein prices? The great influx of gold and silver from the Americas was one factor.Then, too, a growing population in the sixteenth century increased the demand forland and food and drove up prices for both.

Voices from the Past

Main Ideas• The Thirty Years’ War ended the unity

of the Holy Roman Empire.• Democratic ideals were strengthened as

a result of the English and Glorious Rev-olutions.

Key Termsinflation, witchcraft, divine right of kings,commonwealth

People to IdentifyJames I, Puritans, Charles I, Cavaliers,Roundheads, Oliver Cromwell, James II

Places to LocateHoly Roman Empire, Bohemia

Preview Questions1. What problems troubled Europe from

1560 to 1650?2. How did the Glorious Revolution

undermine the divine right of kings?

Reading StrategySummarizing Information As you readthis section, use a chart like the onebelow to identify which conflicts wereprompted by religious concerns.

Religious Conflicts

434 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439

SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–2• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–2• Guided Reading Activity 14–2• Section Quiz 14–2• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–2

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

Social Crises, War, and Revolution

DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 14-2

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. the English Revolution 2. not much 3. Parliamentoffered the throne to William and Mary

UNIT

3Chapter 14

What was the most famouscivil war in England?

What was the position ofParliament on the divineright of kings?

How did the GloriousRevolution affect themonarchy?

1 2 3

SOURCES OF CONFLICT AND REVOLUTIONS INENGLAND

Theright of

freepublic

worship

Desireto abol-ish themonar-

chy

Controlof

Parlia-ment

Theking’sstrong

defenseof the

Churchof

England

Thedivine

right ofkings

Roles in

govern-ing

England

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Religious Con-flicts: witchcraft craze, Thirty Years’War, English Civil War, Glorious Rev-olution

Preteaching VocabularyThe text defines a commonwealth asa republic. Using a dictionary, havestudents research the archaic mean-ing of the term commonwealth andexplain how it applies to the idea of a republic. L1

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2 TEACH

Answer: influx of gold and silverfrom Americas; growing populationincreased demand for food and land

Answer: common people, usuallypoor, usually women, usually singleor widowed and over 50 years old

By 1600, an economic slowdown had begun inparts of Europe. Spain’s economy, grown dependenton imported silver, was seriously failing by the 1640s.The mines were producing less silver, fleets weresubject to pirate attacks, and the loss of Muslim andJewish artisans and merchants hurt the economy.Italy, the financial center of Europe in the Renais-sance, was also declining economically.

Population figures in the sixteenth and seven-teenth centuries reveal Europe’s worsening condi-tions. Population grew in the sixteenth century. Thenumber of people probably increased from 60 millionin 1500 to 85 million by 1600. By 1620, population hadleveled off. It had begun to decline by 1650, espe-cially in central and southern Europe. Warfare,plague, and famine all contributed to the populationdecline and to the creation of social tensions.

Explaining Explain the causes forinflation in Europe in the 1600s.

The Witchcraft TrialsA belief in witchcraft, or magic, had been part of

traditional village culture for centuries. The religiouszeal that led to the Inquisition and the hunt forheretics was extended to concern about witchcraft.During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries anintense hysteria affected the lives of many Euro-peans. Perhaps more than a hundred thousand peo-ple were charged with witchcraft. As more and morepeople were brought to trial, the fear of witches grew,as did the fear of being accused of witchcraft.

Common people—usually the poor and thosewithout property—were the ones most often accusedof witchcraft. More than 75 percent of those accusedwere women. Most of them were single or widowedand over 50 years old.

Under intense torture, accused witches usuallyconfessed to a number of practices. Many said thatthey had sworn allegiance to the devil and attendedsabbats, nightly gatherings where they feasted anddanced. Others admitted using evil spells and specialointments to harm their neighbors.

By 1650, the witchcraft hysteria had begun tolessen. As governments grew stronger, fewer officialswere willing to disrupt their societies with trials ofwitches. In addition, attitudes were changing. Peoplefound it unreasonable to believe in the old view of aworld haunted by evil spirits.

Describing What were the character-istics of the majority of those accused of witchcraft?

Reading Check

Reading Check

The Thirty Years’ WarReligious disputes continued in Germany after the

Peace of Augsburg in 1555. One reason for the dis-putes was that Calvinism had not been recognized bythe peace settlement. By the 1600s, Calvinism hadspread to many parts of Europe. Religion played animportant role in the outbreak of the Thirty Years’War, called the “last of the religious wars,” but polit-ical and territorial motives were evident as well. Thewar began in 1618 in the lands of the Holy RomanEmpire. At first, it was a struggle between Catholicforces, led by the Hapsburg Holy Roman emperors,and Protestant (primarily Calvinist) nobles inBohemia who rebelled against Hapsburg authority.Soon, however, the conflict became a political one asDenmark, Sweden, France, and Spain entered thewar. Especially important was the struggle betweenFrance and the rulers of Spain and the Holy RomanEmpire for European leadership.

435CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

N

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Sea

Danube R.

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hine R.

Elbe R.UNITED

PROVINCES

SPANISHNETHERLANDS

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DENMARK

Rocroi, 1643

Breitenfeld, 1631L¨utzen, 1632

Jankau, 1646

White Mountain, 1620

N¨ordlingen, 1634

SILESIA

SAXONY

BRANDENBURG

PRUSSIA

Amsterdam

Brussels

Cologne

VerdunHeidelberg

AugsburgMunich

SalzburgVienna

Nuremberg

Prague

DresdenLeipzig

FrankfurtMagdeburg

Stralsund

FRANCEWÜRTTEMBERG

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BAVARIA

CARINTHIA

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Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648

Prague

Holy Roman Empire, 1618Catholic victoryCatholic defeatTown sacked or plundered

The Thirty Years’ War was fought primarily in the Germanstates within the Holy Roman Empire.

1. Interpreting Maps List the towns that were sacked orplundered during the war.

2. Applying Geography Skills Research one of the bat-tles on the map and describe its impact on the courseof the war.

CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439

EXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTThe Thirty Years’ War began in 1618 as a struggle between Roman Catholics and Protestants overthe crown of Bohemia. Outside help for the Protestants came from King Gustavus Adolphus ofSweden in 1630. The Catholic army sacked the city of Magdeburg, killing about 25,000 citizens.Fearing that the Catholics would attack Leipzig, Protestants welcomed the help of Gustavus Adolphusand the Swedes. On the plains near Breitenfeld, about 80,000 Catholic and Protestant soldiersmet. The Catholics lost 13,000 soldiers, while the Protestants lost fewer than 3,000. Gustavus Adolphus was applauded as the Protestant champion and laid the foundation for Sweden tobecome a leading European country for the next half a century. Gustavus Adolphus was killed atthe battle of Lützen in 1632. France then entered the war, which lasted until 1648.

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–2

I. Economic and Social Crises (pages 434–435)

A. From 1560 to 1650 Europe experienced economic and social crises. One economic prob-lem was inflation—rising prices—due to the influx of gold from the Americas andincreased demand for land and food as the population grew.

B. By 1600 an economic slowdown had hit Europe. For example, Spain’s economy seri-ously fell by the 1640s because New World mines were producing less silver, piratesgrabbed much of what was bound for Spain, and the loss of Muslim and Jewish mer-chants and artisans.

C B 1620 l ti b t d li i ll i t l d th E

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 14, Section 2

Did You Know? After the restoration of King Charles II, OliverCromwell’s embalmed remains were dug out of his WestminsterAbbey tomb and hung up at Tyburn where criminals were execut-ed. His body was then buried beneath the gallows. Cromwell’shead, however, was stuck on a pole on top of Westminster Hall forthe duration of Charles II’s reign.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Answers:1. Students should list the names of

those towns that are printed ingreen.

2. Answers will vary depending onbattle selected.

EnrichRemind students that most peo-ple accused of witchcraft werepoor, female, single or widowed,and over fifty. Ask students whythose accused of being witchesmight fit this profile. (people with-out power, no men to defend them,considered morally weak) L2

SS.A.3.4.2

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

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The Thirty Years’ War was the most destructiveconflict that Europeans had yet experienced.Although most of the battles of the war were foughton German soil, all major European powers exceptEngland became involved. For 30 years Germanywas plundered and destroyed. Rival armiesdestroyed the German countryside as well as entiretowns. Local people had little protection from thearmies. The Peace of Westphalia officially ended thewar in Germany in 1648. The major contendersgained new territories, and one of them—France—emerged as the dominant nation in Europe.

436 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Soldier firing a musket

The Peace of Westphalia stated that all Germanstates, including the Calvinist ones, could determinetheir own religion. The more than three hundredstates that had made up the Holy Roman Empirewere virtually recognized as independent states,since each received the power to conduct its own for-eign policy. This brought an end to the Holy RomanEmpire as a political entity. Germany would not beunited for another two hundred years.

Summarizing How did the Peace ofWestphalia impact the Holy Roman Empire?

Reading Check

The Changing Face of War

Gunpowder was first invented by the Chinese in the eleventh century and made its appearance in Europe by the four-

teenth century. During the seventeenth century, firearmsdeveloped rapidly and increasingly changed the face of war.

By 1600, the flintlock musket had made firearms moredeadly on the battlefield. Muskets were loaded from the frontwith powder and ball. In the flintlock musket, the powder thatpropelled the ball was ignited by a spark caused by a flint strikingon metal. This mechanism made it easier to fire and more reliablethan other muskets. Reloading techniques also improved, making itpossible to make one to two shots per minute. The addition of the bay-onet to the front of the musket made the musket even more deadly as a weapon. The bayonet was a steel blade used in hand-to-hand combat.

A military leader who made effective use of firearms during theThirty Years’ War was Gustavus Adolphus, the king of Sweden. Theinfantry brigades of Gustavus’s army, six men deep, were composed ofequal numbers of musketeers and pikemen. The musketeers employedthe salvo, in which all rows of the infantry fired at once instead of rowby row. These salvos of fire, which cut up the massed ranks of theopposing infantry squadrons, were followed by pike charges. Pikeswere heavy spears 18 feet (about 5.5 m) long, held by pikemen massedtogether in square formations. Gustavus also used the cavalry in a moremobile fashion. After shooting a pistol volley, the cavalry charged theenemy with swords.

The increased use of firearms, combined with greater mobility onthe battlefield, demanded armies that were better disciplined andtrained. Governments began to fund regularly paid standing armies. By 1700, France had a standing army of four hundred thousand.

Analyzing How did the invention of gunpowder change the way wars were fought?

Austrian flintlock pistol, c. 1680

CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439

Answer: Firearms came to be usedwidely, demanding armies that werebetter disciplined and trained. This ledgovernments to fund regularly paidstanding armies, so that wars werefought by professional soldiers.

Guided Reading Activity 14–2

t ©

by

The

McG

raw

-Hill

Com

pani

es, I

nc.

Name Date Class

Social Crises, War, and Revolution

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 2.

The great influx of gold and silver from the (1) and a

growing population demanding land and food led to (2) in

Europe from 1560 to 1650. Spain's economy was seriously falling by the 1640's due to

(3) producing less silver, fleets subject to

(4) attacks, and the loss of Muslim and Jewish

(5) and (6) .

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries more than a hundred thousand

people were charged with (7) . Under intense torture, accused

witches usually (8) to a number of practices. By 1650, people

were finding it (9) to believe in the old view of a world haunt-

ed by evil spirits.

(10) played an important role in the outbreak of the

Thirty Years' War, as well as (11) and

(12) motives. The Peace of (13) stated

that all German states, including the Calvinist ones, could determine their own

religion.

At the core of the English Revolution was the struggle between king and

(14) to determine what role each should play in governing

England. James I of England believed kings receive their (15)

from God and are responsible only to him. Under the armies of

(16) , Parliament finally proved victorious.

Dutch leader William of (17) and his wife

(18) raised an army and invaded England in 1688 in an almost

bloodless (19) . As William and Mary took the English throne,

they accepted a Bill of Rights setting forth (20) right to make

Guided Reading Activity 14-2

Critical ThinkingAsk students to discuss thecauses of the Thirty Years’ Warand results of the conflict. (strug-gle between Catholicism andCalvinism, political motives; inde-pendence of German states.) Havestudents create a thematic mapillustrating this European war.L1 L2

Answer: all German states coulddetermine their own religion; endedHoly Roman Empire by making all itsstates independent

L1/ELL

SS.A.3.4.2

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

31 2

4

READING THE TEXT

Taking Notes Students can use notes to group, outline, and organize information. As students readabout the Thirty Years’ War, have them take notes on three different aspects of the war: the motivesfor the war, the results of the Peace of Westphalia, and the position of Sweden, France, Denmark,and Spain in the war between the Holy Roman Empire and the Protestants of Bohemia. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

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Writing ActivityAsk students to use outsideresources to further research theEnglish Revolution. Then askstudents to write an essay inwhich they identify and evaluatethe causes and effects of therevolution and summarize thefollowing ideas related to therevolution: separation of powers,“divine right of kings,” liberty,equality, democracy, popularsovereignty, human rights, con-stitutionalism, and nationalism.Teachers may want to dividestudents into groups in whicheach student is assigned a par-ticular topic or group of topics to research. L2

of England but wished to make the church moreProtestant. Many of England’s gentry, mostly well-to-do landowners, had become Puritans. The Puritangentry formed an important part of the House ofCommons, the lower house of Parliament. It was notwise to alienate them.

The conflict that began during the reign of Jamescame to a head during the reign of his son, Charles I.Charles also believed in the divine right of kings. In1628, Parliament passed a petition that prohibited thepassing of any taxes without Parliament’s consent.Although Charles I initially accepted this petition, helater changed his mind, realizing that it put limits onthe king’s power.

Charles also tried to impose more ritual on theChurch of England. When he tried to force Puritansto accept this policy, thousands chose to go to Amer-ica. Thus the religious struggles of the Reformationin England influenced American history.

Civil War and the Commonwealth Complaintsgrew until England slipped into a civil war in 1642between the supporters of the king (the Cavaliers orRoyalists) and the parliamentary forces (called theRoundheads because of their short hair). Parliamentproved victorious, due largely to the New ModelArmy of Oliver Cromwell, a military genius. TheNew Model Army was made up chiefly of moreextreme Puritans, known as the Independents. These

437CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

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ANDDENMARK

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London

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AugsburgMunich Salzburg

Nuremberg

Brussels CologneAmsterdamBerlin

Prague

ViennaBudaPest

Warsaw

Stockholm

Moscow

Constantinople

Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648

Boundary of theHoly Roman Empire

The Peace of Westphaliadivided the Holy Roman Empire into independentstates and allowed separatestates to determine their ownreligion.

1. Applying GeographySkills Compare thismap to the map showingthe height of Spanishpower on page 431 ofyour text. What conclu-sions can you drawabout the effect of theThirty Years’ War on the Holy Roman Empirefrom examining thesetwo maps?

Revolutions in EnglandAs you read this section, you will

discover that Parliament held the real authority in theEnglish system of constitutional monarchy.In addition to the Thirty Years’ War, a series of

rebellions and civil wars rocked Europe in the seven-teenth century. By far the most famous struggle wasthe civil war in England known as the English Revo-lution. At its core was a struggle between king andParliament to determine what role each should playin governing England. It would take another revolu-tion later in the century to finally resolve this struggle.

The Stuarts and Divine Right With the death ofQueen Elizabeth I in 1603, the Tudor dynasty came toan end. The Stuart line of rulers began with the acces-sion to the throne of Elizabeth’s cousin, the king ofScotland, who became James I of England.

James believed in the divine right of kings—thatis, that kings receive their power from God and areresponsible only to God. Parliament did not thinkmuch of the divine right of kings. It had come toassume that the king or queen and Parliament ruledEngland together.

Religion was an issue as well. The Puritans(Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas)did not like the king’s strong defense of the Church ofEngland. The Puritans were members of the Church

CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439

Answer:1. The Holy Roman Empire con-

tracted as a result of the ThirtyYears’ War. Students should notethat the Holy Roman Empire lostparts of Switzerland and Italy.

What is the evidence that Parliamentheld the real authority in the Englishsystem of constitutional monarchy?(Parliament’s petition in 1628, Parlia-ment overthrew and executed CharlesI, passed laws after Restoration, theGlorious Revolution) L1

EXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTCharles I In 1628, the English Parliament forced Charles I to sign a Petition of Right before grant-ing the king funds to fight his wars. The Petition stated that the king could not collect taxes withoutParliament's consent, imprison anyone without just cause, house troops in private homes withoutthe owner's consent, or declare martial law (under which individual rights were limited) unless thecountry was at war. Nearly a year later, however, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled for 11years without its consent. During this time, Charles ignored the Petition and continued to collecttaxes and imprison opponents at will. Religious freedoms also suffered as Puritans were deniedthe right to preach or publish. The king's actions and desire for absolute power eventually led tothe English Revolution.

SS.A.3.4.6

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DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONGifted and Talented Have students imagine they have been selected by Parliament to write a let-ter either to Charles II asking him to return as king, or to William and Mary inviting them to bemonarchs. Remind students to include reference to the current political problems and the condi-tions under which the monarchs will rule. Students may also choose to write a response letter orjournal entry from the point of view of the potential monarch articulating reservations and con-cerns he or she may have about accepting the invitation. Suggest that students research styles forwriting letters in the 1600s. Encourage students to share their completed letters with the class. L3

438

CHAPTER 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity

Natural Disasters in HistoryThe religious wars in Europe, which led to many

deaths, were manmade disasters that created eco-nomic, social, and political crises. Between 1500 and1800, natural disasters around the world also tookmany lives and led to economic and social crises.

One of the worst disasters occurred in China in 1556.A powerful earthquake in northern China buried alivehundreds of thousands of peasants who had madetheir homes in cave dwellings carved out of soft clayhills.

In later years, earthquakes shattered other placesaround the world. On the last day of 1703, a massiveearthquake struck the city of Tokyo. At the same time,enormous tidal waves caused by earthquakes floodedthe Japanese coastline, sweeping entire villages out tosea. An earthquake that struck Persia in 1780 killed100,000 people in the city of Tabriz.

Europe, too, had its share of natural disasters. A mas-sive earthquake leveled the city of Lisbon, Portugal, in

1755, killing over 50,000 people and destroying morethan 80 percent of the buildings in the city. The massiveeruption of Mount Etna on the island of Sicily in 1669devastated Catania, a nearby port city.

Earthquake �

at Lisbon in 1755

men believed they were doing battle for God. AsCromwell wrote, “This is none other but the hand ofGod; and to Him alone belongs the glory.” We mightalso give some credit to Cromwell; his soldiers werewell disciplined and trained in the new military tac-tics of the seventeenth century.

The victorious New Model Army lost no time intaking control. Cromwell purged Parliament of anymembers who had not supported him. What wasleft—the so-called Rump Parliament—had Charles Iexecuted on January 30, 1649. The execution of theking horrified much of Europe. Parliament next abol-ished the monarchy and the House of Lords anddeclared England a republic, or commonwealth.

Cromwell found it difficult to work with theRump Parliament and finally dispersed it by force.As the members of Parliament departed, he shouted,“It is you that have forced me to do this, for I havesought the Lord night and day that He would slayme rather than put upon me the doing of this work.”After destroying both king and Parliament,Cromwell set up a military dictatorship.

The Restoration Cromwell ruled until his death in1658. More than a year later, Parliament restored the

monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son ofCharles I. With the return of monarchy in 1660, Eng-land’s time of troubles seemed at an end.

After the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, Par-liament kept much of the power it had gained earlierand continued to play an important role in govern-ment. One of its actions was to pass laws restoringthe Church of England as the state religion andrestricting some rights of Catholics and Puritans.

Charles II was sympathetic to Catholicism, and hisbrother James, heir to the throne, did not hide the factthat he was a Catholic. Parliament was suspiciousabout their Catholic leanings, especially whenCharles suspended the laws that Parliament hadpassed against Catholics and Puritans. Parliamentforced the king to back down on his action.

In 1685, James II became king. James was an openand devout Catholic, making religion once more acause of conflict between king and Parliament. Jamesnamed Catholics to high positions in the govern-ment, army, navy, and universities.

Parliament objected to James’s policies butstopped short of rebellion. Members knew that Jameswas an old man, and his successors were his Protes-tant daughters Mary and Anne, born to his first wife.

438

1. How do natural disasters lead to economic andsocial crises?

2. What natural disasters can occur where you live?

CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439

Answers:1. Answers may include: the cost of

rebuilding can be very high and canaffect the economy for years tocome; whole families, neighbor-hoods, or cities can be wiped out.

2. Answers will vary, depending on thelocation.

Government Have studentsresearch and prepare a chart thatcompares rights in the English Bill ofRights with those in the United StatesBill of Rights. Ask students to indicateon their charts the rights common toboth countries’ bills of rights. L2

3 ASSESSAssign Section 2 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self Assessment CD-ROM.

Section Quiz 14–2

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. rising prices

2. magic in traditional European village culture

3. William and Mary’s 1688 “invasion” of England

4. parliamentary forces in the 1642 civil war

5. English Calvinist Protestant group

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. James I of England strongly believed inA. sharing power with Parliament. C. Catholicism.

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

✔ ScoreChapter 14

Section Quiz 14-2

Column B

A. inflation

B. Roundheads

C. Puritans

D. GloriousRevolution

E. witchcraft

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. James I (p. 437); Puritans (p. 437);

Charles I (p. 437); Cavaliers (p. 437); Roundheads (p. 437);Oliver Cromwell (p. 437); James II(p. 438)

3. See chapter maps. 4. removed those who had not aided

him; found Parliament difficult towork with

5. Bohemia, Holy Roman Empire,Denmark, Sweden, France, Spain

6. France. Protestants made somegains; Germany did not fare well.

7. Causes: Calvinism not recognized;Calvinist nobles rebelled againstHapsburgs; France, Spain, andHoly Roman Empire wanted Euro-

pean leadership; Effects: all Ger-man states could determine ownreligion; major contenders gainednew lands; Holy Roman Empireended

8. They look like an ordinary couple,not rulers by divine right.

9. Students should consult outsidesources.

439

However, in 1688, a son was born to James and hissecond wife, a Catholic. Now, the possibility of aCatholic monarchy loomed large.

A Glorious Revolution A group of English noble-men invited the Dutch leader, William of Orange, hus-band of James’s daughter Mary, to invade England.William and Mary raised an army and in 1688“invaded” England, while James, his wife, and hisinfant son fled to France. With almost no bloodshed,

England had undergone a “Glorious Revolu-tion.” The issue was not if there would be a

monarchy but who would be monarch.In January 1689, Parliament offered

the throne to William and Mary.They accepted it, along with a Bill ofRights. The Bill of Rights set forthParliament’s right to make laws andlevy taxes. It also stated that stand-

ing armies could be raised only withParliament’s consent, thus making it

impossible for kings to oppose or to dowithout Parliament. The rights of citizens

to keep arms and have a jury trial were also con-firmed. The Bill of Rights helped create a system ofgovernment based on the rule of law and a freelyelected Parliament. This bill laid the foundation for alimited, or constitutional, monarchy.

Another important action of Parliament was theToleration Act of 1689. This act granted Puritans, butnot Catholics, the right of free public worship. FewEnglish citizens, however, would ever again be per-secuted for religion.

By deposing one king and establishing another,Parliament had destroyed the divine-right theory ofkingship. William was, after all, king by the grace ofParliament, not the grace of God. Parliament hadasserted its right to be part of the government.

Describing Trace the sequence ofevents that led to the English Bill of Rights.

Reading Check

439CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Checking for Understanding1. Define inflation, witchcraft, divine right

of kings, commonwealth.

2. Identify James I, Puritans, Charles I,Cavaliers, Roundheads, OliverCromwell, James II.

3. Locate Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia.

4. Explain why Oliver Cromwell firstpurged Parliament and then declared amilitary dictatorship.

5. List the countries involved in the ThirtyYears’ War.

Critical Thinking6. Drawing Conclusions Which nation

emerged stronger after the ThirtyYears’ War? Did thirty years of fightingaccomplish any of the original motivesfor waging the war?

7. Cause and Effect Use a graphic organ-izer like the one below to illustrate thecauses and effects of the Thirty Years’War.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the cameo of William and

Mary shown above. How does thispainting compare to portraits of otherrulers, such as the one of Louis XIV onpage 444? How is the purpose of thispainting different from the purpose ofother royal portraits?

Thirty Years’ War

Cause Effect

Here Cromwell is shown dismissing Parliament. AfterCromwell’s death, Parliament restored the monarchy. In1689, Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary,shown above right. Why did English nobles want Williamand Mary to rule England, and not the heirs of James II?

History

9. Expository Writing Write an essayon why population increased anddecreased in sixteenth- and seven-teenth-century England. Include a population graph.

CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439CHAPTER 14Section 2, 434–439

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 14–2

DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII

Are you concerned about inflation? How have you been affected by inflation? Howmany times has the price of a postage stamp increased in your lifetime?

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 14, Section 2

For use with textbook pages 434–439

SOCIAL CRISES, WAR, AND REVOLUTION

KEY TERMS

inflation rising prices (page 434)

witchcraft magic performed by witches (page 435)

divine right of kings the belief that kings receive their power from God and are responsibleonly to God (page 437)

commonwealth a republic (used especially for the government of England from 1649 to 1660)(page 438)

Name Date Class

Reteaching Activity Have students list the causes of the English Revolution andGlorious Revolution. (Charles Ibelieved in divine right, added more ritual to Church of England;Charles II sympathized withCatholicism; James II was aCatholic, his wife and his son wereCatholic.) L1

4 CLOSEHave students evaluate the polit-ical effects of both the ThirtyYears’ War on the German statesand the English Revolution onEngland. L1

Answer: The nobles were concernedabout the possibility of James II andhis heirs instituting a Catholic monar-chy in England.

History

Answers: Students should list theNew Model Army of Cromwell, theRestoration, the Catholic king JamesII, and the invitation to William andMary.

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ANSWERS TO PRACTICING THE SKILL1. Valid; the text lists the influx of gold and silver into

Europe and a growing population as two factors thatcontributed to inflation.

2. Invalid; controlling population growth would not havestopped the influx of gold and silver from the Americas.

3. Invalid; not importing goods does not account forother factors that can cause inflation such as popula-tion growth.

4. Valid; since the influx of silver helped cause inflation,less dependency on silver would have helped improve,but not necessarily solve, Spain’s economic problems.

Applying the Skill: Answers will vary. Have students bringin their editorials or copies of editorials to share with theclass. Ask students to analyze their editorials by examiningthe generalizations that they have already made.

TEACHMaking Generalizations Writethe following statement on thechalkboard: “Our school pro-duces great football players (ordebaters, or cheerleaders, etc.).”Ask students what informationshould be gathered in order tovalidate this generalization.(number of awards; similar statis-tics for other schools in the area,etc.) Then have students read theskill and complete the practicequestions. L1

Additional Practice

CD-ROMGlencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook CD-ROM, Level 2

This interactive CD-ROM reinforcesstudent mastery of essential socialstudies skills.

Making GeneralizationsWhy Learn This Skill?

Generalizations are broad statements or princi-ples derived from specific facts. Here are some factsabout Michigan and Florida:

One generalization that can be made from thesefacts is that Florida is warmer than Michigan. Generalizations are useful when you want to sum-marize large amounts of information and whendetailed information is not required.

Learning the SkillTo make a valid generalization, follow these steps:

• Identify the subject matter. The example above com-pares Michigan to Florida.

• Gather related facts and examples. Each fact is aboutthe climate of Michigan or Florida.

• Identify similarities among these facts. In each of theexamples, the climate of Florida is more moder-ate than the climate of Michigan.

• Use these similarities to form a general statementabout the subject. You can state either that Floridais warmer than Michigan or that Michigan iscolder than Florida.

Practicing the SkillEurope experienced economic crises and political

upheaval from 1560 to 1650. Read the followingexcerpt from the text, then identify

valid and invalid generalizationsabout what you have read.

Average monthly temperature (ºF)

January April July OctoberGrand Rapids, 22 46.3 71.4 50.9MichiganVero Beach, 61.9 71.7 81.1 75.2Florida

440

Sixteenth-century gold coins

Applying the Skill

Over the next three weeks, read the editorials in yourlocal newspaper. Write a list of generalizations aboutthe newspaper’s position on issues that have been dis-cussed, either national or local.

Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,Level 2, provides instruction and practice in keysocial studies skills.

From 1560 to 1650, Europe witnessed severe eco-nomic and social crises, as well as political upheaval. Theso-called price revolution was a dramatic rise in prices(inflation) that was a major economic problem in all ofEurope in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.What caused this price revolution? The great influx of goldand silver from the Americas was one factor. Perhapseven more important was an increase in population in thesixteenth century. A growing population increased thedemand for land and food and drove up prices for both.

By the beginning of the seventeenth century, an eco-nomic slowdown had begun in some parts of Europe.Spain’s economy, which had grown dependent onimported silver, was seriously failing by the decade of the1640s. Italy, once the financial center of Europe in theage of the Renaissance, was also declining economically.

Identify each following generalization as valid orinvalid based on the information:

1 Multiple factors can contribute to inflation.

2 If the government had taken measures to con-trol an increase in population, inflation wouldhave been prevented.

3 Nations should refrain from importing goodsfrom other countries.

4 Less dependency on the importing of silverwould have helped Spain’s economy.

440

Skills Reinforcement Activity 14

Name Date Class

Historians must be careful when theymake generalizations based on observeddata. They must back up each generaliza-tion they make with specific references tothe sources they have used, so that others

can trace the reasoning that went into mak-ing the generalization. A generalizationmade without reference to specific histori-cal sources is usually viewed as an opinionand therefore not necessarily accurate.

Skills Reinforcement Activity 14✎

Making Generalizations

DIRECTIONS: Read The England of Elizabeth, pages 431–432 of your text. Then read the fol-lowing excerpt from a reply made by Elizabeth I to some English Bishops who wanted tocontinue Mary’s pro-Catholic policies. Answer the questions below in the space provided.

On Religion, 1559

Sirs,

As to your entreaty for us to listen to you we waive it; yet do return you this our answer. Ourrealm and subjects have been long wanderers, walking astray, whilst they were under the tuitionof Romish pastors, who advised them to own a wolf for their head (in lieu of a careful shepherd)whose inventions, heresies and schisms be so numerous, that the flock of Christ have fed on poi-sonous shrubs for want of wholesome pastures. And whereas you hit us and our subjects in theteeth that the Romish Church first planted the Catholic within our realm, the records and chroni-cles of our realm testify the contrary; and your own Romish idolatry maketh you liars; witness theancient monument of Gildas unto which both foreign and domestic have gone in pilgrimagethere to offer. This author testifieth Joseph of Arimathea to be the first preacher of the word of

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1 FOCUSSection OverviewAfter studying this section, stu-dents should be able to defineabsolutism, describe the absolutemonarchs, and explain the basisfor their power.

1613Romanov dynastybegins in Russia

1643Louis XIV comes to throneof France at age four

1715Louis XIV dies

1725Peter the Great dies

Guide to Reading

Response to Crisis:Absolutism

Preview of Events✦1600 ✦1650 ✦1700 ✦1750

Main Ideas• Louis XIV was an absolute monarch

whose extravagant lifestyle and militarycampaigns weakened France.

• Prussia, Austria, and Russia emerged asgreat European powers in the seven-teenth and eighteenth centuries.

Key Termsabsolutism, czar, boyar

People to IdentifyLouis XIV, Cardinal Richelieu, FrederickWilliam the Great Elector, Ivan IV, MichaelRomanov, Peter the Great

Places to LocatePrussia, Austria, St. Petersburg

Preview Questions1. What is absolutism? 2. Besides France, what other European

states practiced absolutism?

Reading StrategySummarizing Information As you readthis section, complete a chart like the onebelow summarizing the accomplishmentsof Peter the Great.

CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe 441

Reforms Government Wars

Jacques Bossuet, a seventeenth-century French bishop, explained a popular viewpoint:

“It is God who establishes kings. They thus act as ministers of God and His lieu-tenants on earth. It is through them that he rules. This is why we have seen that theroyal throne is not the throne of a man, but the throne of God himself. It appears fromthis that the person of kings is sacred, and to move against them is a crime. Since theirpower comes from on high, kings . . . should exercise it with fear and restraint as a thingwhich has come to them from God, and for which God will demand an account.”

—Western Civilization, Margaret L. King, 2000

Bossuet’s ideas about kings became reality during the reign of King Louis XIV.

France under Louis XIVOne response to the crises of the seventeenth century was to seek more stabil-

ity by increasing the power of the monarch. The result was what historians havecalled absolutism.

Absolutism is a system in which a ruler holds total power. In seventeenth-century Europe, absolutism was tied to the idea of the divine right of kings. It wasthought that rulers received their power from God and were responsible to no oneexcept God. Absolute monarchs had tremendous powers. They had the ability to

Voices from the Past

CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447

SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–3• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–3• Guided Reading Activity 14–3• Section Quiz 14–3• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–3

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–3

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 14-3

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. C 2. D 3. B 4. AUNIT

3Chapter 14

Response to Crisis: Absolutism

DIRECTIONS: The column on the left lists four causes. The column on the right lists foureffects. Match each cause on the left with the appropriate effect on the right.

Cause Effect

1. The desire of seventeenth- A. Russia’s army was century Europeans for reorganized and the countrystability was divided into provinces

2. Louis XII and Louis XIV came B. Baptiste Colbert granted to power as boys subsidies to new businesses

and raised tariffs on imports

3. A crucial need for money to build C. Absolutismpalaces, fund wars, and maintainthe court of Louis XIV

4. Peter the Great traveled to D. The government of Francethe West and was impressed was left in the hands ofwith European technology royal ministers

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–3

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

21

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Reforms: reorganized army; formed navy;introduced Western customs, prac-tices, and manners; more freedomfor upper-class women;Government: absolutist monarchy;divided Russia into provinces; tried tocreate “police” state; atmosphere offear; built new capital at St. Peters-burg; Wars: with Sweden to get ayear-round Baltic port

Preteaching VocabularyHave students look up absolutismand brainstorm a list of synonyms. (totalitarianism, fascism, dictatorship)L1

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442

2 TEACH

make laws, levy taxes, administer justice, control thestate’s officials, and determine foreign policy.

The reign of Louis XIV has long been regarded asthe best example of the practice of absolutism in theseventeenth century. French culture, language, andmanners reached into all levels of European society.French diplomacy and wars dominated the politicalaffairs of western and central Europe. The court ofLouis XIV was imitated throughout Europe.

Richelieu and Mazarin French history for the 50years before Louis was a period of struggle as gov-ernments fought to avoid the breakdown of the state.The situation was made more difficult by the fact thatboth Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only boys whenthey came to the throne. The government was left inthe hands of royal ministers. In France, two ministersplayed important roles in preserving the authority ofthe monarchy.

Cardinal Richelieu (RIH•shuh•LOO), LouisXIII’s chief minister, strengthened the power of the

monarchy. Because the Huguenots were seen as athreat to the king’s power, Richelieu took away theirpolitical and military rights while preserving theirreligious rights. Richelieu also tamed the nobles bysetting up a network of spies to uncover plots bynobles against the government. He then crushed theconspiracies and executed the conspirators.

Louis XIV came to the throne in 1643 at the age offour. Due to the king’s young age, Cardinal Mazarin,the chief minister, took control of the government.During Mazarin’s rule, a revolt led by noblesunhappy with the growing power of the monarchybroke out. This revolt was crushed. With its end,many French people concluded that the best hope forstability in France lay with a strong monarch.

Louis Comes to Power When Mazarin died in1661, Louis XIV took over supreme power. The dayafter Cardinal Mazarin’s death, the new king, at theage of 23, stated his desire to be a real king and thesole ruler of France:

Why did the nobles take part in theseceremonies? Louis had made it clear thatanyone who hoped to obtain an office,title, or pension from the king had to par-ticipate. This was Louis XIV’s way of con-trolling their behavior.

Court etiquette became very complex.Nobles and royal princes were expected tofollow certain rules. Who could sit where

442

At the Court of Versailles

In 1660, Louis XIV of France decided tobuild a palace at Versailles, near Paris.

Untold sums of money were spent andtens of thousands of workers laboredincessantly to complete the work. Theenormous palace housed thousands ofpeople.

Life at Versailles became a court cere-mony, with Louis XIV at the center of it all.The king had little privacy. Only when hevisited his wife, mother, or mistress or metwith ministers was he free of the nobleswho swarmed about the palace.

Most daily ceremonies were carefullystaged, such as the king’s rising from bed,dining, praying, attending mass, and goingto bed. A mob of nobles competed toassist the king in carrying out these solemnactivities. It was considered a great honor,for example, for a noble to be chosen tohand the king his shirt while dressing.

View of the vast groundsand palace of Versailles

CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYINTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYArt and Architecture Have students research and write a report on the building of Versailles,including when it was built, how it was built, the size of the grounds and the palace, and the styleof architecture. Students should also discuss the art that is in the Versailles Museum. Studentsshould analyze how the art and architecture reflect the power and grandeur associated with thereign of Louis XIV. They may also want to discuss the current status of Versailles. Students shoulddesign a visual aid to accompany their reports, using models, drawings, or photos to illustrate theirresearch. The reports may be given orally and the visual aids displayed in the classroom to enhancethe students’ understanding of the architectural and artistic significance of the palace of Versailles.L2

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 1–1

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–3

I. France under Louis XIV (pages 441–444)

A. One response to the crises of the seventeenth century was to seek stability by increas-ing the monarchy’s power. This response historians call absolutism, a system in whichthe ruler has total power. It also held the view of the divine right of kings.

B. Absolute monarchs could make laws, levy taxes, administer justice, control the state’sofficials, and determine foreign policy.

C. The best example of seventeenth-century absolutism is the reign of Louis XIV ofFrance. French power and culture spread throughout Europe. Other courts imitatedthe court of Louis XIV.

D. Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only boys when they came to power. A royal ministerheld power for each up to a certain age, Cardinal Richelieu for Louis XIII andCardinal Marazin for Louis XIV. These ministers helped preserve the monarchy.

E. Richelieu took political and military rights from the Huguenots, a perceived threat tothe throne, and thwarted a number of plots by nobles though a system of spies, exe-cuting the conspirators.

F. Louis XIV came to the throne in 1643 at age four. During Marazin’s rule, noblesrebelled against the throne, but their efforts were crushed. Many French people con-cluded that the best chance for stability was with a monarch.

G. Louis XIV took power in 1661 at age 23. He wanted to be and was to be sole ruler ofFrance. All were to report to him for orders or approval of orders. He fostered themyth of himself as the Sun King—the source of light for his people.

H. The royal court Louis established at Versailles served three purposes. It was the king’shousehold, the location of the chief offices of the state, and a place where the powerfulcould find favors and offices for themselves. From Versailles Louis controlled the cen-tral policy making machinery of government.

I. Louis deposed nobles and princes from the royal council and invited them toVersailles where he hoped court life would distract them from politics. This tactic oftenworked. Louis’ government ministers were to obey his every wish. He ruled withabsolute authority in the three traditional areas of royal authority: foreign policy, theChurch, and taxes.

201

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 14, Section 3

Did You Know? At the time of his father’s death, the four-year-old Louis XIV was, according to the laws of his kingdom, the ownerof the bodies and property of 19 million subjects. Nonetheless, heonce narrowly escaped drowning in a pond because no one waswatching him.

turn

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Critical ThinkingDiscuss with students the effortsof Cardinal Richelieu and Cardi-nal Mazarin to preserve thepower of the monarchy. (tookaway power of Huguenots, spied onplotting nobles, crushed revolts.) L1

Guided Reading Activity 14–3

Copyright ©

by The

Name Date Class

Response to Crisis: Absolutism

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 3.

I. is a system in which a ruler holds total .

A. In seventeenth-century Europe, absolutism was tied to the divine

.

B. The reign of in France is the best example of absolutism.

1. Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the by limiting rights and

spying on the nobles.

2. As Louis XIV took power, he proclaimed himself the .

3. Louis had complete authority over , the

and .

II. and emerged as European powers after the

Thirty Years' War.

A. Prussia was a small territory with no natural for defense.

1. Frederick William built the largest army in Europe.

2. In 1701, Frederick William's son officially became king.

B. The had long served as emperors in the Holy Roman Empire.

1. In the seventeenth century, they had lost the Empire.

2. After the defeat of the Turks in 1687, Austria took control of all of

, , , and

.

III. Ivan IV became the first Russian ruler to take the title of , or caesar.

A. The most prominent member of the dynasty was Peter the

Great.

B. Peter was especially eager to borrow European to modernize

Guided Reading Activity 14-3

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443

Critical ThinkingDiscuss with students why, after the rule of Richelieu andMazarin, many French citizensand noncitizens “concluded that the best hope for stability in France lay with a strongmonarch.” (many plots againstgovernment, revolt of nobles) L1

EnrichAsk students to imagine what itwas like to be a visitor to LouisXIV’s court or to be Louis XIVhimself: surrounded by nobles,servants, and hangers-on; deter-mined to maintain absoluteauthority over foreign policy, thechurch, taxation, and the lives ofhis subjects. Have students writea diary entry from either thepoint of view of Louis, in whichhe confides his feelings about hiscourt and reign, or from the pointof view of a visitor describinglife at Versailles and daily rou-tines of the king. L2

at meals with the king was carefully regu-lated. Once, at a dinner, the wife of a min-ister sat closer to the king than did aduchess. Louis XIV became so angry thathe did not eat for the rest of the evening.

Daily life at Versailles included manyforms of entertainment. Louis and hisnobles hunted once a week. Walks throughthe Versailles gardens, boating trips, plays,ballets, and concerts were all sources ofpleasure.

One form of entertainment—gambling—became an obsession at Versailles. Manynobles gambled regularly and lost enor-mous sums of money. One princessdescribed the scene: “Here in France assoon as people get together they do noth-ing but play cards; they play for frightfulsums, and the players seem bereft of theirsenses. One shouts at the top of his voice,another strikes the table with his fist. It ishorrible to watch them.” However, Louisdid not think so. He was pleased by anactivity that kept the Versailles nobles busyand out of politics.

The bedroom of Louis XIV at Versailles

“Up to this moment I have been pleased toentrust the government of my affairs to the late Car-dinal. It is now time that I govern them myself. You[secretaries and ministers of state] will assist me withyour counsels when I ask for them. I request andorder you to seal no orders except by my command.I order you not to sign anything, not even a passportwithout my command; to render account to me per-sonally each day and to favor no one.”

The king’s mother, who was well aware of herson’s love of fun and games and his affairs with themaids in the royal palace, laughed aloud at thesewords. Louis was serious, however. He established astrict routine from which he seldom deviated. Healso fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King—the source of light for all of his people.

Government and Religion One of the keys toLouis’s power was his control of the central policy-making machinery of government. The royal court

that Louis established at Versailles (VUHR•SY) servedthree purposes. It was the personal household of theking. In addition, the chief offices of the state werelocated there, so Louis could watch over them.Finally, Versailles was the place where powerful sub-jects came to find favors and offices for themselves.

The greatest danger to Louis’s rule came fromvery high nobles and royal princes. They believedthey should play a role in the government of France.Louis got rid of this threat by removing them fromthe royal council. This council was the chief adminis-trative body of the king, and it supervised the gov-ernment. At the same time, Louis enticed the noblesand royal princes to come to his court, where hecould keep them busy with court life and keep themout of politics.

Louis’s government ministers were expected toobey his every wish. Said Louis, “I had no intention ofsharing my authority with them.” As a result, Louishad complete authority over the traditional areas ofroyal power: foreign policy, the Church, and taxes.

CONNECTING TO THE PAST

1. Summarizing How did Louis XIV attempt to controlthe behavior of his nobles?

2. Explaining Why did Louis like the gambling thatwent on at Versailles?

3. Writing about History In what way was the sys-tem of court etiquette another way in which Louiscontrolled his nobles?

CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447

Answers:1. by keeping them busy with court

activities2. it kept the nobles busy and out

of politics; it also kept manynobles in debt and thus withoutresources to revolt against theking

3. nobles were expected to followcertain rules, such as where to sitat meals with the king

SS.C.1.4.1

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1

READING THE TEXT

Synthesizing Assign students to research the court of Louis XIV and to pay special attention to thedevelopment of the powerful cult surrounding Louis. What court ceremonies were involved in cre-ating this cult of power? Have students explore the significance of both the ceremony of the leverand the coucher. Why were these types of ceremonies so important during his reign? How did theyaffect his style of governing? You might also want to have students compare Louis’s court withcliques in their school or cults surrounding figures of pop culture. Do such cliques or cults exist?Why? How are they similar to the court of Louis XIV? Ask each student to write a report on his orher findings and observations. L2 FCAT LA.A.2.4.8

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Although Louis had absolute power over France’snationwide policy making, his power was limited atthe local level. The traditional groups of French soci-ety—the nobles, local officials, and town councils—had more influence than the king in the day-to-dayoperation of the local governments. As a result, theking bribed important people in the provinces to seethat his policies were carried out.

Maintaining religious harmony had long been apart of monarchical power in France. The desire tokeep this power led Louis to pursue an anti-Protestant policy aimed at converting the Huguenotsto Catholicism. Early in his reign, Louis ordered thedestruction of Huguenot churches and the closing oftheir schools. Perhaps as many as two hundred thou-sand Huguenots fled to England, the UnitedProvinces, and the German states.

The Economy and War The cost of buildingpalaces, maintaining his court, and pursuing hiswars made finances a crucial issue for Louis XIV. Hewas most fortunate in having the services of Jean-Baptiste Colbert (kohl•BEHR) as controller-generalof finances.

Colbert sought to increase the wealth and powerof France by following the ideas of mercantilism. To

decrease imports and increase exports, he grantedsubsidies to new industries. To improve communica-tions and the transportation of goods within France,he built roads and canals. To decrease importsdirectly, Colbert raised tariffs on foreign goods andcreated a merchant marine to carry French goods.

The increase in royal power that Louis pursuedled the king to develop a standing army numberingfour hundred thousand in time of war. He wished toachieve the military glory befitting the Sun King. Healso wished to ensure the domination of his Bourbondynasty over European affairs.

To achieve his goals, Louis waged four warsbetween 1667 and 1713. His ambitions caused manynations to form coalitions to prevent him from dom-inating Europe. Through his wars, Louis added someterritory to France’s northeastern frontier and set upa member of his own dynasty on the throne of Spain.

Legacy of Louis XIV In 1715, the Sun King died. Heleft France with great debts and surrounded by ene-mies. On his deathbed, the 76-year-old monarchseemed remorseful when he told his successor (hisgreat-grandson), “Soon you will be King of a greatkingdom. . . . Try to remain at peace with your neigh-bors. I loved war too much. Do not follow me in thator in overspending. . . . Lighten your people’s burdenas soon as possible, and do what I have had the mis-fortune not to do myself.”

Did Louis mean it? We do not know. In any event,the advice to his successor was probably not remem-bered; his great-grandson was only five years old.

Describing What steps did Louis XIVtake to maintain absolute power?

Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe

After the Thirty Years’ War, there was no Germanstate, but over three hundred “Germanies.” Of thesestates, two—Prussia and Austria—emerged in theseventeenth and eighteenth centuries as great Euro-pean powers.

The Emergence of Prussia Frederick William theGreat Elector laid the foundation for the Prussianstate. Realizing that Prussia was a small, open terri-tory with no natural frontiers for defense, FrederickWilliam built a large and efficient standing army. Hehad a force of forty thousand men, which made thePrussian army the fourth-largest in Europe.

Reading Check

444 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Louis XIV, shown here, had a clear vision ofhimself as a strong monarch. He had no intention of sharing his power with anyone.What effect did his views on monarchical government have on the development of the French state?

History

CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447

Answer: Louis XIV developed a strongcentral government, improved internaltransportation and communications,and created a merchant marine, all ofwhich would have helped the state.However, his reckless spending andambition left France in debt and sur-rounded by enemies, ultimatelyundermining the state.

History

Answer: kept the chief ministers atVersailles where he could watch overthem; removed nobles and royalprinces from the royal council andkept them busy with court life;expected his ministers to obey hiswishes; attempted to stamp outProtestantism to maintain religiousharmony

Etiquette By the time of Louis XIV,forks were in use, although the kingused his fingers all of his life. Peoplebegan to use napkins, and guests nolonger had to use the tablecloth towipe their fingers.

Economics Ask interested stu-dents to study mercantilism and tocompare its principles with compet-ing economic theories. L3

DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONEnglish Learners To help students who are English learners, have students work on this section in small groups of three. For homework, each student should select a part of the section to study,outline, and prepare to “teach.” In class, students should clearly and logically present their sectionto the other members of the group, focusing on the significant people and events of their section.Each student should write a short quiz for the others to take at the end of the teaching session.L1 ELL

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

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Answer: Empire was composed of somany different national groups that itremained a collection of territories.

Charting ActivityAsk students to create a chartthat lists choices regarding localgovernment, religion, finances,and war that led to the negativelegacy of Louis XIV’s reign. L1

Connecting Across TimeAsk students to describe theimportance of military might tothe practice of absolutism. (mili-tary helps to enforce policies, ensurepower) L1

Critical ThinkingHave students discuss why theAustrian Empire, unlike Prussia,never became a centralized, abso-lutist state. (composed of many dif-ferent national groups, each had itsown laws and political life.) L1

EnrichBoth Ivan the Terrible and Peterthe Great were complicated fig-ures whose reigns included greatsuccesses and great failures.Invite interested students toresearch the life of one of theseleaders, considering whether hisreign was, on balance, good orbad for his people. L2

To maintain the army and hisown power, Frederick William setup the General War Commissariat tolevy taxes for the army and oversee itsgrowth. The Commissariat soon became an agencyfor civil government as well. The new bureaucraticmachine became the elector’s chief instrument togovern the state. Many of its officials were membersof the Prussian landed aristocracy, known as theJunkers, who also served as officers in the army.

In 1701, Frederick William’s son Frederick offi-cially gained the title of king. Elector Frederick IIIbecame King Frederick I.

The New Austrian Empire The Austrian Haps-burgs had long played a significant role in Europeanpolitics as Holy Roman emperors. By the end of theThirty Years’ War, their hopes of creating an empirein Germany had been dashed. The Hapsburgs madea difficult transition in the seventeenth century. Theyhad lost the German Empire, but now they created anew empire in eastern and southeastern Europe.

The core of the new Austrian Empire was the tra-ditional Austrian lands in present-day Austria, theCzech Republic, and Hungary. After the defeat of theTurks in 1687 (see Chapter 15), Austria took controlof all of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavo-nia as well. By the beginning of the eighteenth cen-tury, the Austrian Hapsburgs had gained a newempire of considerable size.

445CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

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East Prussia and possessions, 1618Acquisitions/possessions, 1619–1699

Acquisitions/possessions, 1700–1720

Austrian Hapsburg lands, 1525Acquisitions/possessions, 1526–1699Acquisitions/possessions, 1700–1720

Expansion of Prussia,1618–1720

Expansion of Austria,1525–1720

Prussia and Austria emerged as great powers in the seven-teenth and eighteenth centuries.

1. Interpreting Maps What did Austria gain by expand-ing south?

2. Applying Geography Skills What destructive war hap-pened during the time period covered by these maps?

The Austrian monarchy, however, never became a highly centralized, absolutist state, chiefly becauseit was made up of so many different national groups.The Austrian Empire remained a collection of territo-ries held together by the Hapsburg emperor, whowas archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia, and kingof Hungary. Each of these areas had its own laws and political life. No common sentiment tied theregions together other than the ideal of service to theHapsburgs, held by military officers and governmentofficials.

Examining Why was the Austrianmonarchy unable to create a highly centralized, absolutist state?

Russia under Peter The GreatA new Russian state had emerged in the fifteenth

century under the leadership of the principality ofMuscovy and its grand dukes. In the sixteenth century, Ivan IV became the first ruler to take the titleof czar, the Russian word for caesar.

Reading Check

CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447

Answers:1. Croatia, Slavonia, and Serbia

2. Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)

EXTENDING THE CONTENTCreating a Presentation Have students work in small groups to research and report on the dailylife of women in Russia during the time of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, as well aswomen in Russia today. Scholarly works on Russian feminism of the past and the present are avail-able in local libraries. Have groups plan how to delegate the work—some students may research,and others may write the reports. Topics to consider might be family responsibilities, intellectualinterests, types of work, and political concerns of the women. Groups should provide visuals withtheir reports to help the groups describe the life of women then and now. L2

For grading this activity, refer to the Performance Assessment Activities booklet.

COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITYCOOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY

SS.A.3.4.6

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Writing ActivityHave students write a brief essayin which they identify and eval-uate the measures taken by Peterthe Great to westernize Russia.What were the effects of thesemeasures on his subjects? Askstudents to discuss in theiressays the ways in which Rus-sian women benefited fromPeter’s reforms. (removed veils,mixed more freely with men) L1

3 ASSESSAssign Section 3 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

Ivan expanded the territories of Russia eastward.He also crushed the power of the Russian nobility,known as the boyars. He was known as Ivan the Ter-rible because of his ruthless deeds, among them stab-bing his own son to death in a heated argument.

When Ivan’s dynasty came to an end in 1598, aperiod of anarchy known as the Time of Troubles followed. This period did not end until the ZemskySobor, or national assembly, chose MichaelRomanov as the new czar in 1613.

The Romanov dynasty lasted until 1917. One of itsmost prominent members was Peter the Great. Peterthe Great became czar in 1689. Like the otherRomanov czars who preceded him, Peter was anabsolutist monarch who claimed the divine right to rule.

A few years after becoming czar, Peter made a tripto the West. When he returned to Russia, he wasdetermined to westernize, or Europeanize, Russia.

He was especially eager to borrow European tech-nology. Only this kind of modernization could givehim the army and navy he needed to make Russia agreat power. Under Peter, Russia became a great mil-itary power. By his death in 1725, Russia was animportant European state.

Military and Governmental Changes One ofPeter’s first goals was to reorganize the army. Heemployed both Russians and Europeans as officers.He drafted peasants for 25-year stints of service tobuild a standing army of 210,000 men. Peter has alsobeen given credit for forming the first Russian navy,which was his overriding passion.

To impose the rule of the central government moreeffectively throughout the land, Peter divided Russiainto provinces. He hoped to create a “police state,” bywhich he meant a well-ordered community governedby law. However, few of his bureaucrats shared hisconcept of honest service and duty to the state. Peterhoped for a sense of civic duty, but his own person-ality created an atmosphere of fear that prevented it.He wrote to one administrator, “According to theseorders act, act, act. I won’t write more, but you willpay with your head if you interpret orders again.”Peter wanted the impossible—that his administratorsbe slaves and free men at the same time.

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Russia, 1462

by 1505 (Ivan III)by 1584 (Ivan the Terrible)by 1725 (Peter the Great)by 1796 (Catherine the Great)

Acquisitions:

Expansion of Russia, 1462–1796

Peter the Great organized Russia into provinces in anattempt to strengthen the power of the central government.

1. Interpreting Maps What did Russia gain by acquiringlands on the Baltic coast?

2. Applying Geography Skills Why are most cities ineastern Russia located near or south of 60°N latitude?

0426-0453 C14SE-860702 11/13/03 10:37 AM Page 446

Ivan expanded the territories of Russia eastward.He also crushed the power of the Russian nobility,known as the boyars. He was known as Ivan the Ter-rible because of his ruthless deeds, among them stab-bing his own son to death in a heated argument.

When Ivan’s dynasty came to an end in 1598, aperiod of anarchy known as the Time of Troubles followed. This period did not end until the ZemskySobor, or national assembly, chose MichaelRomanov as the new czar in 1613.

The Romanov dynasty lasted until 1917. One of itsmost prominent members was Peter the Great. Peterthe Great became czar in 1689. Like the otherRomanov czars who preceded him, Peter was anabsolutist monarch who claimed the divine right to rule.

A few years after becoming czar, Peter made a tripto the West. When he returned to Russia, he wasdetermined to westernize, or Europeanize, Russia.

He was especially eager to borrow European tech-nology. Only this kind of modernization could givehim the army and navy he needed to make Russia agreat power. Under Peter, Russia became a great mil-itary power. By his death in 1725, Russia was animportant European state.

Military and Governmental Changes One ofPeter’s first goals was to reorganize the army. Heemployed both Russians and Europeans as officers.He drafted peasants for 25-year stints of service tobuild a standing army of 210,000 men. Peter has alsobeen given credit for forming the first Russian navy,which was his overriding passion.

To impose the rule of the central government moreeffectively throughout the land, Peter divided Russiainto provinces. He hoped to create a “police state,” bywhich he meant a well-ordered community governedby law. However, few of his bureaucrats shared hisconcept of honest service and duty to the state. Peterhoped for a sense of civic duty, but his own person-ality created an atmosphere of fear that prevented it.He wrote to one administrator, “According to theseorders act, act, act. I won’t write more, but you willpay with your head if you interpret orders again.”Peter wanted the impossible—that his administratorsbe slaves and free men at the same time.

1,000 kilometers0Two-Point Equidistant projection

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Constantinople

Astrakhan

Archangel

Kiev

Russia, 1462

by 1505 (Ivan III)by 1584 (Ivan the Terrible)by 1725 (Peter the Great)by 1796 (Catherine the Great)

Acquisitions:

Expansion of Russia, 1462–1796

446 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Peter the Great organized Russia into provinces in anattempt to strengthen the power of the central government.

1. Interpreting Maps What did Russia gain by acquiringlands on the Baltic coast?

2. Applying Geography Skills Why are most cities ineastern Russia located near or south of 60°N latitude?

CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447

Answers:1. a “window to the west,” an ice-

free seaport with year-roundaccess to Europe

2. The climate becomes unfavorableand very cold north of 60° N lati-tude.

EXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTSt. Petersburg In 1703, Peter the Great obtained a pathway to Europe by gaining control of theNeva River from Sweden. On May 16, 1703, Russian workers laid the foundations for St. Petersburgat the mouth of the river. The city was built at an unprecedented speed; it became the capital ofthe Russian Empire only nine years after it was created. It was built by thousands of forced labor-ers, many of whom died from sickness, hunger, and accidents. St. Petersburg quickly became amajor industrial center and, by 1726, it was the country’s largest center of trade. The best artists inEurope and Russia created its masterpieces. Dozens of higher education establishments in St.Petersburg gave the country generations of prominent scientists and researchers. It is also the cityof the great writers Pushkin, Gogol, Tolstoy, and Dostoevsky.

Section Quiz 14–3

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. idea that rulers hold total power

2. Louis XIV’s court location

3. Russian word for caesar

4. members of the Prussian landed aristocracy

5. members of the Russian nobility

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. Peter the Great wantedA. to westernize or Europeanize Russia. C. to reduce the size of the army.

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 14

Section Quiz 14-3

Column B

A. czar

B. the boyars

C. Versailles

D. absolutism

E. the Junkers

SS.A.3.4.6

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Louis XIV (p. 442); Cardinal Riche-

lieu (p. 442); Frederick William theGreat Elector (p. 444); Ivan IV (p. 445); Michael Romanov (p. 446); Peter the Great (p. 446)

3. See chapter maps. 4. etiquette, shave beards, women

remove veils, mix freely in society

5. housed state offices, court life keptnobles out of politics

6. strengthen monarchy; revokedHuguenots’ political and militaryrights, spied on nobles, executedconspirators

7. Government: absolute ruler; Wars:four wars, added lands in north-east, put relative on Spanish

throne; Economics: mercantilism,subsidies to new industries, builtroads and canals, created mer-chant marine, left France in debt;Religion: anti-Protestant, destroyedHuguenot churches, closed schools

8. extravagant; reflects public courtlife

9. Answers will vary.

447

Answer: It was the only place wherethe Russians could have an ice-freeport with year-round access toEurope.

Cultural Changes After his first trip to the West,Peter began to introduce Western customs, practices,and manners into Russia. He ordered the preparationof the first Russian book of etiquette to teach Westernmanners. Among other things, the book pointed outthat it was not polite to spit on the floor or to scratchoneself at dinner.

Because Westerners did not wear beards or the tra-ditional long-skirted coat, Russian beards had to beshaved and coats shortened. At the royal court, Petershaved off his nobles’ beards and cut their coats atthe knees with his own hands. Outside the court, bar-bers and tailors planted at town gates cut the beardsand cloaks of those who entered.

One group of Russians—upper-class women—gained much from Peter’s cultural reforms. Havingwatched women mixing freely with men in Westerncourts, Peter insisted that Russian upper-classwomen remove the veils that had traditionally cov-ered their faces and move out into society. Peter alsoheld gatherings in which both sexes could mix forconversation and dancing, a practice he had learnedin the West.

St. Petersburg The object of Peter’s domesticreforms was to make Russia into a great state andmilitary power. An important part of this was to“open a window to the West,” meaning a port withready access to Europe. This could be achieved onlyon the Baltic Sea. At that time, however, the Balticcoast was controlled by Sweden, the most importantpower in northern Europe.

A long and hard-fought war with Sweden enabledPeter to acquire the lands he sought. On a marshlandon the Baltic in 1703, Peter began the construction ofa new city, St. Petersburg, his window on the West.St. Petersburg was finished during Peter’s lifetimeand remained the Russian capital until 1918.

Evaluating Why was it so importantthat Peter the Great have a seaport on the Baltic?

Reading Check

Checking for Understanding1. Define absolutism, czar, boyar.

2. Identify Louis XIV, Cardinal Richelieu,Frederick William the Great Elector,Ivan IV, Michael Romanov, Peter theGreat.

3. Locate Prussia, Austria, St. Petersburg.

4. Describe the Western customs, prac-tices, and manners that Peter the Greatintroduced to Russia.

5. List the purposes of the royal court atVersailles.

Critical Thinking6. Explain What were Cardinal Riche-

lieu’s political goals? How did hereduce the power of the nobility andthe Huguenots in France?

7. Summarizing Information Use a chartlike the one below to summarize thereign of Louis XIV of France.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the photograph of the king’s

bedroom shown on page 443. Howdoes this room reflect the nature ofkingship under Louis XIV?

Government Wars Economics Religion

Peter the Great1672–1725—Russian czar

Peter the Great, the man whomade Russia a great power, was anunusual character. He was a tower-ing, strong man 6 feet, 9 inches (2 m)tall. He was coarse in his tastes andrude in his behavior. He enjoyed a lowkind of humor (belching contests and crudejokes) and vicious punishments (flogging, impaling, androasting). Peter often assisted dentists and enjoyedpulling their patients’ teeth.

During his first visit to the West, Peter immersed him-self in the life of the people. He once dressed in theclothes of a Dutch sea captain and spent time with Dutchsailors. A German princess said of him: “He told us thathe worked in building ships, showed us his hands, andmade us touch the callous places that had been causedby work.”

9. Expository Writing Historians havelong considered the reign of LouisXIV to be the best example of thepractice of absolute monarchy in theseventeenth century. Do you believethe statement is true? Why or whynot? Write an essay supporting youropinion.

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Cultural Changes After his first trip to the West,Peter began to introduce Western customs, practices,and manners into Russia. He ordered the preparationof the first Russian book of etiquette to teach Westernmanners. Among other things, the book pointed outthat it was not polite to spit on the floor or to scratchoneself at dinner.

Because Westerners did not wear beards or the tra-ditional long-skirted coat, Russian beards had to beshaved and coats shortened. At the royal court, Petershaved off his nobles’ beards and cut their coats atthe knees with his own hands. Outside the court, bar-bers and tailors planted at town gates cut the beardsand cloaks of those who entered.

One group of Russians—upper-class women—gained much from Peter’s cultural reforms. Havingwatched women mixing freely with men in Westerncourts, Peter insisted that Russian upper-classwomen remove the veils that had traditionally cov-ered their faces and move out into society. Peter alsoheld gatherings in which both sexes could mix forconversation and dancing, a practice he had learnedin the West.

St. Petersburg The object of Peter’s domesticreforms was to make Russia into a great state andmilitary power. An important part of this was to“open a window to the West,” meaning a port withready access to Europe. This could be achieved onlyon the Baltic Sea. At that time, however, the Balticcoast was controlled by Sweden, the most importantpower in northern Europe.

A long and hard-fought war with Sweden enabledPeter to acquire the lands he sought. On a marshlandon the Baltic in 1703, Peter began the construction ofa new city, St. Petersburg, his window on the West.St. Petersburg was finished during Peter’s lifetimeand remained the Russian capital until 1918.

Evaluating Why was it so importantthat Peter the Great have a seaport on the Baltic?

Reading Check

447CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Checking for Understanding1. Define absolutism, czar, boyar.

2. Identify Louis XIV, Cardinal Richelieu,Frederick William the Great Elector,Ivan IV, Michael Romanov, Peter theGreat.

3. Locate Prussia, Austria, St. Petersburg.

4. Describe the Western customs, prac-tices, and manners that Peter the Greatintroduced to Russia.

5. List the purposes of the royal court atVersailles.

Critical Thinking6. Explain What were Cardinal Riche-

lieu’s political goals? How did hereduce the power of the nobility andthe Huguenots in France?

7. Summarizing Information Use a chartlike the one below to summarize thereign of Louis XIV of France.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the photograph of the king’s

bedroom shown on page 443. Howdoes this room reflect the nature ofkingship under Louis XIV?

Government Wars Economics Religion

Peter the Great1672–1725—Russian czar

Peter the Great, the man whomade Russia a great power, was anunusual character. He was a tower-ing, strong man 6 feet, 9 inches (2 m)tall. He was coarse in his tastes andrude in his behavior. He enjoyed a lowkind of humor (belching contests and crudejokes) and vicious punishments (flogging, impaling, androasting). Peter often assisted dentists and enjoyedpulling their patients’ teeth.

During his first visit to the West, Peter immersed him-self in the life of the people. He once dressed in theclothes of a Dutch sea captain and spent time with Dutchsailors. A German princess said of him: “He told us thathe worked in building ships, showed us his hands, andmade us touch the callous places that had been causedby work.”

9. Expository Writing Historians havelong considered the reign of LouisXIV to be the best example of thepractice of absolute monarchy in theseventeenth century. Do you believethe statement is true? Why or whynot? Write an essay supporting youropinion.

CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447CHAPTER 14Section 3, 441–447

Reteaching Activity Have students analyze the infor-mation in this section by sum-marizing the achievements andthe acts of oppression of eachmajor ruler discussed. L1

4 CLOSEAsk students to choose one ofthe monarchs from this periodand discuss positive and nega-tive effects of absolutism on theirpeople and countries. L1

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 14–3

DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII

What do you think is the purpose of dress codes? Do you think dress codes should beenforced in public schools? Why or why not?

In the last section, you read about the wars, revolutions, and economic problems inEurope during the seventeenth century. In this section, you will learn how monarchs incertain countries gained absolute power during this time. One of these absolute mon-archs, Peter the Great, even told people how they should dress.

ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII

Use the chart below to help you take notes. Identify the countries of the followingmonarchs and summarize their achievements.

World History 211

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Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 14, Section 3

For use with textbook pages 441–447

RESPONSE TO CRISIS: ABSOLUTISM

KEY TERMS

absolutism a system of government in which a ruler holds total power (page 441)

czar the Russian word for caesar, which became the title of the Russian rulers beginning withIvan IV (page 445)

boyars the Russian nobility (page 446)

Name Date Class Name Date Class

Monarch Country Achievements

Louis XIV 1. 2.

Frederick William the Great Elector 3. 4.

Peter the Great 5. 6.

L1/ELL

SS.A.3.4.6

SS.A.3.4.6

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

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448

1599Globe Theaterbuilt

1580Golden Age of Eng-lish theater begins

1615Cervantes completesDon Quixote

Guide to Reading

The World of European Culture

Preview of Events

1651Leviathan by Hobbesis published

✦1575 ✦1590 ✦1605 ✦1620 ✦1635 ✦1650 ✦1665

In the play Richard II, William Shakespeare wrote the following lines about England:

“This royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle,This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,This other Eden, demi-Paradise,This fortress built by Nature for herselfAgainst infection and the hand of war,This happy breed of men, this little world,This precious stone set in the silver sea,Which serves it in the office of a wallOr as a moat defensive to a houseAgainst the envy of less happier lands—This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England.”

—Richard II, William Shakespeare

In this play, one of the greatest playwrights of the English world expressed his patri-otic enthusiasm.

MannerismThe artistic Renaissance came to an end when a new movement, called Man-

nerism, emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s. The Reformation’s revival of reli-gious values brought much political turmoil. Especially in Italy, the worldly

Voices from the Past

1575Baroque movementbegins in Italy

Main Ideas• The artistic movements of Mannerism

and the baroque began in Italy andboth reflected the spiritual perceptionsof the time.

• Shakespeare and Lope de Vega wereprolific writers of dramas and comediesthat reflected the human condition.

Key TermsMannerism, baroque, natural rights

People to IdentifyEl Greco, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, WilliamShakespeare, Lope de Vega, Miguel deCervantes, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke

Places to LocateMadrid, Prague, Vienna, Brussels

Preview Questions1. What two new art movements

emerged in the 1500s?2. Why are Shakespeare’s works

considered those of a “genius”?

Reading StrategySummarizing Information As you readthis section, complete a chart like the onebelow summarizing the political thoughtsof Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.

Thomas Hobbes John Locke

448 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451

SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–4• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–4• Guided Reading Activity 14–4• Section Quiz 14–4• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–4

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–4

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 14-4

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. a famous playwright and actor 2. as a universal genius3. Queen Elizabeth; great works of drama and literature and a“cultural flowering” occurred during her reign

The World of European Culture

UNIT

3Chapter 14

Who was WilliamShakespeare?

How was Shakespeareviewed?

From whom did theElizabethan Era get itsname and why?

1 2 3

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–4

1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section discusses importantartistic movements, writers, andphilosophers of the sixteenthand seventeenth centuries.

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Hobbes:humans struggled for self-preservation,agreed to be governed by absoluteruler, absolute power needed to pre-serve order; Locke: original state oneof equality and freedom, have naturalrights, established government toprotect rights, if government breakscontract the people have right toform new one

Preteaching VocabularyAsk students to brainstorm a list ofwhat they believe to be naturalrights. L1

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449

2 TEACH

enthusiasm of the Renaissance declined as peoplegrew anxious and uncertain and wished for spiritualexperience.

Mannerism in art reflected this new environmentby deliberately breaking down the High Renaissanceprinciples of balance, harmony, and moderation. Therules of proportion were deliberately ignored as elon-gated figures were used to show suffering, height-ened emotions, and religious ecstasy.

Mannerism spread from Italy to other parts ofEurope and perhaps reached its high point in thework of El Greco (“the Greek”). El Greco was fromthe island of Crete. After studying in Venice andRome, he moved to Spain.

In his paintings, El Greco used elongated and con-torted figures, portraying them in unusual shades ofyellow and green against an eerie background ofstormy grays. The mood he depicts reflects well thetensions created by the religious upheavals of theReformation.

Describing What did the mood of El Greco’s paintings reflect?

The Baroque PeriodMannerism was eventually replaced by a new

movement—the baroque. This movement began inItaly in the last quarter of the sixteenth century andeventually spread to the rest of Europe and evenLatin America. The Catholic reform movement mostwholeheartedly adopted the baroque style. This canbe seen in the buildings at Catholic courts, especiallythose of the Hapsburgs in Madrid, Prague, Vienna,and Brussels.

Baroque artists tried to bring together the classicalideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings ofthe sixteenth-century religious revival. The baroquepainting style was known for its use of dramaticeffects to arouse the emotions. In large part, though,baroque art and architecture reflected the search forpower that was such a part of the seventeenth cen-tury. Baroque churches and palaces were magnificentand richly detailed. Kings and princes wanted otherkings and princes as well as their subjects to be inawe of their power.

Perhaps the greatest figure of the baroque periodwas the Italian architect and sculptor Gian LorenzoBernini, who completed Saint Peter’s Basilica inRome. Action, exuberance, and dramatic effects markthe work of Bernini in the interior of Saint Peter’s.

Bernini’s Throne of Saint Peter is a highly decoratedcover for the pope’s medieval wooden throne. The

Reading Check

throne seems to hover in midair, held by the hands ofthe four great theologians of the early CatholicChurch. Above the chair, rays of heavenly light drivea mass of clouds and angels toward the spectator.

Artemisia Gentileschi is less well-known than themale artists who dominated the seventeenth-centuryart world in Italy but prominent in her own right.Born in Rome, she studied painting with her father. In1616, she moved to Florence and began a successfulcareer as a painter. At the age of 23, she became thefirst woman to be elected to the Florentine Academyof Design. Although she was known internationallyin her day as a portrait painter, her fame now rests ona series of pictures of heroines from the Old Testa-ment. Most famous is her Judith Beheading Holofernes.

Identifying How did baroque artand architecture reflect the seventeenth-century search forpower?

A Golden Age of LiteratureIn both England and Spain, writing for the theater

reached new heights between 1580 and 1640. Otherforms of literature flourished as well.

Reading Check

449

History through Art

Throne of Saint Peter by Bernini, 1666It took Bernini eleven years to complete thismonumental throne. How do you think Berniniwanted his work to impact the viewer?

CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–4

I. Mannerism (pages 448–449)

A. The artistic Renaissance ended when the movement called Mannerism emerged inItaly in the 1520s and 1530s. The movement fit Europe’s climate of the time, as peoplegrew uncertain about worldly experience and wished for spiritual experience.

B. Mannerism broke down the High Renaissance values of balance, harmony, modera-tion, and proportion. Elongated figures showed suffering, heightened emotions, andreligious ecstasy.

C. Mannerism perhaps reached its height with the painter El Greco (” the Greek”). Born

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 14, Section 4

Did You Know? The word quixotic, meaning “foolishly imprac-tical” and “marked by rash, lofty, romantic ideas,” is derived fromthe title character of Miguel de Cervantes’s novel Don Quixote.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Answer: The tension created by the religious upheavals of the Refor-mation.

Answer: Answers will vary, but mightinclude to inspire awe or to impressthe viewer with the power of thechurch.

History through Art

Literature Assign students to readall or part of a play by Shakespeareor Lope de Vega, or all or part ofDon Quixote. Discuss with the classhow the wider audiences for theseworks, “nobles, lawyers, merchants,and vagabonds,” might have reactedto the themes and characters ofthese works. L3

Answer: through magnificence andrich details

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYINTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYArt Have students research and write a brief report on a major work of art by El Greco, Bernini,and Gentileschi. For each work they should describe the subject matter. They should also prepare astatement comparing and contrasting the subject matter of each of the works of art. Using whatthey have learned from the text, they should then identify the characteristics of each of the repre-sentative styles of Mannerism and Baroque as seen in the work of art and explain how each workof art achieves the goals of that particular style. Students should also identify symbols used by eachartist. Finally, students should tell how they are affected by each of the works. L3

FCAT LA.A.2.4.4

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1

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England’s ShakespeareA cultural flowering tookplace in England in thelate sixteenth and earlyseventeenth centuries.The period is often calledthe Elizabethan Era,because so much of it fellwithin the reign of QueenElizabeth. Of all theforms of Elizabethan lit-erature, none expressed

the energy of the era better than drama. Of all thedramatists, none is more famous than WilliamShakespeare.

When Shakespeare appeared in Londonin 1592, Elizabethans already enjoyed the stage. Eliz-abethan theater was a very successful business. Lon-don theaters ranged from the Globe, which was acircular, unroofed structure holding three thousandpeople, to the Blackfriars, a roofed structure that heldonly five hundred.

The Globe’s admission charge of one or two pen-nies enabled even the lower classes to attend. Thehigher prices of the Blackfriars brought an audience ofthe well-to-do. Because Elizabethan audiences variedgreatly, playwrights had to write works that pleasednobles, lawyers, merchants, and vagabonds alike.

William Shakespeare was a “complete man of thetheater.” Although best known for writing plays, hewas also an actor and shareholder in the chief theatercompany of the time, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men.

Shakespeare has long been viewed as auniversal genius. He was a master of theEnglish language and his language skillswere matched by his insight into humanpsychology. Whether in his tragedies orhis comedies, Shakespeare showed aremarkable understanding of the humancondition.

Spanish Literature The theater was oneof the most creative forms of expressionduring Spain’s golden century as well. Thefirst professional theaters, created in Sevilleand Madrid, were run by actors’ compa-nies, as they were in England. Soon, everylarge town had a public playhouse, includ-ing Mexico City in the New World. Touringcompanies brought the latest Spanishplays to all parts of the Spanish Empire.

Beginning in the 1580s, the standard for play-wrights was set by Lope de Vega. He wrote anextraordinary number of plays, perhaps 1,500 in all.Almost 500 of them survive. They have been charac-terized as witty, charming, action-packed, and realistic.

Lope de Vega made no apologies for the fact thathe wrote his plays to please his audiences and satisfypublic demand. He remarked once that if anyonethought he had written his plays for fame, “unde-ceive him and tell him that I wrote them for money.”

One of the crowning achievements of the goldenage of Spanish literature was the work of Miguel deCervantes (suhr•VAN•TEEZ). His novel Don Quixotehas been hailed as one of the greatest literary worksof all time.

In the two main characters of this famous work,Cervantes presented the dual nature of the Spanishcharacter. The knight, Don Quixote from La Mancha,is the visionary so involved in his lofty ideals that hedoes not see the hard realities around him. To him,for example, windmills appear to be four-armedgiants. In contrast, the knight’s fat and earthy squire,Sancho Panza, is a realist. Each of these charactersfinally comes to see the value of the other’s perspec-tive. We are left with the conviction that both vision-ary dreams and the hard work of reality arenecessary to the human condition.

Describing When was the “goldenage” of Spanish literature? Who set the standard for playwrights?

Reading Check

HISTORY

Web Activity Visitthe Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

andclick on Chapter 14–Student Web Activity to learn more aboutWilliam Shakespeare.

wh.glencoe.com

450 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Don Quixote and Sancho Panza

CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451

Answer: between 1580 and 1640;Lope de Vega

Philosophy and GovernmentAssign students to read the Declara-tion of Independence and to findthose passages that reflect the politi-cal views of John Locke. L2

Guided Reading Activity 14–4

e M

cGra

w-H

ill C

ompa

nies

, Inc

.

Name Date Class

The World of European Culture

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 4.

1. in art used elongated figures to show ,

heightened , and religious .

2. The mood depicted by El Greco reflected well the tensions created by the religious

upheavals of the .

3. The painting style was known for its use of dramatic effects to

arouse the emotions and reflect a search for power.

4. Perhaps the greatest figure of the baroque period was the Italian architect and sculptor

, who completed St. Peter's in Rome.

5. Of all the of the seventeenth century, none is more famous than

.

6. The Globe theatre's admission charge of one or two pennies enabled even the

to attend.

7. Beginning in the 1580's, the standard for playwrights was set by

who wrote perhaps 1,500 plays in all.

8. Miguel de Cervantes' novel has been hailed as one of the greatest

literary works of all time.

9. Hobbes called the state “that great to which we owe our peace

and defense.”

10. Locke believed should protect the rights of the people, and the

people would act toward government.

11. John Locke's ideas were used to support demands for govern-

ment, the rule of law and the protection of rights.

Guided Reading Activity 14-4

The following literature from theGlencoe Literature Library mayenrich the teaching of this chapter:Hamlet by William Shakespeare

SS.A.3.4.5

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1

L1/ELL

READING THE TEXT

Reading Primary and Secondary Sources Have students read together the section “A Golden Ageof Literature” without pausing. Then have the students utilize note-taking skills and provide the following major topics:I. Literature in England

A Elizabethan EraB. Shakespeare

II. Literature in SpainA. Lope de VegaB. Miguel de Cervantes

Ask students to take notes on this handout as the class carefully rereads the selection. Use this outline as a basis for a quiz. This activity is useful for students with memory difficulties. L1

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. El Greco (p. 449); Gian Lorenzo

Bernini (p. 449); William Shake-speare (p. 450); Lope de Vega (p. 450); Miguel de Cervantes (p. 450); Thomas Hobbes (p. 451);John Locke (p. 451)

3. See chapter maps. 4. dual nature of visionary dreams

and realism

5. government: protect people’srights; people: act reasonablytoward government

6. The Globe: inexpensive; Blackfri-ars: served rich; playwrights had toplease all classes

7. Mannerism: rejected Renaissancebalance, harmony, moderation;ignored rules of proportion;Baroque: return to ideals of

Renaissance art; action, exuber-ance, dramatic effects; detailedand ornate; Both: began in Italy;emotional, religious themes

8. highly ornate, rich details suggestsawe at the power of pope

9. Answers should be supported byexamples.

451

Answer: to preserve order in society

Political ThoughtThe seventeenth-century concerns with order and

power were reflected in the political thought of thetime. The English revolutions of the seventeenth cen-tury prompted very different responses from twoEnglish political thinkers, Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke.

Hobbes Thomas Hobbes was alarmed by the revo-lutionary upheavals in England. He wrote Leviathan,a work on political thought, to try to deal with theproblem of disorder. Leviathan was published in 1651.

Hobbes claimed that before society was organized,human life was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, andshort.” Humans were guided not by reason andmoral ideals but by a ruthless struggle for self-preservation.

To save themselves from destroying one another,people made a social contract and agreed to form astate. Hobbes called the state “that great Leviathan towhich we owe our peace and defense.” People in thestate agreed to be governed by an absolute ruler whopossessed unlimited power. Rebellion must be sup-pressed. To Hobbes, such absolute power was neededto preserve order in society.

Locke John Locke, who wrote a political workcalled Two Treatises of Government, 1690, viewed theexercise of political power quite differently. Heargued against the absolute rule of one person.

Unlike Hobbes, Locke believed that before societywas organized, humans lived in a state of equalityand freedom rather than a state of war. In this state ofnature, humans had certain natural rights—rightswith which they were born. These included rights tolife, liberty, and property.

Like Hobbes, however, Locke believed that prob-lems existed in the state of nature. People found itdifficult to protect their natural rights. For that rea-son, they agreed to establish a government to ensurethe protection of their rights.

The contract between people and governmentinvolved mutual obligations. Government wouldprotect the rights of the people, and the peoplewould act reasonably toward government. However,if a government broke the contract—if a monarch, forexample, failed to live up to the obligation to protectsubjects’ natural rights—the people might form anew government.

To Locke, people meant the landholding aristoc-racy, not landless masses. Locke was not an advocateof democracy, but his ideas proved important to bothAmericans and French in the eighteenth century.These ideas were used to support demands for consti-tutional government, the rule of law, and the protec-tion of rights. Locke’s ideas can be found in theAmerican Declaration of Independence and theUnited States Constitution.

Explaining According to Hobbes,why was absolute power needed?

Reading Check

451CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Checking for Understanding1. Define Mannerism, baroque, natural

rights.

2. Identify El Greco, Gian LorenzoBernini, William Shakespeare, Lope deVega, Miguel de Cervantes, ThomasHobbes, John Locke.

3. Locate Madrid, Prague, Vienna, Brussels.

4. Describe what Don Quixote revealsabout the nature of Spanish character.

5. Summarize the mutual obligationsbetween people and government asunderstood by Locke.

Critical Thinking6. Describe How did the Elizabethan the-

ater experience provide a full reflectionof English society?

7. Compare and Contrast Using a Venndiagram, compare and contrast Man-nerism and baroque art.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the photograph of Bernini’s

Throne of Saint Peter shown on page449 of your text. How does Bernini’sartistic masterpiece reflect the politicaland social life of the period in which itwas created?

Mannerism Baroque

9. Persuasive Writing In an essay,argue whether Shakespeare isstereotyping in this quote: “Frailty,thy name is woman.” Support yourposition with quotes from otherauthors.

CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451CHAPTER 14Section 4, 448–451

3 ASSESSAssign Section 4 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

Reteaching ActivityHave students list the majorartists and writers of this periodand their major works. L1

Section Quiz 14–4

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. Thomas Hobbes’ political work

2. Cervantes’ novel

3. author of Two Treatises of Government

4. Spanish playwright

5. English playwright

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. Thomas Hobbes claimed that any ungoverned society made human lifeA. solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

✔ ScoreChapter 14

Section Quiz 14-4

Column B

A. Leviathan

B. de Vega

C. John Locke

D. Don Quixote

E. Shakespeare

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 14–4

DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 14, Section 4

For use with textbook pages 448–451

THE WORLD OF EUROPEAN CULTURE

KEY TERMS

Mannerism a movement in art that emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s, which emphasizedemotions, suffering, and religious ecstasy (page 448)

baroque a movement in art that began in Italy in the late sixteenth century, which tried tobring together the classical ideals of Renaissance art and the spiritual feelings of the sixteenth-century religious revival (page 449)

natural rights rights with which humans are born, including rights to life, liberty, and property(page 451)

Name Date Class

4 CLOSEReview with students how theart and literature of the periodreflects the political conflicts dis-cussed earlier in the chapter. L2

L2

L1/ELL

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MJ

MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz to review Chapter 14 content.

Available in VHS.

CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

Using Key Terms1. Philip II sent a fleet of warships called an to invade

England in 1588.

2. Parliament abolished the monarchy and declared England arepublic or .

3. The hysteria began to end in 1650.

4. The belief that the monarch receives power directly fromGod is called .

5. In , elongated figures show suffering and heightened emotions.

6. refers to the political system in which ultimateauthority rests with the monarch.

7. artists paired ideals of Renaissance art with sixteenth-century spiritual feelings.

8. The Russian monarch was called a .

9. The were Russian nobility defeated by Ivan the Terrible.

10. John Locke believed people had certain —to life, liberty, and property.

Reviewing Key Facts11. Religion What is the name given to French Calvinists?

12. Government Why is the Edict of Nantes sometimes calledthe Edict of Tolerance?

13. History Whom did Spain defeat in the Battle of Lepanto in1571?

14. Geography At the beginning of the seventeenth century,Spain controlled territory on which continents?

15. History When and where was the Thirty Years’ War fought?

16. History After the Thirty Years’ War, which country emergedas the most dominant in Europe?

17. Government On his deathbed, what advice did Louis XIVgive to his great-grandson, the future king?

18. Culture What reason for writing did Lope de Vega givethose who asked?

19. Culture What is the essential message of Don Quixote byCervantes?

20. Philosophy According to John Locke, what was the purposeof government?

Critical Thinking21. Analyzing Baroque art and architecture reflected a search

for power. How can a particular style of art be more power-ful than another? (Consider the palace at Versailles.)

22. Explaining “Repression breeds rebellion.” Explain how thisquote relates to the history of the Netherlands during thereign of Philip II.

23. Compare and Contrast Compare the political thought ofJohn Locke to the American form of government. Whatwould Locke support? What would he not support?

The rulers of Europe during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eigh-teenth centuries battled to expand their borders, power, and religion.The chart below summarizes some of the events of this chapter.

Spanish and English monarchs engage in a dynastic struggle.• Philip II, a champion of Catholicism, resents English

tolerance of Protestants.• The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 means that

England will remain Protestant.

Tudor monarchs bring stability and prosperity to England.• The Act of Supremacy is passed.• Foreign policy is moderate.• Spain is defeated in 1588.

France’s Louis XIV strengthens absolute monarchy in Franceand limits the rights of religious dissenters.• He removes nobles and princes from royal council and

keeps them busy with court life.• He bribes people to make sure his policies are followed

in the provinces.

Dynastic and religious conflicts divide the German states.• Two German states emerge as great powers in the

seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: Prussia and Austria.• Prussia has to build an army to protect its borders. Austria

is diverse with no common culture or political rule.

Peter the Great attempts to modernize Russian society.• He introduces Western customs, practices, and manners.• He prepares a Russian book of etiquette to teach Western

manners.• He mixes the sexes for conversation and dancing.

Change

Uniformity

Conflict

Innovation

Conflict

452

452

Using Key Terms1. armada 2. commonwealth 3. witch-craft 4. divine right of kings 5. Manner-ism 6. Absolutism 7. Baroque 8. czar9. boyars 10. natural rights

Reviewing Key Facts11. Huguenots

12. It gave Huguenots the right to wor-ship and to enjoy political privilegesin Catholic France.

13. Turks

14. Europe, North America, South Amer-ica, Asia, Africa

15. 1618 to 1648, the Holy RomanEmpire

16. France

17. to try to keep peace with his neigh-bors, not to love war too much, notto overspend, lighten his people’sburden

18. for the money

19. One needs to balance visionarydreams with the reality of hard workin life.

20. to protect citizens’ rights

Critical Thinking21. Since Baroque art and architecture

is ornate and detailed, the palace at Versailles is a perfect example. Its vastness alone projects power, as does its extravagance.

22. The more Philip cracked down onthe Netherlands, the more rebelliousthe people became. The noblesresented the loss of their privilegesand opposed his efforts. When hetried to crush Calvinism, the Calvin-ists—especially nobles—began todestroy statues in Catholic churches.He sent troops to crush the rebel-

lion, resulting in growing resistance, war, and eventualindependence for the Netherlands.

23. Locke believed that humans had certain natural rightsto life, liberty, and property. This belief is reflected inour belief in the “inalienable rights” to “life, liberty, andthe pursuit of happiness.” He believed that the govern-ment had a duty to protect the rights of the people and,when it fails, that the people have a right to form a new

government. This is similar to what happened when theAmerican colonists declared independence fromBritain. He would probably approve wholeheartedly ofthe American system of government.

Writing About History24. Answers will vary. Students should support their posi-

tions with facts from the chapter.

CHAPTER 14Assessment and Activities

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Page 32: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES

Answer: JAnswer Explanation: Remind students how important it is to read a question carefully and thenseparate the answers that fit or donot fit the question.

CHAPTER 14Assessment and Activities

453

HISTORY

Have students visit the Web site atto review Chapter 14

and take the Self-Check Quiz.wh.glencoe.com

Self-Check QuizVisit the Glencoe World History Web site at

and click on Chapter 14–Self-CheckQuiz to prepare for the Chapter Test.wh.glencoe.com

HISTORY

Directions: Choose the best answer to thefollowing question.

The controversy that led to the English “Glorious Revolution” was

F a Tudor-Stuart struggle for the throne.

G the restoration of a monarch in England.

H increased religious freedom for Catholics.

J a power struggle between Parliament and the king.

Test-Taking Tip: Remember the date of the Glorious Revolution to help eliminate answers.

CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe 453

N

SE

W

Chamberlin Trimetric projection200 kilometers0

200 miles0

50°N

45°N

5°E0° 10°EMediterranean Sea

Loire River

Seine River

Rhine

River

F R ANC E

SPANISHNETHERLANDS

SWITZERLAND

Paris Verdun

Basel

Nice

Marseille

Calais

Growth of France underLouis XIV, 1643–1715

France, 1643

Acquisitions,1643–1715

StandardizedTest Practice

Analyzing Maps and Charts29. What natural borders help to define France during this

period?

30. Study the map carefully. What means of transportation do you think most French people used for trade?

31. Using this map and your text, describe how Louis XIVexpanded France. What was the legacy of Louis XIV’s expansion for his successor?

32. How does the extent of France in 1715 compare to the extentof France today? Use an atlas to research your answer.

Writing About History24. Persuasive Writing Which monarch described in this

chapter do you most and least admire? Write an essay supporting your answer.

Analyzing SourcesRead the following quote about absolutism by Jacques Bossuet, a seventeenth-century French bishop.

“It is God who establishes kings. They thus act asministers of God and His lieutenants on earth. It isthrough them that he rules. This is why we have seenthat the royal throne is not the throne of man, but thethrone of God himself. It appears from this that the per-son of kings is sacred, and to move against them is acrime. Since their power comes from on high, kings . . .should exercise it with fear and restraint as a thingwhich has come to them from God, and for which Godwill demand an account.”

25. According to the quote, how should kings rule?

26. How do these words justify divine right of kings, and whatdoes it mean that God will demand an account? What ques-tions would you ask Bossuet about his ideas? How might heanswer?

Applying Technology Skills27. Using the Internet or library, research the political status of

France, Great Britain, Spain, and Germany. List the currentleader and the type of government (for example: Mexico,President Fox, constitutional democracy).

Making Decisions28. Assume the role of King Louis XIV, or Queen Elizabeth I.

Write a speech to your people about raising taxes and reli-gion. Assess the needs of the state, the military, the court,and the people. Is it necessary to raise taxes? Which group isdemanding the increase? How will this action affect each ofthese groups? Who will benefit the most, and who will sufferthe most from the increase? After you have weighed optionsand considered the consequences, write a speech to yoursubjects announcing your decision. Persuade them that theincrease is in the best interest of all.

Analyzing Sources25. with fear and restraint, keeping in mind that they will

be called on by God for an account

26. It says that the power to rule comes directly from God,and that God is the only one that the king has toanswer to. Answers to last part of question will vary.

Applying Technology Skills27. Answers will vary, depending on country chosen and

its current political status.

Making Decisions28. Answers will vary, but should be consistent with

material presented in this chapter.

Analyzing Maps and Charts29. Rhine River, the Alps, Mediterranean

Sea, Pyrenees, English Channel

30. overland transportation and trans-portation by sea and fresh water(rivers)

31. By waging war, Louis added territoryto France’s northeastern frontier andalong border with Spain. He left alegacy of debt and enemies.

32. France is larger today than in 1715.

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1 23

StandardizedTest Practice

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