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404A Chapter 13 Resources Timesaving Tools Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition and your classroom resources with a few easy clicks. Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize your week, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to make teaching creative, timely, and relevant. Use Glencoe’s Presentation Plus! multimedia teacher tool to easily present dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu- dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint ® you can customize the presentations to create your own personalized lessons. The following videotape programs are available from Glencoe as supplements to Chapter 13: Christopher Columbus: Explorer of the New World (ISBN 1–56501–667–X) Ponce de Leon: The First Conquistador (ISBN 1–56501–669–6) To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To find classroom resources to accompany many of these videos, check the following home pages: A&E Television: www.aande.com The History Channel: www.historychannel.com R R TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES Chapter Transparency 13 L2 Graphic Organizer Student Activity 13 Transparency L2 CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 13 Spanish Imports of Gold and Silver From the Americas, 1503—1660 Millions of Pounds Years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1503—1520 1521—1540 1541—1560 1561—1580 1581—1600 1601—1620 1621—1640 1641—1660 The Age of Exploration (1500–1800) What I Know What I Want to Find Out What I Learned How Can I Learn More Graphic Organizer 2: K-W-L-H Chart Map Overlay Transparency 13 L2 Triangular Trade Routes, 1730 NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA AFRICA EUROPE 30°N 0° 15°N Caribbean Sea 45°W 60°W 30°W 75°W 90°W 45°N 15°W 0° 15°E ATLANTIC OCEAN 105°W GREAT BRITAIN BRITISH COLONIES WEST INDIES N E S W 1,000 0 0 1,000 2,000 mi. 2,000 km TRADE ROUTES Great Britain – Colonies – Europe Manufacturedgoods Driedfish, whale oil, lumber, tobacco, wheat oliv e oil, f r u i t W in e , Map Overlay Transparency 1 3 Enrichment Activity 13 L3 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name Date Class As European explorers made discoveries on their ocean voyages, many writers began to consider the proper way to relate to new people and different ways of life. A lawyer by profession, Michel Montaigne (1533–1592) retired to his estate in the Enrichment Activity 13 Bordeaux region of France in 1571 to write a collection of essays that was first pub- lished in 1580. In his Essais, Montaigne gives his personal opinion on a range of issues of the day. Read the following excepts from his essay “On Cannibals.” The European View of the Americas DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided. 1. Why does Montaigne hesitate to guess whether there are additional new countries to be discovered?_____________________________________________________________________ 2. How might Montaigne’s observation that “our eyes are bigger than our stomachs” be related to the European conquest of the Americas? __________________________________ 3. How does Montaigne characterize the people who live in the Americas? _______________ 4. In what does Montaigne find fault with the way Europeans perceive their own social customs? _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Ethnocentrism is the attitude that one’s own ethnic group, culture, or nation is superior to all others. It is the belief that one has the best religion, the best political system, and the most accomplished way of doing things. How far have people come since Montaigne’s time in acknowledging and exploring other people’s “differences” as poten- tially equal or superior to their own? ______________________________________________ I had with me for a long time a man who had lived ten or twelve years in that other world which has been discovered in our time, in the place where Villegaignon landed [Brazil], and which he called Antarctic France. This discovery of so vast a country seems to me worth reflecting on. I should not care to pledge myself that another may not be discovered in the future, since so many greater men than we have been wrong about this one. I am afraid that our eyes are bigger than our stomachs, and that we have more curiosity than understanding. We grasp at everything, but catch nothing except wind. . . . I do not believe, from what I have been told about this people, that there is anything barbarous or savage about them, except that we call barbarous anything that is contrary to our own habits. Indeed we seem to have no other criterion of truth and reason than the type and kind of opinions and customs current in the land where we live. There we always see the perfect religion, the perfect political system, the perfect and most accomplished way of doing everything. Primary Source Reading 13 L2 Name Date Class Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Letter by Christopher Columbus A s you know, Christopher Columbus was trying to reach China when he “discovered” America and the islands of the Caribbean. On February 13, 1493, he wrote a letter to Santangel, the Spanish gov- ernment official who had persuaded Queen Isabella to finance his expedition. Below is part of Columbus’s letter, followed by an interpretation by modern historian Daniel J. Boorstin. Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn Columbus’s account of the voyage and compare it to Boorstin’s interpretation. When I reached Juana [Cuba], I followed its coast to the westward, and found it so large that I thought it must be the mainland,—the province of Cathay [China]; and, as I found neither towns nor villages on the seacoast, but only a few ham- lets, with the inhabitants of which I could not hold conversation because they all immediately fled, I kept on the same route. . . . . . . The lands are high and there are many very lofty mountains. . . . [The islands] are all most beautiful, of a thousand different shapes, accessible, and covered with trees of a thousand kinds of such great height that they seemed to reach the skies. . . . The nightingale was singing as well as other birds of a thousand different kinds; and that, in November, the month in which I myself was roaming amongst them. There are palm-trees of six or eight kinds, wonderful in their beautiful variety; but this is the case with all the other trees and fruits and grasses; trees, plants, or fruits filled us with admiration. It con- tains extraordinary pine groves, and very exten- sive plains. There is also honey, a great variety of birds, and many different kinds of fruits. In the interior there are many mines of metals and a population innumerable. . . . The inhabitants of this and of all the other islands I have found or gained intelligence of, both men and women, go as naked as they were born. . . . They have nei- ther iron, nor steel, nor arms, nor are they com- petent to use them, not that they are not well- formed and of handsome stature, but because they are timid to a surprising degree. On my reaching the Indies, I took by force, in the first island that I discovered, some of these natives that they might learn our language and give me information in regard to what existed in these parts; and it so happened that they soon understood us and we them, either by words or signs, and they have been very serviceable to us. . . . I find that they . . . believe that I come from heaven. . . . They assure me that there is another island . . . in which the inhabitants have no hair. It is extremely rich in gold. . . . Finally, and speaking only of what has taken place in this voyage . . . their Highnesses may see that I shall give them all the gold they require, if they will give me but a little assistance; spices also, and cotton, as much as their Highnesses shall command to be shipped; and mastic [resin used in varnishes], hitherto found only in Greece . . . slaves, as many of these idolators as their Highnesses shall command to be shipped. I think also I have found rhubarb and cinnamon, and shall find a thousand other valuable things. Boorstin’s Interpretation On shipboard off the Azores in mid- February 1493, returning from his first voyage, Columbus wrote his own report of what he thought, and wanted others to think, that he had accomplished. . . . Columbus, having convinced himself that a trip across the Western Ocean would take him to the Indies, now set about convincing a wider audience. He had a heavy vested interest in his destination actually being the Indies. . . . Columbus was careful not to mention disasters or near disasters—the loss of the flagship, Santa Maria, the insubordination of Martín Alonso Pinzón, the commander of the Pinta, or the muti- P RIMARY S OURCE READING13 APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT History Simulation Activity 13 L1 Game Card 5 You have encountered an uncharted planet much like Earth, with many resources. The inhabitants are friendly and invite you to stay. You may be able to set up a trading station on the planet. Stay Your voyage is over. 5,000 points Continue 15,000 points Game Card 6 Food is running very low. Each crew member is rationed to two slices of bread each day. Some crew members are becoming ill from a lack of vitamins in their diet. Turn Back Your voyage is over. 500 points Or—flip a coin: HEADS, no one becomes seriously ill. 3,000 points TAILS, some crew members are incapacitated. –3,000 points Game Card 4 You are approaching an asteroid belt. If you attempt to navigate through it, your ship will almost surely be crushed. Turn Back Your voyage is over. 500 points Or—flip a coin: HEADS, you survive. 3,000 points TAILS, your ship is damaged. –3,000 points Game Card 3 The fuel regenerator has broken and might not be repairable. You have fuel for two weeks, after which your ship will drift aimlessly in space. If you turn back now, you will reach home before fuel runs out. Turn Back Your voyage is over. 500 points Or—flip a coin: HEADS, you fix the regenerator. 3,000 points TAILS, it can’t be fixed. Sail on and cross your fingers. –3,000 points Name Date Class Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. HANDOUT MATERIAL The Search for Andronia—Game Cards Game Card 1 You have been traveling for more than two months and should have reached Andronia long ago. You may be nearing the edge of the Great Void. Turn Back Your voyage is over. 500 points Or—flip a coin: HEADS, you recheck your map and figure out where you are. 15,000 points TAILS, you wander for five years before returning to familiar territory. 2,000 points Game Card 2 You have drifted into fierce solar winds from a nearby star. If you con- tinue, your ship may break apart. Turn Back Your voyage is over. 500 points Or—flip a coin: HEADS, you survive. 2,000 points TAILS, your ship is damaged. –2,000 points The Search for Andronia The Search for Andronia The Search for Andronia The Search for Andronia The Search for Andronia The Search for Andronia 13 H ISTORY S IMULATION A CTIVITY Historical Significance Activity 13 L2 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name Date Class During the period of colonial expansion, the major joint-stock companies who sought to do business in Asia were known as the East India Companies. These companies were given unprecedented political author- ity by their home countries. Within their ter- ritories, they had power to pass legislation, wage war, negotiate treaties, issue their own currency, and administer their own justice. At its height, the Dutch East India Company maintained more than 10,000 of its own sol- diers, 40 warships, and 150 merchant ships. Joint-stock companies, however, are not just a thing of the past. Today, needless to say, joint-stock com- panies still function but without the same degree of authority. Contemporary joint- stock companies are still organized by indi- viduals who invest a specific sum of money. Each investor is given a share of stock in the company in proportion to the amount of money he or she has invested. Although the purpose of the company is to make money for all of the stockholders, an indi- vidual stockholder can never lose more than he or she initially invested. For example, if you invested $5,000 in a joint-stock company, you might own 5 per- cent of its total stock; therefore, you would receive 5 percent of the company’s total profit for the year. If the company made a profit of $50,000, you would receive 5 per- cent of this profit or $2,500. If the company you invested in failed to make a profit or lost money, the most you could lose was your initial $5,000 investment. Historical Significance Activity 13 Joint-Stock Companies ! DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. What might be some advantages of investing in a joint-stock company rather than starting one’s own business? 2. What might be some of the disadvantages to owning stock in a joint-stock company? 3. How do you think joint-stock companies have changed since they were first started in the age of exploration? 4. Imagine that a friend wants your advice: should he start his own business or invest his money in a joint-stock company? On a separate sheet of paper, write a letter to your friend, giving and justifying your advice. How would your answer be different if you were writing your letter in the late 1600s? Cooperative Learning Activity 13 L1/ELL Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name Date Class The New Horizons.info New(s) Worlds Web Site Cooperative Learning Activity 13 BACKGROUND Many European nations became involved in overseas expansion and exploration starting in the fifteenth century. Trade opportunities, Christianization, and an emerging spirit of nationalist adventure drove many of the nations to seek new empires and new trade windows in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Mercantilism and increasing international trade became the basis of economic thinking. By work- ing as a group to create a New Horizons news Web site (or newspaper) to cover events in the Age of Exploration and Expansion, you will develop a heightened sense of the energy and motivation that surrounded the era. GROUP DIRECTIONS 1. Your group will create a news Web site (live or ready-to-post) covering events in the Age of Exploration. 2. The group needs to select an editor and two assistant editors who will assign articles and schedule due dates, proofreading, page layouts, and other tasks. All questions should be directed to this senior editorial team. 3. Each member of the group will write a “news” article about one or more events in the Age of Exploration and create an advertisement for the Web site, plus complete other assignments such as maps, illustrations, adding Web links, and so on as directed by the editorial group. The group should also select members to key the articles, design the Web pages, create the graphics, and post the text and graphics files. 4. Include the following in the site: name for the site illustrations historical “ads” maps articles on any of the following: causes for exploration and expansion Papal Demarcation Line Bartholomeu Dias Prince Henry the Navigator Christopher Columbus Vasco da Gama Amerigo Vespucci Ferdinand Magellan Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro ORGANIZING THE GROUP 1. Decision Making As a group, select the editorial team. Then decide on a site name and brainstorm ideas for ads and other features for the site. The editorial team should assign stories to the team members and determine responsibilities for other editing, design, illustration, and posting tasks.

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Page 1: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES · Timesaving Tools • Interactive ... Interactive Lesson PlannerPlanning has never been easier! ... The First Conquistador (ISBN 1–56501–669–6)

404A

Chapter 13 ResourcesTimesaving Tools

• Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition andyour classroom resources with a few easy clicks.

• Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize yourweek, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to maketeaching creative, timely, and relevant.

™ Use Glencoe’sPresentation Plus!multimedia teacher tool to easily present

dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu-dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint® you can customize the presentations to create your ownpersonalized lessons.

The following videotape programs are available from Glencoe as supplements to Chapter 13:

• Christopher Columbus: Explorer of the NewWorld (ISBN 1–56501–667–X)

• Ponce de Leon: The First Conquistador (ISBN 1–56501–669–6)

To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To findclassroom resources to accompany many of thesevideos, check the following home pages:A&E Television: www.aande.comThe History Channel: www.historychannel.com

R

R

TEACHING TRANSPARENCIESTEACHING TRANSPARENCIESChapter Transparency 13 L2

Graphic Organizer StudentActivity 13 Transparency L2

CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 13

Spanish Imports of Gold and Silver From the Americas, 1503—1660

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The Age of Exploration (1500–1800)What I Know What I Want

to Find Out What I Learned How Can ILearn More

Graphic Organizer 2:K-W-L-H Chart

Map OverlayTransparency 13 L2

Triangular Trade Routes, 1730

NORTHAMERICA

SOUTHAMERICA

AFRICA

EUROPE

30° N

15° N

Caribbean Sea

45° W60° W 30° W75° W90° W

45° N

15° W 0° 15° E

ATLANTIC OCEAN

105° W

GREAT BRITAIN

BRITISHCOLONIES

WESTINDIES

N

E

S

W

1,0000

0 1,000

2,000 mi.

2,000 km

TRADE ROUTESGreat Britain–Colonies–Europe

Manufactured goods

Dried fish,whale oil, lumber, tobacco, wheat

oliv

eoi

l,fr

uit

Win

e,

Map Overlay Transparency 13

Enrichment Activity 13 L3

Cop

yrig

ht ©

by

The

McG

raw

-Hill

Com

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Name Date Class

As European explorers made discoverieson their ocean voyages, many writers beganto consider the proper way to relate to newpeople and different ways of life. A lawyerby profession, Michel Montaigne(1533–1592) retired to his estate in the

★ Enrichment Activity 13 ★★

Bordeaux region of France in 1571 to writea collection of essays that was first pub-lished in 1580. In his Essais, Montaignegives his personal opinion on a range ofissues of the day. Read the followingexcepts from his essay “On Cannibals.”

The European View of the Americas

DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided.

1. Why does Montaigne hesitate to guess whether there are additional new countries to bediscovered?_____________________________________________________________________

2. How might Montaigne’s observation that “our eyes are bigger than our stomachs” berelated to the European conquest of the Americas? __________________________________

3. How does Montaigne characterize the people who live in the Americas? _______________

4. In what does Montaigne find fault with the way Europeans perceive their own socialcustoms? _______________________________________________________________________

5. Ethnocentrism is the attitude that one’s own ethnic group, culture, or nation is superiorto all others. It is the belief that one has the best religion, the best political system, andthe most accomplished way of doing things. How far have people come sinceMontaigne’s time in acknowledging and exploring other people’s “differences” as poten-tially equal or superior to their own? ______________________________________________

I had with me for a long time a man who had lived ten or twelve years in that other world whichhas been discovered in our time, in the place where Villegaignon landed [Brazil], and which he

called Antarctic France. This discovery of so vast a country seems to me worth reflecting on. Ishould not care to pledge myself that another may not be discovered in the future, since so manygreater men than we have been wrong about this one. I am afraid that our eyes are bigger thanour stomachs, and that we have more curiosity than understanding. We grasp at everything, butcatch nothing except wind. . . .

I do not believe, from what I have been told about this people, that there is anything barbarous orsavage about them, except that we call barbarous anything that is contrary to our own habits. Indeed weseem to have no other criterion of truth and reason than the type and kind of opinions and customscurrent in the land where we live. There we always see the perfect religion, the perfect political system,the perfect and most accomplished way of doing everything.

Primary Source Reading 13 L2

Name Date Class

Cop

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by

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raw

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A Letter by Christopher Columbus

As you know, Christopher Columbus was trying to reach China whenhe “discovered” America and the islands of the Caribbean. OnFebruary 13, 1493, he wrote a letter to Santangel, the Spanish gov-

ernment official who had persuaded Queen Isabella to finance his expedition.Below is part of Columbus’s letter, followed by an interpretation by modernhistorian Daniel J. Boorstin.

Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn Columbus’s account of the voyage and compare it toBoorstin’s interpretation.

When I reached Juana [Cuba], I followed itscoast to the westward, and found it so large thatI thought it must be the mainland,—the provinceof Cathay [China]; and, as I found neither townsnor villages on the seacoast, but only a few ham-lets, with the inhabitants of which I could nothold conversation because they all immediatelyfled, I kept on the same route. . . .

. . . The lands are high and there are manyvery lofty mountains. . . . [The islands] are allmost beautiful, of a thousand different shapes,accessible, and covered with trees of a thousandkinds of such great height that they seemed toreach the skies. . . . The nightingale was singingas well as other birds of a thousand differentkinds; and that, in November, the month in whichI myself was roaming amongst them. There arepalm-trees of six or eight kinds, wonderful intheir beautiful variety; but this is the case withall the other trees and fruits and grasses; trees,plants, or fruits filled us with admiration. It con-tains extraordinary pine groves, and very exten-sive plains. There is also honey, a great variety ofbirds, and many different kinds of fruits. In theinterior there are many mines of metals and apopulation innumerable. . . . The inhabitants ofthis and of all the other islands I have found orgained intelligence of, both men and women, go

as naked as they were born. . . . They have nei-ther iron, nor steel, nor arms, nor are they com-petent to use them, not that they are not well-formed and of handsome stature, but becausethey are timid to a surprising degree.

On my reaching the Indies, I took by force,in the first island that I discovered, some of thesenatives that they might learn our language andgive me information in regard to what existed inthese parts; and it so happened that they soonunderstood us and we them, either by words or signs, and they have been very serviceable tous. . . . I find that they . . . believe that I comefrom heaven. . . .

They assure me that there is another island. . . in which the inhabitants have no hair. It isextremely rich in gold. . . . Finally, and speakingonly of what has taken place in this voyage . . .their Highnesses may see that I shall give themall the gold they require, if they will give me buta little assistance; spices also, and cotton, asmuch as their Highnesses shall command to beshipped; and mastic [resin used in varnishes],hitherto found only in Greece . . . slaves, asmany of these idolators as their Highnesses shallcommand to be shipped. I think also I havefound rhubarb and cinnamon, and shall find athousand other valuable things.

Boorstin’s Interpretation

On shipboard off the Azores in mid-February 1493, returning from his first voyage,Columbus wrote his own report of what hethought, and wanted others to think, that he hadaccomplished. . . .

Columbus, having convinced himself that atrip across the Western Ocean would take him to

the Indies, now set about convincing a wideraudience. He had a heavy vested interest in hisdestination actually being the Indies. . . .Columbus was careful not to mention disastersor near disasters—the loss of the flagship, SantaMaria, the insubordination of Martín AlonsoPinzón, the commander of the Pinta, or the muti-

P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 13

APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTAPPLICATION AND ENRICHMENTHistory SimulationActivity 13 L1

Game Card 5You have encountered an unchartedplanet much like Earth, with manyresources. The inhabitants are friendlyand invite you to stay. You may be able

to set up a trading station on the planet.Stay

Your voyage is over. 5,000 points Continue

15,000 points

Game Card 6Food is running very low. Each crewmember is rationed to two slices ofbread each day. Some crew membersare becoming ill from a lack ofvitamins in their diet.

Turn BackYour voyage is over. 500 points

Or—flip a coin:HEADS, no one becomes seriously ill. 3,000 pointsTAILS, some crew members are incapacitated.

–3,000 points

Game Card 4You are approaching an asteroid belt.If you attempt to navigate through it,your ship will almost surely becrushed.

Turn BackYour voyage is over. 500 points

Or—flip a coin:HEADS, you survive. 3,000 pointsTAILS, your ship is damaged. –3,000 points

Game Card 3The fuel regenerator has broken andmight not be repairable. You have fuelfor two weeks, after which your shipwill drift aimlessly in space. If you turn

back now, you will reach home before fuel runs out.Turn Back

Your voyage is over. 500 pointsOr—flip a coin:

HEADS, you fix the regenerator. 3,000 pointsTAILS, it can’t be fixed. Sail on and cross your

fingers. –3,000 points

Name Date Class

Copyright ©

by The M

cGraw

-Hill C

ompanies, Inc.

HANDOUT MATERIAL

The Search for Andronia—Game Cards

Game Card 1You have been traveling for more thantwo months and should have reachedAndronia long ago. You may benearing the edge of the Great Void.

Turn BackYour voyage is over. 500 points

Or—flip a coin:HEADS, you recheck your map and figure out

where you are. 15,000 pointsTAILS, you wander for five years before returning

to familiar territory. 2,000 points

Game Card 2You have drifted into fierce solarwinds from a nearby star. If you con-tinue, your ship may break apart.

Turn BackYour voyage is over. 500 points

Or—flip a coin:HEADS, you survive. 2,000 pointsTAILS, your ship is damaged. –2,000 points

The Search forAndronia

The Search forAndronia

The Search forAndronia

The Search forAndronia

The Search forAndronia

The Search forAndronia

13H I S T O R Y

S I M U L A T I O N

AC T I V I T Y

Historical SignificanceActivity 13 L2

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Name Date Class

During the period of colonial expansion,the major joint-stock companies who soughtto do business in Asia were known as theEast India Companies. These companieswere given unprecedented political author-ity by their home countries. Within their ter-ritories, they had power to pass legislation,wage war, negotiate treaties, issue their owncurrency, and administer their own justice.At its height, the Dutch East India Companymaintained more than 10,000 of its own sol-diers, 40 warships, and 150 merchant ships.Joint-stock companies, however, are not justa thing of the past.

Today, needless to say, joint-stock com-panies still function but without the samedegree of authority. Contemporary joint-stock companies are still organized by indi-

viduals who invest a specific sum of money.Each investor is given a share of stock inthe company in proportion to the amountof money he or she has invested. Althoughthe purpose of the company is to makemoney for all of the stockholders, an indi-vidual stockholder can never lose morethan he or she initially invested.

For example, if you invested $5,000 in ajoint-stock company, you might own 5 per-cent of its total stock; therefore, you wouldreceive 5 percent of the company’s totalprofit for the year. If the company made aprofit of $50,000, you would receive 5 per-cent of this profit or $2,500. If the companyyou invested in failed to make a profit orlost money, the most you could lose wasyour initial $5,000 investment.

Historical Significance Activity 13

Joint-Stock Companies

!

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions in the space provided.

1. What might be some advantages of investing in a joint-stock company rather than starting one’s own business?

2. What might be some of the disadvantages to owning stock in a joint-stock company?

3. How do you think joint-stock companies have changed since they were first started inthe age of exploration?

4. Imagine that a friend wants your advice: should he start his own business or invest hismoney in a joint-stock company? On a separate sheet of paper, write a letter to yourfriend, giving and justifying your advice. How would your answer be different if youwere writing your letter in the late 1600s?

Cooperative LearningActivity 13 L1/ELL

Cop

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Name Date Class

The New Horizons.info New(s) Worlds Web Site

★ Cooperative Learning Activity 13 ★★

BACKGROUNDMany European nations became involved in overseas expansion and explorationstarting in the fifteenth century. Trade opportunities, Christianization, and anemerging spirit of nationalist adventure drove many of the nations to seek newempires and new trade windows in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Mercantilismand increasing international trade became the basis of economic thinking. By work-ing as a group to create a New Horizons news Web site (or newspaper) to coverevents in the Age of Exploration and Expansion, you will develop a heightenedsense of the energy and motivation that surrounded the era.

GROUP DIRECTIONS1. Your group will create a news Web site (live or ready-to-post) covering events

in the Age of Exploration.

2. The group needs to select an editor and two assistant editors who will assignarticles and schedule due dates, proofreading, page layouts, and other tasks. Allquestions should be directed to this senior editorial team.

3. Each member of the group will write a “news” article about one or more eventsin the Age of Exploration and create an advertisement for the Web site, pluscomplete other assignments such as maps, illustrations, adding Web links, andso on as directed by the editorial group. The group should also select membersto key the articles, design the Web pages, create the graphics, and post the textand graphics files.

4. Include the following in the site:• name for the site• illustrations• historical “ads”• maps• articles on any of the following:

causes for exploration and expansion Papal Demarcation LineBartholomeu Dias Prince Henry the NavigatorChristopher Columbus Vasco da GamaAmerigo Vespucci Ferdinand MagellanHernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro

ORGANIZING THE GROUP1. Decision Making As a group, select the editorial team. Then decide on a site

name and brainstorm ideas for ads and other features for the site. The editorialteam should assign stories to the team members and determine responsibilitiesfor other editing, design, illustration, and posting tasks.

0404A-0404D C13 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 8:46 AM Page 404

Page 2: Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES · Timesaving Tools • Interactive ... Interactive Lesson PlannerPlanning has never been easier! ... The First Conquistador (ISBN 1–56501–669–6)

404B

Chapter 13 Resources

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIESINTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES

REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENTREVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT

Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROMInteractive Tutor Self-AssessmentCD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMAudio ProgramWorld History Primary SourceDocument Library CD-ROM

MindJogger VideoquizPresentation Plus! CD-ROMTeacherWorks CD-ROMInteractive Student Edition CD-ROMThe World History Video Program

MULTIMEDIAMULTIMEDIAThe following Spanish language materialsare available:

• Spanish Guided Reading Activities• Spanish Reteaching Activities• Spanish Quizzes and Tests• Spanish Vocabulary Activities• Spanish Summaries• Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide

SPANISH RESOURCESSPANISH RESOURCES

Linking Past and PresentActivity 13 L2

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Name ____________________________________ Date ________________ Class __________

Then During the Age of Exploration,Europeans grew more curious about the worldaround them and began to travel to distantplaces. As their view of Earth changed, theybegan to revise their concepts of the heavens.

Nicholas Copernicus (1473–1543), a nativeof Poland, was one of the first astronomers tochallenge the authorized theory about theplanetary system. This theory stated that Earthwas fixed in place and that all the other planets—encased in concentric crystalspheres—revolved around Earth. Copernicusfound that the paths of the planets could bebetter explained by the theory that they circlethe Sun. Religious leaders preached againstCopernicus’s ideas.

In 1577 a new comet streaked across thesky. It passed through the spaces where theimpenetrable spheres were supposed to be.This event caused more scientists to questionthe Earth-centered model. As they observedthe heavens, they began to set preconceivedideas aside. This enabled scientists to collectmore objective data.

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) made it possibleto observe the heavens even more closely. Heimproved the recently invented telescope sothat he could see the moons that orbit Jupiter.Partly inspired by this evidence that all heav-enly bodies do not circle Earth, he wrote abook supporting the Sun-centered model.Outraged leaders of the Catholic Churchforced Galileo to take back his assertions. Hisideas endured, however, eventually paving theway for modern space exploration.

Now Today, advanced instruments and space-craft help us explore and learn more aboutouter space. Galileo would envy the telescopesof today’s astronomers. One such telescope—the Hubble space telescope—orbits Earth highabove the atmosphere. Thanks to the Hubbletelescope, large parts of the universe have beenseen for the first time.

Scientists have measured a degree of gravi-tational force in outer space not accounted forby visible masses. Scientists believe that a sub-stance known as dark matter is responsible forthis force. Using a telescope called theChandra X-ray Observatory, scientists havebeen able to make images from the x-raysemitted by the dark matter. The Chandra tele-scope can also give information about invisiblecollapsed stars called black holes.

During the 1960s when the Cold War was atits height, United States astronauts competedwith Russian astronauts to place satellites inorbit around Earth and to reach the moon.During the 1990s, these rivals began a jointproject to build an international space station.Today, scientists from many countries use thisspace station to perform experiments about theeffects of living in space.

Unmanned spacecraft now explore oursolar system and land on planets. These craftcontain robots that control flight, take pho-tographs, and collect samples from thesurfaces of planets. One such craft may someday tell us if some form of life exists or hasever existed on Mars.

Linking Past and Present Activity 13

Exploring Space: Past and Present

Critical Thinking

Directions: Answer the following questionson a separate sheet of paper.1. Drawing conclusions: Why did the

appearance of a new comet challenge theEarth-centered model of our planetary system?

2. Making inferences: How do you thinkEarth’s atmosphere interferes with observ-ing distant parts of the universe?

3. Synthesizing information: Why do somescientists believe life forms either exist oronce existed on Mars? Do research in thelibrary and on the Internet to learn aboutthe exploration of Mars by Pathfinder in1997. Write a brief report describing thatmission.

Time Line Activity 13 L2

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Name Date Class

Time Line Activity 13

The Age of ExplorationDIRECTIONS: The explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries brought great changesto many civilizations. Read the time line below, then answer the questions that follow.

1522 Eighteen members ofMagellan’s crew return to Spain.

1400 1500 1600 1700

1. How long did it take Magellan’s crew to circumnavigate the world?

2. How long did it take Sir Francis Drake to complete a similar trip?

3. How many years passed between Europeans first reaching the Americas and sugarcane

being introduced in the West Indies?

4. When did Cartier explore present-day Canada for France?

5. Who first founded a settlement in the present-day United States: the English or the

Dutch? What was it called?

1488 Bartholomeu Dias roundsthe southern tip of Africa.

1492 Christopher Columbusreaches the Americas.

1502 Columbus sails onhis fourth and last voyageto the Americas.

1511 Portugueseseize Melaka.

1518 First African slavescarried to the Americas.

1519 Magellan andhis men set sail tocircle the globe.

1534 Jacques Cartierexplores present-dayCanada for France.

1577 Sir Francis Drake begins hisvoyage around the world.

1580 Sir Francis Drake return to England,completing his circumnavigation.

1607 A permanent settlementis established at Jamestown.

1640 English planters introducesugarcane in the West Indies.

1626 New Amsterdamis founded.

1599 The first Dutch expeditionto East Asia returns.

Reteaching Activity 13 L1

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The Age of Exploration

During the age of European exploration, one nation after another sought to gain territory,goods, or trading partners. Keeping track of the explorers that the major powers of Europesent out can be challenging since explorers were not always born in the country that spon-sored their voyages.

DIRECTIONS: Use the chart below to record the names of the early explorers next to the coun-try each represented.

Reteaching Activity 13‘

Name Date Class

European Nations and TheirExplorers

European Nations andTheir Explorers

(list 1)

Spain

(list 4) (list 3)

Spain Portugal

England

Vocabulary Activity 13 L1

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The Age of Exploration: 1500–1800DIRECTIONS: Match each term with its definition by writing the correct letter on the blank.

Vocabulary Activity 13f

1. imaginary division of Spain’s and Portugal’s spheres of influence

2. theory that a state’s power depends on its wealth

3. formed by ships that sailed from Europe to Africa, from Africa to the Americas,and from the Americas back to Europe

4. tortuous journey of enslaved people from Africa to the Americas

5. countries or regions that are part of the continent

6. considered favorable when a country exports more goods than it imports

7. large agricultural estate

8. Spanish conqueror

DIRECTIONS: Identify the sponsoring country for each explorer and write the correct letter inthe blank. Letters can be used more than once.

A. England B. Spain C. Portugal

9. Hernán Cortés

10. Vasco da Gama

11. Christopher Columbus

12. John Cabot

13. Francisco Pizarro

A. balance of trade

B. conquistador

C. mainland states

D. plantation

E. line of demarcation

F. mercantilism

G middle passage

H. triangular trade

Chapter 13 TestForm A L2

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DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

Column A

1. southern coast of West Africa

2. established a line of demarcation between Spanish andPortuguese territories

3. Venetian seaman who explored the coastline of New England

4. the right for Spanish settlers to use Native Americans aslaborers

5. the journey of slaves from Africa to America

6. king of Congo

7. African society that was ruined because of the slave trade

8. English influence on the spice market was reduced to asingle port located here

9. Dutch established a fort here in 1619

10. extremely profitable trade item from Southeast Asia

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

11. Vasco de Gama’s discovery of a route to India by sea proved to beA. very profitable, since de Gama returned with a cargo of spices and made a profit

of several thousand percent.B. far too costly to be sailed on a regular basis.C. the only time any Portuguese vessel sailed the route, as Muslims later attacked

any ship that attempted the journey.D. much longer than the route to India by land.

12. went to his grave believing he had discovered a westward passageto Asia, when in fact he’d actually discovered the Americas.A. Amerigo Vespucci C. Christopher ColumbusB. John Cabot D. Alfonso de Albuquerque

13. What was the name of the set of principles that dominated economicthought in the seventeenth century?A. commercial capitalism C. speculationB. consumerism D. mercantilism

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 13 Test, Form A

Column B

A. Afonso

B. spice

C. John Cabot

D. Benin

E. encomienda

F. Java

G. Gold Coast

H. Sumatra

I. Treaty ofTordesillas

J. Middle Passage

Chapter 13 TestForm B L2

Performance AssessmentActivity 13 L1/ELL

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Use with Chapter 13.

The Age of Exploration

BACKGROUNDIt is said that on their first Thanksgiving in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the

Pilgrims were assisted by their Native American friend Squanto in preparing theirmeal. This story is probably somewhat fictional, but it is interesting to speculate onwhat the first meetings between non-Western cultures and Europeans must havebeen like. Since the time of the Pilgrims, historians and anthropologists (scientistswho study different cultures and their living habits) from around the world haveused historical documents and other evidence to reconstruct such “first encounters.”Their work gives a clearer picture of how humans relate to one another when theyare separated by vast cultural differences.

TASKPerform a play in which Europeans arrive in an Asian country and are enter-

tained by their Asian hosts with a short drama depicting some aspects of their cul-ture. In response, the Europeans thank the Asians and present a short speechdescribing their culture and outlining their goals in Asia.

AUDIENCEYour audience will be your teacher and classmates.

PURPOSEThe purpose of the play is to inform your audience about the merits of both Asian

and European cultures, and the goals of the European travelers in the early modernperiod.

PROCEDURES

1. In a group, choose the Asian country you want to use as the background for the play.

2. Divide the group in half; one half will play the part of the Asians, the other willassume the roles of the European travelers.

3. Each subgroup then determines which cultural aspects they want to include inthe drama. Examples may include: technology, religion, government, and art andarchitecture.

4. The subgroups then write their short dramas and practice them until they feelwell-rehearsed and convincing.

5. Both subgroups then plan together how each of their parts will function smoothlyas part of the overall interaction between the Europeans and the Asians.

6. Try to perform the play before a test audience, such as your family, before youperform it in front of the class.

7. Incorporate any suggestions your test audience makes with which the group as awhole agrees.

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★ Performance Assessment Activity 13

ExamView® ProTestmaker CD-ROM

Mapping History Activity 13 L2

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Who Took What?As European explorers arrived in the Americas, they took land from NativeAmericans and claimed it for their home countries. The map below shows the locations of Native American peoples before the arrival of Europeans.

DIRECTIONS: Use the map to complete the activities that follow.

Mapping History Activity 13

1. Choose three colors to represent theSpanish, English, and French holdings inNorth America. Add this information tothe map key.

2. Use the following information to indicateon the map the lands held by Spain, England, and France:

By the mid-A.D. 1600s, England controlled most ofNew England and all but the westernmost tip ofLong Island, as well as the eastern shore ofChesapeake Bay. Spain had northern SouthAmerica, Central America, Mexico, and the entirecoast of Florida. France controlled the St.

Lawrence River, Nova Scotia, Prince EdwardIsland, and the eastern portion of New Brunswick.

3. From which Native American peoplesdid the Spanish take land?

4. From which Native American peoplesdid the English take land?

5. From which Native American peoplesdid the French take land?

RO

CK

YM

OU

NT

AI N

S

PACIFICOCEAN

HudsonBay

ARCTICOCEAN

ATLANTICOCEAN

Gulf ofMexico

60°N

40°N

Mississippi

River

OhioRiver

150°W 120°W 90°W 60°W

Albers Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection

0 500

500

1,000 miles

0 1,000 kilometer

Arctic

Subarctic

Northwest Coast

California-Great Basin

Southwest

Great Plains

EasternWoodlands

North AmericanPeoples

N

S

EW

Native American Cultures of North America

World Art and MusicActivity 13 L2

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WoWorld Art and Music Activity

(continued)

Masks are not unique to Africa. Paleolithic cave paintings show huntingscenes with masked dancers. Masks were used in Chinese theater, in JapaneseNo drama, and in devil-dancing ceremonies and theatrical performances inIndia, Ceylon, and Java. North American Indians all used face masks. Maskswere used in Mexico and South America, as well as by some aboriginal tribesin Australia. Masks are used for theater and dance, religious ceremonies, andtribal rituals of fertility, hunting, and agriculture.

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about the use of African tribal masks.Then answer the questions in the space provided.

bers into a secret society. (4) Other related cere-monies were celebrated or solemnized with masks,such as healing, divination, exorcism, protection,presenting petitions, averting disaster, welcomingchiefs and visitors, and law enforcement and

judging disputes.Most masks were made of wood

because it was abundantly availablein the forests in Africa. A small per-centage were carved in ivory fromelephant tusks; however, most ofthe ivory harvested was used fortrading instead. Some masks weremade of brass or gold, but thesewere small and used primarily asornaments. Other masks were madeof knitted material, basketwork, ortwigs and painted bark. Additionalmaterials, such as teeth, hair, fur,shells, bone, berries, seeds, andpieces of metal or cloth, were

added to many wooden masks. Mask carvers served a period of apprenticeship

to a master carver. Often the knowledge of carvingwas transmitted from father to son through manygenerations, but sometimes a young man wasselected because he showed talent in carving. Maskcarvers were usually given high status in the tribe;however in a few tribes, such as the Bambara orSenufo, the mask carver was either feared or froma low caste, and lived isolated from the village. The

African Tribal Masks

13

A frican tribal rituals celebrate religious and culturalevents. The dancer who wears the mask may be

introducing a spirit or transmitting the genealogy ofthe ancestors of the tribe, showing the history of themigration, the institution of ceremonies, or the tech-niques of agriculture or hunting. Theimage on the mask therefore mightbe a mythic or grotesque human rep-resentation, an animal, or a spirit.

The dancer who wore the maskhad to have exceptional strength andspecial skill. The dances were techni-cally complicated and the dancerhad to undergo special training tolearn the dance. The masks werealso heavy and had an uncomfort-able structure. The dancer was alsousually wrapped in a costume thatcovered his body and the warm cli-mate would sap the dancer’sstrength.

Ritual masks were used in four different kindsof ceremonies. (1) Rituals of myth transmitted his-tory of the tribe or celebrated legendary heroesand animals. (2) Fertility rituals celebrated orencouraged spirits to provide fertility in crops andhuman births; masks were also used in the oppo-site end of fertility rituals—funerals or burials.(3)Initiations or rites of passage included celebra-tions of different stages of life, such as the passageof a boy into manhood or the initiation of mem-

Two masks of the Congo Bakwele tribe,known for highly abstract face masks

History and GeographyActivity 13 L2

European claims to land inNorth America led to a varietyof settlement patterns—fromrough wilderness camps tosprawling coastal plantations.

English claimsFrench claimsSpanish claims

1713

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HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITY 13★

European explorers set sail with dreamsof glory and discovery in the late 1400s. Thevast wilderness of the Americas held thepromise of great riches. What form theseriches took—gold, furs, or land forsettlement—depended on the perception ofthe adventurer. How did the adventurers’views reflect the goals of the countries theysailed for?

Spanish explorers searched for land-scapes in the Americas similar to those oftheir European homeland. Spaniards hadlearned to mine the mineral ores fromSpain’s low mountainous terrain. Knowingthe importance of metallurgy to the Spanisheconomy, the earliest Spanish explorerswere drawn to the mountainous areas ofMexico and what is today the southwestUnited States, where mining operationscould be established quickly. They weremore eager to make quick profits from

mining than to develop self-sufficientcolonies based on an agricultural economy.

The French, too, were eager for the prof-its they could make from North America’snatural resources, but they were forced tosearch in northern North America, becausethe Spanish had already claimed much ofCentral America and South America.French explorers Jacques Cartier andSamuel de Champlain had explored theSt. Lawrence River system and the northernAppalachian area, claiming those places forFrance. Finding a region teeming withbeaver, muskrat, and deer, the Frenchturned to trading metal knives, tools, andguns for furs from animals hunted byNative Americans. The French built a fur-trading monopoly that brought them greatwealth without the problems of clearing,farming, and settling the rocky lands ofnorthern New England and Canada.

Looking at the Land

The Spanish Perception“The discovery of the South

Sea would lead to the discoveryof many islands rich in gold,pearls, precious stones . . . andother unknown and wonderfulthings.”

—Hernán Cortés, 1533

The English Perception“There are valleys and plainsstreaming with the sweetsprings. . . . The land is full ofminerals and plenty of woods,of which we have a lack inEngland. There are growinggoodly oaks and elms, beech andbirch . . . and fir trees in greatabundance. The soil is strongand lusty of its own nature.”

—Anonymous English writer,early 1600s

The French Perception“There is a great number ofstags, deer, bears, rabbits, foxes,otters, beavers, weasels, badgersand . . . many other sorts of wildbeasts.”

—Jacques Cartier, 1530s

People in World History Activity 13 L2

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There lies Peru with its riches here, Panama and itspoverty. Choose, each man, what best becomes a braveCastilian. For my part, I go to the South.

Francisco Pizarro, tracing a line on the sand andlooking South

Raised in Spain by poor relatives of hismother, Francisco Pizarro never learned toread and write. Service in the Spanishinfantry, however, taught him about fight-ing—and conquering. The Spanish infantrywas noted for three things: courage, cruelty,and greed.

Pizarro set out for the West Indies in1502, when he was in his early twenties. Heserved as Vasco Núñez de Balboa’s chieflieutenant and was at Balboa’s side whenhe marched across the Isthmus of Panamato the Pacific Ocean in 1513. Years laterPizarro heard stories of an incredibly richempire to the south. He wanted to find itand take its wealth for himself.

Pizarro and his business manager, Diegode Almagro, organized an expedition in1524. After battling bad weather and attacksby native populations, the voyagersreached their goal in what is now Peru.Pizarro and his followers were the firstEuropeans to set foot in Peru. The first peo-ples they encountered wore shiny yellowornaments—gold! Peru had more silver andgold than any other part of the Americas.

Pizarro returned to Spain and reportedhis findings to King Charles I, who appoint-ed him governor of Peru. Returning from

Spain, Pizarrofounded the cityof San Miguel deTangarara (nowPiura) in northernPeru. Althoughthe Inca civil warwas over, theland was still inturmoil. HadPizarro tried to invade Peru earlier, hewould have been met by a united empire;but now the Inca were split, giving him theopportunity to play one side against theother. In a surprise attack, Pizarro’s mencaptured the Inca ruler, Atahualpa, slaugh-tering between 3,000 and 4,000 Inca in theprocess. Pizarro held Atahualpa captive,promising to spare his life if a ransom werepaid. After receiving the ransom, Pizarroand his men executed Atahualpa anyway.

Eight years after reaching Peru, Pizarrofounded the city of Lima as Peru’s capital,setting himself up as the governor. Whilehe was governor, many Spaniards settled inPeru. They mined great amounts of silverand gold and built many cities. With Peruas its base, Spain conquered most of the restof South America. In the late 1530s, warbroke out over who was to rule the areaaround Cusco—Pizarro or his old allyAlmagro. Pizarro’s forces won the conflictand executed Almagro. In 1541 followers ofAlmagro’s son killed Pizarro. It was a deathperhaps in keeping with his violent life.

Francisco Pizarro (1478?–1541)

People in WoWorld History: Activity 13 Profile 1

REVIEWING THE PROFILE

Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

1. How was Pizarro associated with Balboa?

2. How did Pizarro conquer the Inca?

3. Critical Thinking Making Inferences. What do you think was the Inca people’s opinion

Critical Thinking SkillsActivity 13 L2

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Critical Thinking Skills Activity 13 Analyzing Information

1. What does Mary Prince say about how enslaved people really feel?

2. What are three reasons Prince gives to support her position on how enslaved peoplereally feel?

3. In what way do the English change when they arrive in the West Indies, according toPrince? Why might these people change in this way?

4. Does the fact that the speaker has escaped from slavery make her argument more or lesseffective? Explain your answer.

Analyzing the information an authorpresents involves reading carefully to try tounderstand the author’s argument. The fol-lowing firsthand account is by Mary Prince,a woman who managed to escape slavery

in 1828. Prince made her way from the WestIndies to England, where she was helpedby members of the Society of Friends(Quakers). Her story was first publishedin 1831.

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage, then answer the questions that follow.

Iam often much vexed, and I feel great sorrow when I hear some people inthis country say, that the slaves do not need better usage, and do not

want to be free. They believe the foreign people [West Indians], who deceivethem, and say slaves are happy. I say, Not so. How can slaves be happywhen they have the halter round their neck and the whip upon their back?and are disgraced and thought no more of than beasts?—and are separatedfrom their mothers, and husbands, and children, and sisters, just as cattle aresold and separated? Is it happiness for a driver in the field to take down hiswife or sister or child, and strip them, and whip them in a disgracefulmanner?—women that have had children exposed in the open field toshame! There is no modesty or decency shown by the owner to his slaves;men, women, and children are exposed alike. Since I have been here I haveoften wondered how English people can go out into the West Indies and actin such a beastly manner. But when they go to the West Indies, they forgetGod and all feeling of shame, I think, since they can see and do such things.They tie up slaves like hogs—moor them up like cattle, and they lick them, soas hogs, or cattle, or horses never were flogged;—and yet they come homeand say, and make some good people believe, that slaves don’t want to getout of slavery. But they put a cloak about the truth. It is not so. All slaveswant to be free—to be free is very sweet.

Standardized Test PracticeWorkbook Activity 13 L2

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Standardized Test Practice

Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________

Reading Objective 6: The student will recognize points of view, propaganda, and/or statements of fact andnonfact in a variety of written texts.

Learning to distinguish fact from nonfact can help you make reasonable judgments about whatothers say. A fact is a statement that can be proven by evidence such as records, documents,government statistics, or historical sources. A nonfact, often expressed as an opinion, is a statementthat may contain some truth but also contains a personal view or judgment.

★ Practicing the SkillRead the following information and complete the activity that follows.

★ Learning to Distinguish Fact from NonfactUse the following guidelines to help you sift facts from nonfacts, or opinions, and to judge the reliabilityof what you read or hear.

• Identify the facts. Ask yourself the following:Can these statements be proved? Where canI find information to verify them?

• Check the sources for the facts. Reliablesources include almanacs, encyclopedias, andvarious scholarly works.

• Identify the nonfacts or opinions. Sometimesopinions contain phrases such as I believe, inmy view, it is my conviction, I think.

• Identify the purpose. What does the speakeror author want you to believe or do?

ACTIVITY 13Distinguishing Between Fact and Nonfact

The year 1992 was the 500th anniversary of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in theAmericas. Some people saw Columbus’s landing as a positive event and celebrated it withfestivals and parades. Others, however, viewed the anniversary in a negative light. To them,the arrival of Columbus was the first step in the European conquest and destruction ofNative American cultures. Two vastly different viewpoints are expressed below.

Columbus and the Americas

Viewpoint AColumbus’s arrival in the Americas was the

greatest event in history. I believe it deliveredNative American peoples from cultural darknessand brought them the benefits of Europe’smagnificent civilization, especially its religion,culture, and technology. As a result ofColumbus’s landing, two continents provided ahome for millions of people from all parts of theglobe. American lands produced gold, silver, andnew foods, giving European countries even morewealth and power.

Viewpoint BColumbus’s arrival led to a total disaster that

forever altered the history of the Americas. In theyears after his coming, European explorers andsettlers destroyed Native American cultures, killedNative American leaders, and greedily seizedNative American lands. The Europeans, believingin the superiority of their own culture, cruellytreated Native Americans, forcing many of theminto a form of slavery. Exposed to diseases fromEurope for the first time, millions of NativeAmericans died.

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DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

Column A

1. discovered a route to India by sailing around the Cape ofGood Hope

2. believed he had found a westward route to Asia, butactually discovered the Americas

3. wrote many letters describing his voyages to the New World

4. the English seized it and renamed it New York

5. the pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa andAsia, and the American continents

6. this society produced more slaves than practically anyother in the continent

7. known to Europeans as the Spice Islands

8. African slaves were originally brought to the Americas tosupply labor for them

9. originally controlled the Spice Islands until driven out bythe Dutch

10. formed the East India Company and West India Company

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

11. To Portuguese explorers, the southern coast of West Africa becameknown as theA. Cape of Good Hope, because it fulfilled all their hopes for wealth.B. Jewel of Portugal, because the land was lush and beautiful.C. Gold Coast, because they discovered a new source of gold there.D. Burning Land, because it was much hotter there than the sailors had ever

experienced.

12. The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, A. put an end to the war between Portugal and the combined forces of Turkey and

India.B. established a line of demarcation between territories controlled by Portugal and

those controlled by Spain.C. ended the violence between Portuguese and Muslim traders near the coast of

Africa.D. gave Portugal complete control over the Atlantic Ocean.

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Score✔ ScoreChapter 13 Test, Form B

Column B

A. AmerigoVespucci

B. Moluccas

C. Portuguese

D. Vasco de Gama

E. sugar caneplantations

F. ChristopherColumbus

G. Ibo

H. triangular trade

I. Dutch

J. New Netherlands

0404A-0404D C13 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 8:47 AM Page 405

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Daily Objectives Reproducible Resources Multimedia Resources

SECTION RESOURCES

SECTION 1Exploration and Expansion1. Discuss how in the fifteenth century,

Europeans began to explore theworld.

2. Summarize how Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic, and Englandreached new economic heightsthrough worldwide trade.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 13–1Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–1Guided Reading Activity 13–1*Section Quiz 13–1*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 13–1*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–1Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 3Southeast Asia in the Era of theSpice Trade1. Summarize the Portuguese occupa-

tion of the Moluccas in search ofspices and how the Dutch pushedthe Portuguese out.

2. Relate how the arrival of theEuropeans greatly affected theMalay.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 13–3Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–3Guided Reading Activity 13–3*Section Quiz 13–3*Reteaching Activity 13*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 13–3*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–3Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

SECTION 2Africa in an Age of Transition1. Explain how European expansion

affected Africa with the dramaticincrease of the slave trade.

2. Characterize the traditional politicalsystems and cultures that continuedto exist in most of Africa.

Reproducible Lesson Plan 13–2Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–2Guided Reading Activity 13–2*Section Quiz 13–2*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 13–2*

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–2Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

Assign the Chapter 13 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.

Chapter 13 Resources

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Chapter 13 Resources

Teacher’s Corner

The following articles relate to this chapter:

• “La Salle’s Last Voyage,” by Lisa Moore LaRoe, May 1997.• “San Diego: An Account of Adventure, Deceit, and Intrigue,”

by Frank Goddio, July 1994.• “African Slave Trade: The Cruelest Commerce,” by Colin

Palmer, September 1992.• “Portugal’s Sea Road to the East,” by Merle Severy,

November 1982.• “La Isabela: Europe’s First Foothold in the New World,” by

Kathleen A. Deagan, January 1992.• “Pizarro: Conqueror of the Inca,” by John Hemming,

February 1992.• “Track of the Manila Galleons,” by Eugene Lyon, September

1990.

INDEX TONATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS

Teaching strategies have been coded.

L1 BASIC activities for all studentsL2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average

studentsL3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students

ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activitiesELL

Activities that are suited to use within the blockscheduling framework are identified by:

Scott Shephard Watertown Senior High SchoolWatertown, South Dakota

Why We ExploreEncourage students to think about the general

reasons humans explore. This activity also encour-ages students to compare the motives of explorersfrom the Age of Exploration with those of explorersfrom other eras of investigation.

On the board, write the following headings:Motives, Risks, and Significant Gains. Ask studentswhat they know about Christopher Columbus and fill in the chart with facts about his explorations.

Next, give students a list of famous explorers suchas Neil Armstrong, Lewis and Clark, Yury Gagarin,Marco Polo, and Edmund Hillary. Have students useclassroom resources to find out about these people,then add facts about them to the chart on the board.

As a follow-up activity, ask students to draw somegeneralizations about the following: Why do weexplore? Do the risks of exploration ever outweighthe gains? Was Columbus’s voyage riskier than theApollo 11 moon mission? As a final evaluation, youmight ask students to write an essay that comparesand contrasts the motives, risks, and gains ofColumbus with another explorer.

From the Classroom of…

WORLD HISTORY

Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content iscovered in the Student Edition.

You and your students can visit , theWeb site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovativeintegration of electronic and print media offers your students awealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to theWeb site for the following options:

• Chapter Overviews • Self-Check Quizzes

• Student Web Activities • Textbook Updates

Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in theWeb Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources andInteractive Tutor Puzzles are also available.

www.wh.glencoe.com

MEETING SPECIAL NEEDSMEETING SPECIAL NEEDSIn addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found ineach section, the following resources are also suitable foryour special needs students:

• ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers totailor tests by reducing answer choices.

• The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of thestudent edition so that less-proficient readers can listen tothe words as they read them.

• The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides thesame content as the student edition but is written twograde levels below the textbook.

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The Impact TodayToday, people continue to explore themysteries of Earth (oceans, jungles) andof space. Have students discuss how present-day exploration has benefitedareas such as medicine and technology.

Hernán Cortés

404

The Age of Exploration

1500–1800

Key EventsAs you read this chapter, look for the key events of the Age of Exploration.

• Europeans risked dangerous ocean voyages to discover new sea routes.• Early European explorers sought gold in Africa then began to trade slaves.

• Trade increased in Southeast Asia, and the Dutch built a trade empire based on spices in the Indonesian Archipelago.

The Impact TodayThe events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.

• European trade was a factor in producing a new age of commercial capitalism that was one of the first steps toward today’s world economy.

• The consequences of slavery continue to impact our lives today.• The Age of Exploration led to a transfer of ideas and products, many of which are still

important in our lives today.

World History Video The Chapter 13 video, “Magellan’s Voyage,”chronicles European exploration of the world.

1480 1510 1540 1570 1600

1497John Cabot andAmerigo Vespucciexplore theAmericas

1519Spanish beginconquest ofMexico

1492ChristopherColumbusreaches theAmericas

1518First boatloadof slavesbrought directlyfrom Africa tothe Americas

1520Magellan sailsinto PacificOcean

Amerigo Vespucci

1595First Dutch fleetarrives in India

Shackled African slaves

IntroducingCHAPTER 13

IntroducingCHAPTER 13

Refer to Activity 13 in thePerformance AssessmentActivities and Rubrics booklet.

PerformanceAssessment

The World HistoryVideo ProgramTo learn more about the age ofexploration students can view theChapter 13 video, ”Magellan’s Voyage,” from The World HistoryVideo Program.

MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz topreview Chapter 13 content.

Available in VHS.

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

PURPOSE FOR READING

Free Writes Have students read the Christopher Columbus quotation on page 189 and write aresponse to the letter. Emphasize that there are no wrong answers—it is important that all ideasare accepted. Have them discuss their responses with a partner and then with the whole class.After class discussion, have students add to or modify what they wrote. Tell students that Columbus symbolized the European motivations to explore the world. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

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HISTORY

Chapter OverviewVisit the Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

and click on Chapter 13–ChapterOverview to preview chapter information.

wh.glencoe.com1630 1660 1690 1720 1750

1767Burmese sackThai capital

1630English foundMassachusettsBay Colony

World map, 1630

Ships of the Dutch East India Company

c. 1650Dutch occupyPortuguese fortsin Indian Oceantrading areas

c. 1700English establishcolonial empire inNorth America

IntroducingCHAPTER 13

IntroducingCHAPTER 13

Dutch Shipping In 1602, the Dutch parliament granted a charter to the Dutch East India Company.As this company prospered, Dutch merchants increasingly replaced Portuguese traders in India and Southeast Asia. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the Netherlands was the primarycommercial power in Europe. During this same period, the Dutch experienced a Golden Age in art.Wealthy Dutch merchants became patrons of the arts and encouraged artists to paint pictures thatdepicted the sea and shipping. This oil painting of the Dutch East India Company captures the commercial spirit that made the Netherlands such a powerful force in seventeenth-century trade.

MORE ABOUT THE ART

Time Line Activity

As they read this chapter, have stu-dents examine the time line on thesepages. Ask students to explain the sig-nificance of the date 1492. L1

HISTORY

Chapter OverviewIntroduce students to chaptercontent and key terms by havingthem access Chapter Overview13 at .wh.glencoe.com

Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, students should be able to:1. explain the three main

motives for exploration;2. trace the development and

decline of Portugal’s tradingempire and Spanish explo-ration;

3. describe the impact of Euro-peans on African peoples;

4. describe traditional Africanpolitical systems;

5. discuss the shift from Por-tuguese to Dutch control ofthe spice trade;

6. contrast the impact of Euro-peans on mainland states ofSoutheast Asia with theirimpact on the Malay world;

7. describe the four main politi-cal systems in Southeast Asia.

SS.A.3.4.3

Dinah Zike’s Foldables are three-dimensional, interactive graphicorganizers that help students practice basic writing skills, reviewkey vocabulary terms, and identifymain ideas. Have students completethe foldable activity in the DinahZike’s Reading and Study Skills Foldables booklet.

405

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Strait of Magellan

ATLANTICOCEAN

PACIFICSEA

SOUTHAMERICA

406

onvinced that he could find a sea passage to Asia throughthe Western Hemisphere, the Portuguese explorer Ferdi-

nand Magellan persuaded the king of Spain to finance his voy-age. On September 20, 1519, Magellan set sail on the AtlanticOcean with five ships and a Spanish crew of about 250 men.

After reaching South America, Magellan’s fleet moveddown the coast in search of a strait, or sea passage, thatwould take them through America. His Spanish ship captainsthought he was crazy: “The fool is obsessed with his searchfor a strait,” one remarked.

At last, in November 1520, Magellan passed through a nar-row waterway (later named the Strait of Magellan) andemerged in the Pacific Ocean,which he called the Pacific Sea.Magellan reckoned that itwould be a short distance from there to the Spice Islandsof the East.

Week after week he and hiscrew sailed on across the Pacificas their food supplies dwindled. At last they reached thePhilippines (named after the future King Philip II of Spain).There, Magellan was killed by the native peoples. Only one ofhis original fleet of five ships returned to Spain, but Magellanis still remembered as the first person to sail around the world.

CMagellan Sails Around the World

FerdinandMagellan

Discovery of Magellan Strait by an unknown artist

Why It MattersAt the beginning of the sixteenthcentury, European adventurerslaunched their small fleets into thevast reaches of the Atlantic Ocean.They were hardly aware that theywere beginning a new era, not onlyfor Europe but also for the peoplesof Asia, Africa, and the Americas.These European voyages markedthe beginning of a process that ledto radical changes in the political,economic, and cultural life of theentire non-Western world.

History and You Create a mapto scale that shows Spain, SouthAmerica, and the Philippines. Drawthe route Magellan took from Spainto the Philippines. If the voyage tookabout 20 months, how many mileseach day, on average, did Magellantravel? How long would it taketoday?

Introducing A Story That MattersDepending on the ability level ofyour students, select from the fol-lowing questions to reinforce thereading of A Story That Matters.• What was Magellan’s goal

when he set sail on August10, 1519 (passage to Asia bygoing west)

• Given the details of the story,what words would studentsuse to describe the voyage?(dangerous, scary, miserable)

• Why do students think sailorsagreed to such voyagesthrough unknown waters?(fame, wealth, adventure) L1 L2

About the ArtThe picture shows Magellan’sships carefully navigating theirway through the rocky islandsthat were scattered through thenarrow passageway now calledthe Strait of Magellan. The Straitis narrow and experiences highwinds, fog, and rain throughoutthe year. Until the opening of thePanama Canal in 1914, the Straitof Magellan remained an importroute for sailing ships.

HISTORY AND YOUThe discovery that one could sail around the southern tip of South America had a great impact on exploration andtrade. Magellan himself did not actually complete this journey but died in the Philippines. Have students researchthe crew’s journey from the Philippines to the Spice Islands and back to Spain. Who made it home safely? Whathappened to the other ships? What route did they take back to Spain? Students should also discuss how this voy-age impacted commercial trade for the next several hundred years. Students should use primary and secondarysources and prepare a brief written report. L2

SS.D.2.4.6

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1

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1494The Treaty of Tordesillasdivides the Americas

1500Pedro Cabral lands in South America

Guide to Reading

Exploration and Expansion

Preview of Events

1550Spanish gain controlof northern Mexico

✦1480 ✦1495 ✦1510 ✦1525 ✦1540 ✦1555

In a letter to the treasurer of the king and queen of Spain, Christopher Columbusreported on his first journey:

“Believing that you will rejoice at the glorious success that our Lord has granted mein my voyage, I write this to tell you how in thirty-three days I reached the Indies withthe first fleet which the most illustrious King and Queen, our Sovereigns, gave me,where I discovered a great many thickly-populated islands. Without meeting resistance,I have taken possession of them all for their Highnesses. . . . When I reached [Cuba], Ifollowed its coast to the westward, and found it so large that I thought it must be themainland—the province of [China], but I found neither towns nor villages on the sea-coast, save for a few hamlets.”

—Letters from the First Voyage, edited 1847

To the end of his life, despite the evidence, Columbus believed he had found a newroute to Asia.

Motives and MeansThe dynamic energy of Western civilization between 1500 and 1800 was most

apparent when Europeans began to expand into the rest of the world. First Portu-gal and Spain, then later the Dutch Republic, England, and France, all rose to neweconomic heights through their worldwide trading activity.

Voices from the Past

Main Ideas• In the fifteenth century, Europeans

began to explore the world.• Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic, and

England reached new economic heightsthrough worldwide trade.

Key Termsconquistador, colony, mercantilism,balance of trade

People to IdentifyVasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus,John Cabot, Amerigo Vespucci, FranciscoPizarro, Ferdinand Magellan

Places to LocatePortugal, Africa, Melaka, Cuba

Preview Questions1. Why did Europeans travel to Asia?2. What impact did European expansion

have on the conquerors and theconquered?

Reading StrategySummarizing Information Use a chartlike the one below to list reasons whyMelaka, a port on the Malay Peninsula,was important to the Portuguese.

CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration 407

Importance of Melaka

1488Bartholomeu Dias roundsthe Cape of Good Hope

CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 13-1

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. Atlantic and Pacific 2. 52 30’ S latitude 3. CapePilar, south

Exploration and Expansion

UNIT

3Chapter 13

What two great oceans areconnected by the Strait ofMagellan?

What line of latitude marksthe two ends of the strait?

If you were traveling thestrait from east to west, atwhat point would you beleaving the strait? WouldDesolation Island be southor north of you?

1 2 3

DesolationIsland

Santa InessIsland

ClarenceIsland

Dungeness Point

Cape Horn

Cape Pilar Catalina Point

ATLANTIC OCEAN

PACIFIC OCEAN

PuntaArenas

Tierra del FuegoN

E

S

W

52°30'S

The Strait of Magellan

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–1

SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 13–1• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–1• Guided Reading Activity 13–1• Section Quiz 13–1• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 13–1

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–1

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

1 FOCUSSection OverviewAfter reading this section, stu-dents should know the majorEuropean explorers and under-stand their accomplishments.

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: strategicallylocated, control could destroy Arabspice trade, gave Portuguese a waystation en route to Spice Islands

Preteaching VocabularyHave students find the meaning ofthe Latin root of the word mercantil-ism and come up with two otherwords that come from the same root.(mercari—to trade; merchant, merchandise) L1

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2 TEACH

Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection2,000 kilometers0

2,000 miles0

N

S

EW

Death ofMagellanApril 1521

30°E60°W 60°E 90°E 120°E 150°E 180°120°W 90°W150°W 0°30°W

30°S

30°N

60°N

60°S

EQUATOR

TROPIC OFCAPRICORN

TROPIC OF CANCER

Dia

s 14

87 Elcano (fo

r Magellan) 1522

Elc

an

o

Mag

ella

n

1519

-1520

Magellan 1521

Cort´es 1519 Columbus 1492

Verrazano 1524

da Gama

Cabra

l 15

00

Cabral

da

Ga

m

a1497

Cartier 1534

Cabot

1497

Hudson 1610

Hudson 1609

Magellan

Piz

arro

153

1-15

32 Atlantic

Ocean

INDIanOcean

pacificOcean

HudsonBay

CaribbeanSea

pacificOcean

Strait of Magellan

Strait ofMalacca

A S I A

AFRICA

EUROPE

AUSTRALIASOUTHAMERICA

NORTHAMERICA

Philippines

Greenland

HispaniolaBahamasCuba

Spice Islands(Moluccas)

SPAINPORTUGAL

NETHERLANDSFRANCE

PERU

CHINAINDIA

JAPAN

HONDURAS

MEXICO

ENGLAND

Lima

Tenochtitl´an(Mexico City)

MelakaCalicut

Goa

For almost a thousand years, Europeans hadmostly remained in one area of the world. At the endof the fifteenth century, however, they set out on aremarkable series of overseas journeys. What causedthem to undertake such dangerous voyages to theends of the earth?

Europeans had long been attracted to Asia. In thelate thirteenth century, Marco Polo had traveled withhis father and uncle to the Chinese court of the greatMongol ruler Kublai Khan. He had written anaccount of his experiences, known as The Travels. Thebook was read by many, including Columbus, whowere fascinated by the exotic East. In the fourteenthcentury, conquests by the Ottoman Turks reduced theability of westerners to travel by land to the East.People then spoke of gaining access to Asia by sea.

Economic motives loom large in European expan-sion. Merchants, adventurers, and state officials hadhigh hopes of expanding trade, especially for thespices of the East. The spices, which were needed topreserve and flavor food, were very expensive afterbeing shipped to Europe by Arab middlemen. Euro-peans also had hopes of finding precious metals. OneSpanish adventurer wrote that he went to the Amer-icas “to give light to those who were in darkness, andto grow rich, as all men desire to do.”

This statement suggests another reason for theoverseas voyages: religious zeal. Many people sharedthe belief of Hernán Cortés, the Spanish conqueror ofMexico, that they must ensure that the natives “areintroduced into the holy Catholic faith.”

There was a third motive as well. Spiritual andsecular affairs were connected in the sixteenth cen-tury. Adventurers such as Cortés wanted to convertthe natives to Christianity, but grandeur, glory, and aspirit of adventure also played a major role in Euro-pean expansion.

“God, glory, and gold,” then, were the chiefmotives for European expansion, but what made thevoyages possible? By the second half of the fifteenthcentury, European monarchies had increased their

408 CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

DutchEnglishFrenchPortugueseSpanish

European Voyages of Discovery

For more than a hundred years European explorers sailedthe globe searching for wealth and glory.

1. Interpreting Maps Which continents were leftuntouched by European explorers?

2. Applying Geography Skills Create a table that orga-nizes the map information. Include the explorer, date,sponsoring country, and area explored.

CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413

Answers:1. Based on map, Australia and

Antarctica2. Tables will vary, should include

explorer, date, sponsoring coun-try, and area explored.

EnrichHave students discuss whyspices were especially prized byEuropeans. (needed to keep foodfrom rotting; desired adding flavor)

Science Have students researchEuropeans’ understanding of windcurrents, which helped them makelong voyages. Ask them to draw orbring in diagrams explaining exactlyhow the compass and astrolabework. L2

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–1

I. Motives and Means (pages 407–409)

A. Europeans had long been attracted to Asia. Many people, including ChristopherColumbus, were fascinated by Marco Polo’s account of his travels to the court ofKublai Khan and the exotic East. Fourteenth-century conquests by the OttomanEmpire made traveling to the East by land difficult. Europeans wanted a route by sea.

B. The desire for wealth was a large part of European expansion. Merchants, adventurers,and government officials hoped to find precious metals in and expand trade with theEast especially trade in spices Another motive was religious wanting to spread the

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 13, Section 1

Did You Know? The captain of the only ship from Magellan’svoyage that actually encircled the globe and returned to Spainreceived from the Spanish ruler a globe with the inscription“Primus circumdedisti me”—“You were the first to encircle me”—toadd to his coat of arms.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYINTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYGeography Using a world map or globe, have students locate Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands,England, France, North and South America, the islands of the Caribbean, Africa, the East Indies(now Indonesia), India, and the Philippines. Into what three major oceans are the great waters ofthe world divided? Which ocean is the largest and which the smallest? (Pacific, Atlantic, Indian; ThePacific is the largest and the Indian is the smallest.) Have students note the distance from Europeto India, the islands of Indonesia, and the coast of the Americas. L1 ELL

FCAT SC.E.2.4.6

FCAT MA.B.1.4.3

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

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Critical Thinking Although Europeans made voy-ages in part to “destroy Muslimshipping” and to convert “hea-thens,” most of their sailingknowledge came from the Arabs.Ask students to research Arabtechnology. How did the Euro-peans acquire it? Did the Arabsmake any effort to keep theirknowledge secret? Did theythemselves use what they dis-covered? L2

Writing ActivityHave students write a brief essayin which they identify the causesof European expansion begin-ning in the sixteenth century. L1

Sea Travel in an Age of Exploration

European voyagers acquired much of theirknowledge about sailing from the Arabs. For

example, sailors used charts that Arab navigatorsand mathematicians had drawn in the thirteenthand fourteenth centuries. Known as portolani,these charts recorded the shapes of coastlines anddistances between ports. They were very valuable inEuropean waters. Because the charts were drawnon a flat scale and took no account of the curvatureof the earth, however, they were of little help onoverseas voyages.

Only as sailors began to move beyond the coastsof Europe did they gain information about theactual shape of the earth. By 1500, cartography—the art and science ofmapmaking—had reached the point where Europeans had fairly accuratemaps of the areas they had explored.

Europeans also learned new navigational techniques from the Arabs. Pre-viously, sailors had used the position of the North Star to determine their lat-itude. Below the Equator, though, this technique was useless. The compassand the astrolabe (also perfected by the Arabs) greatly aided exploration.The compass showed in what direction a ship was moving. The astrolabeused the sun or a star to ascertain a ship’s latitude.

Finally, European shipmakers learned how to use lateen (triangular) sails,which were developed by the Arabs. New ships, called caravels, were moremaneuverable and could carry heavy cannon and more goods.

Evaluating Which one advance was the most important for earlyexplorers? Why?

power and their resources. They could now turn theirenergies beyond their borders. Europeans had alsoreached a level of technology that enabled them tomake a regular series of voyages beyond Europe. Anew global age was about to begin.

Explaining What does the phrase“God, glory, and gold” mean?

The Portuguese Trading EmpirePortugal took the lead in European exploration.

Beginning in 1420, under the sponsorship of PrinceHenry the Navigator, Portuguese fleets began prob-ing southward along the western coast of Africa.There, they discovered a new source of gold. The

Reading Check

southern coast of West Africa thus became known toEuropeans as the Gold Coast.

Portuguese sea captains heard reports of a route toIndia around the southern tip of Africa. In 1488,Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip, called the Cape ofGood Hope. Later, Vasco da Gama went around thecape and cut across the Indian Ocean to the coast ofIndia. In May of 1498, he arrived off the port of Cali-cut, where he took on a cargo of spices. He returnedto Portugal and made a profit of several thousandpercent. Is it surprising that da Gama’s voyage wasthe first of many along this route?

Portuguese fleets returned to the area to destroyMuslim shipping and to gain control of the spicetrade, which had been controlled by the Muslims. In

409CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

Early compass

Map of the world, 1571

Caravel (small fifteenth- and sixteenth-century ship)

Cargo hold

CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413

Answer: Answers will vary.

Guided Reading Activity 13–1

Name Date Class

Exploration and Expansion

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 1.

1. Why was land travel from Europe to Asia reduced in the fourteenth century?

2. What three motives prompted adventurers to begin seeking a better sea route to Asia?

3. Which country took the lead in European exploration?

4. Why were traders ready to duplicate the voyage of da Gama to the coast of India?

5. How did the Spanish differ from the Portuguese in searching for a route to Asia?

Guided Reading Activity 13-1

EXTENDING THE CONTENTCreating a Research Report Early Spanish and Portuguese explorers encountered many differentcultures in the Americas (including Arawak, Carib, Maya, Aztec, Inca). Organize the class into smallgroups and have each group research and report on one of the indigenous American cultures.Each student should be assigned one of the following areas to research: geographic location andmethod of subsistence, arts and crafts, religious beliefs, customs, and the effect of European con-tact on the culture. Reports should be graded on how well students explain the political, economic,cultural and technological influence of European expansion on American cultures. One or morestudents may illustrate the report. L2

COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITYCOOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY

Answer: chief motives for Europeanexpansion: to convert the natives, foradventure, and for the riches thatcould be obtained

SS.A.3.4.3

SS.A.3.4.3

SS.A.2.4.6

L1

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

31 2

4

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DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONReading Support Have students work in pairs or small groups to summarize in pictures on posterboard the achievements of Portugal and Spain described in this section. Try to pair competent illus-trators with verbally proficient students. Tell students to discuss how the pictures should best con-vey the information. After the picture or pictures have been sketched and colored in, the groupsshould write labels summarizing the information the pictures convey. Display completed posters in the classroom. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

ELL

410

Answer: It would help destroy Arabcontrol of the spice trade and pro-vide the Portuguese a way station onthe way to the Spice Islands.

1509, a Portuguese fleet of warships defeated a com-bined fleet of Turkish and Indian ships off the coastof India. A year later, Admiral Afonso de Albu-querque set up a port at Goa, on the western coast of India.

The Portuguese then began to range more widelyin search of the source of the spice trade. Soon, Albu-querque sailed into Melaka on the Malay Peninsula.Melaka was a thriving port for the spice trade. ForAlbuquerque, control of Melaka would help todestroy Arab control of the spice trade and providethe Portuguese with a way station on the route to theMoluccas, then known as the Spice Islands.

From Melaka, the Portuguese launched expedi-tions to China and the Spice Islands. There, theysigned a treaty with a local ruler for the purchase andexport of cloves to the European market. This treatyestablished Portuguese control of the spice trade. ThePortuguese trading empire was complete. However,it remained a limited empire of trading posts. The

Portuguese had neither the power, the people, northe desire to colonize the Asian regions.

Why were the Portuguese the first successfulEuropean explorers? Basically it was a matter of gunsand seamanship. Later, however, the Portuguesewould be no match for other European forces—theEnglish, Dutch, and French.

Explaining Why did Afonso deAlbuquerque want control of Melaka?

Voyages to the AmericasThe Portuguese sailed eastward through the

Indian Ocean to reach the source of the spice trade.The Spanish sought to reach it by sailing westwardacross the Atlantic Ocean. With more people andgreater resources, the Spanish established an over-seas empire that was quite different from the Por-tuguese trading posts.

Reading Check

What Was the Impact of Columbuson the Americas?Historians have differed widelyover the impact of Columbuson world history. Was he ahero who ushered in eco-nomic well being through-out the world? Or, was he a prime mover in thedestruction of the peo-ple and cultures ofthe Americas?

“The whole history of the Americas stems fromthe Four Voyages of Columbus. . . . Today a core ofindependent nations unite in homage to Christo-pher, the stout-hearted son of Genoa, who carriedChristian civilization across the Ocean Sea.”

—Samuel Eliot Morison, 1942Admiral of the Ocean Sea,

A Life of Christopher Columbus

“Just twenty-one years after Columbus’s first land-ing in the Caribbean, the vastly populous islandthat the explorer had re-named Hispaniola waseffectively desolate; nearly 8,000,000 people. . .had been killed by violence, disease, and despair.[W]hat happened on Hispaniola was the equivalentof more than fifty Hiroshimas.* And Hispaniola wasonly the beginning.”

—David E. Stannard, 1992American Holocaust: Columbus

and the Conquest of the New World*The atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, killed at least130,000 people.

410 CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413

Literature Have students read anexcerpt from one of Columbus’sjournals. Discuss what the excerptreveals about Columbus and histimes. You might wish to ask othervolunteers to read historical accountsof Columbus’s journey that werewritten during differing time periods.Have students share what theylearned and explore reasons for dif-ferences in these accounts with theclass. L2

Critical ThinkingHave students identify and dis-cuss the changes that resultedfrom the European age of explo-ration. Ask students to takenotes as they read the chapter.From their notes have studentsdescribe the defining characteris-tics of this era. L1

Turning Points in World HistoryThe ABC News videotapeincludes a segment on theAge of Exploration.

SS.A.1.4.3

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EnrichHave students use libraryresources to research the expedi-tions of one of the famous Euro-pean explorers. Then have themprepare a script about theexplorer’s expedition. L3

The Voyages of Columbus An important figure inthe history of Spanish exploration was an Italian,Christopher Columbus. Educated Europeans knewthat the world was round, but had little understand-ing of its circumference or of the size of the continentof Asia. Convinced that the circumference of Earthwas not as great as others thought, Columbusbelieved that he could reach Asia by sailing westinstead of east around Africa.

Columbus persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain tofinance an exploratory expedition. In October 1492,he reached the Americas, where he explored thecoastline of Cuba and the island of Hispaniola.

Columbus believed he had reached Asia.Through three more voyages, he sought in vain tofind a route through the outer islands to the Asianmainland. In his four voyages, Columbus reachedall the major islands of the Caribbean and Hondurasin Central America—all of which he called theIndies.

A Line of Demarcation By the 1490s, then, the voy-ages of the Portuguese and Spanish had alreadyopened up new lands to exploration. Both Spain andPortugal feared that the other might claim some of itsnewly discovered territories. They resolved their con-cerns by agreeing on a line of demarcation, an imag-inary line that divided their spheres of influence.

According to the Treaty of Tordesillas (TAWR•duh•SEE•yuhs), signed in 1494, the line wouldextend from north to south through the AtlanticOcean and the easternmost part of the South Ameri-can continent. Unexplored territories east of the linewould be controlled by Portugal, and those west ofthe line by Spain. This treaty gave Portugal controlover its route around Africa, and it gave Spain rightsto almost all of the Americas.

Race to the Americas Other explorers soon real-ized that Columbus had discovered an entirely newfrontier. Government-sponsored explorers frommany countries joined the race to the Americas. AVenetian seaman, John Cabot, explored the NewEngland coastline of the Americas for England. ThePortuguese sea captain Pedro Cabral landed in SouthAmerica in 1500. Amerigo Vespucci (veh•SPOO•chee), a Florentine, went along on several voyagesand wrote letters describing the lands he saw. Theseletters led to the use of the name America (afterAmerigo) for the new lands.

411CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

Columbus petitions Queen Isabella for financial support of hisexplorations.

“When the two races first met on the easterncoast of America, there was unlimited potentialfor harmony. The newcomers could have adaptedto the hosts’ customs and values. . . . But this didnot happen . . . [Columbus] viewed the natives ofAmerica with arrogance and disdain . . . Colum-bus wrote of gold, . . . and of spices, . . . and‘slaves, as many as they shall order to beshipped. . . .’”

—George P. Horse Capture, 1992“An American Indian Perspective,” Seeds of Change

1. Using information from the text and outsidesources, write about Columbus’s voyages from hispoint of view. If he were to undertake his voyagestoday, would he do anything differently?

2. Using the information in the text and your ownresearch, evaluate these three excerpts. Whichcorroborates the information of the other? Whatmight account for the difference in theseviewpoints?

CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413

Citrus Florida’s citrus industry can betraced back to Columbus’s secondvoyage to the Americas in 1493. Thecitrus seeds the navigator brought tothe West Indies took root there andeventually made their way to Mexicoand Florida.

Science Ask interested students toresearch the impact of contagiousdiseases on Native American popula-tions. How is immunity to such dis-eases built up? Were Europeansaffected by American diseases? L2

EXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTEXTENDING THE CONTENTNavigation In ancient times, sailors used the constellations and seasonal wind directions to navi-gate their ships. In the Middle Ages, sailors drew up charts that included sample calculations ofwind directions for the different seasons. The invention of both the astrolabe and the compass had a combined impact on late medieval European civilization that somewhat mirrors the impactof radio on modern civilization. Sailors at last found an accurate way to measure the angle andmovement of stars. Now, if a ship were blown off course by a storm, the astrolabe could showsailors how far they had drifted. The sextant, a device still used in modern-day navigation, wasdeveloped from the astrolabe.

Answers:1. Answers will vary, but should be

supported by logical arguments.2. The Morison viewpoint is the tradi-

tional eurocentric viewpoint thatsees the arrival of the Europeans asa positive “civilizing” influence; theother two focus primarily on thenegative effects of Columbus’s dis-covery on the civilizations he foundin the Americas.

FCAT SC.F.2.4.3; SC.F.1.4.1

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Answer: Each was afraid that theother might try to claim some of itsnewly discovered territories.

Answer: The majority of the nativesquickly died off as a result of vio-lence, forced labor, starvation, anddisease.

thousands of native peoples. With the arrival of themissionaries came parishes, schools, and hospitals—all the trappings of a European society. Native Amer-ican social and political structures were torn apartand replaced by European systems of religion, lan-guage, culture, and government.

Evaluating What was the impact of the Spanish settlement on the Native Americans?

Economic Impact and CompetitionInternational trade was crucial in

creating a new age of commercial capitalism, one of thefirst steps in the development of the world economy.Spanish conquests in the Americas affected

not only the conquered but also the conquerors. This was especially true in the economic arena.Wherever they went, Europeans sought gold and sil-ver. One Aztec commented that the Spanish con-querors “longed and lusted for gold. Their bodiesswelled with greed; they hungered like pigs for that gold.” Rich silver deposits were found andexploited in Mexico and southern Peru (modernBolivia).

Colonists established plantations and ranches toraise sugar, cotton, vanilla, livestock, and other prod-ucts introduced to the Americas for export to Europe.Agricultural products native to the Americas, such aspotatoes, cocoa, corn, and tobacco, were also shippedto Europe. The extensive exchange of plants and ani-mals between the Old and New Worlds—known asthe Columbian Exchange—transformed economicactivity in both worlds.

At the same time, Portuguese expansion in the East created its own economic impact. With their Asiantrading posts, Portugal soon challenged the Italian states as the chief entry point of the eastern trade in spices, jewels, silk, and perfumes. Other

European nations soon soughtsimilar economic benefits.

New Rivals Enter the SceneBy the end of the sixteenthcentury, several new Euro-pean rivals had entered thescene for the eastern trade.The Spanish establishedthemselves in the PhilippineIslands, where FerdinandMagellan had landed earlier.They turned the Philippinesinto a major Spanish base for

Reading Check

412 CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

Europeans called these territories the New World,but the lands were hardly new. They already hadflourishing civilizations made up of millions of peo-ple when the Europeans arrived. The Americas were,of course, new to the Europeans, who quickly sawopportunities for conquest and exploitation.

Examining Why did the Spanish andPortuguese sign the Treaty of Tordesillas?

The Spanish EmpireThe Spanish conquerors of the Americas—known

as conquistadors—were individuals whose guns anddetermination brought them incredible success. Theforces of Hernán Cortés took only three years to over-throw the mighty Aztec Empire in Central Mexico(see Chapter 11). By 1550, the Spanish had gainedcontrol of northern Mexico. In South America, anexpedition led by Francisco Pizarro took control ofthe Incan Empire high in the Peruvian Andes. Within30 years, the western part of Latin America, as theselands in Mexico and Central and South America werecalled, had been brought under Spanish control. (ThePortuguese took over Brazil, which fell on their sideof the line of demarcation.)

By 1535, the Spanish had created a system of colo-nial administration in the Americas. Queen Isabelladeclared Native Americans (then called Indians, afterthe Spanish word Indios, “inhabitants of the Indies”) to be her subjects. She granted the Spanish encomienda,or the right to use Native Americans as laborers.

The Spanish were supposed to protect Native Amer-icans, but the settlers were far from Spain and largelyignored their rulers. Native Americans were put towork on sugar plantations and in gold and silver mines.Few Spanish settlers worried about protecting them.

Forced labor, starvation, and especially diseasetook a fearful toll on Native American lives. With lit-tle natural resistance to Europeandiseases, the native peoples wereravaged by smallpox, measles,and typhus, and many of themdied. Hispaniola, for example, hada population of 250,000 whenColumbus arrived. By 1538, only500 Native Americans had sur-vived. In Mexico, the populationdropped from 25 million in 1519 to1 million in 1630.

In the early years of the con-quest, Catholic missionaries con-verted and baptized hundreds of

Reading Check

Incan mask

CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413

3 ASSESSAssign Section 1 Assessment as homework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

How did governments respond to thenew age of commercial capitalism?(granted subsidies, improved trans-portation, higher taxes) Ask studentshow international trade resultingfrom the Age of Exploration differedfrom earlier trade along the Silk Road.L1

Section Quiz 13–1

mpa

nies

, Inc

.

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. Spanish conquerors of the Americas

2. the right to use native Americans as slaves

3. settlement in a new territory linked to a parent country by trade

4. economic theory of the 17th century

5. difference in value between imports and exports over time

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. European expansion was driven by all of the following EXCEPTA. wealth and trade. C. political ambition.B. religious zeal. D. fear of African empires.

7. Portugal maintained a colonial or trade interest in all of the followingEXCEPTA. North America. C. West Africa.B. South America. D. India.

8. The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 gave Spain control of almost all of A. Africa. C. Europe.B. Asia. D. the Americas.

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 13

Section Quiz 13-1

Column B

A. colony

B. mercantilism

C. conquistadors

D. balance of trade

E. encomienda

SS.D.2.4.6

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STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

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READING THE TEXT

Reading Maps, Graphs, and Charts Have students refer to the world map in the Reference Atlassection of this text. Then ask students to study the historical map on page 409. Ask students todescribe as many differences as they can between the two maps. Have students explain why themaps are different (tools and knowledge available to create the map, purpose of the map, cost ofproducing the map). Have students interpret the maps to identify and explain the geographic fac-tors that influenced the people and events of the Age of Exploration. To illustrate how difficult itwas for explorers to create accurate maps, have your students create a map of the classroom.Encourage students to make scale and proportion as exact as possible. L1 ELL FCAT MA.B.3.4.1

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Vasco da Gama (p. 409); Christo-

pher Columbus (p. 411); JohnCabot (p. 411); Amerigo Vespucci(p. 411); Francisco Pizarro (p. 412); Ferdinand Magellan (p. 412)

3. See chapter maps. 4. mercantilism measured a nation’s

prosperity in bullion

5. parishes, schools, hospitals; alsoreligion, language, culture, govern-ment

6. allowed the Spanish to use NativeAmericans as laborers, majority ofthe native population soon killedby forced labor, starvation, dis-ease; positive: Spanish were supposed to protect the NativeAmericans

7. opportunities for riches, religiouszeal, spirit of adventure

8. The mask is made of gold, whichwas highly desired by Europeanexplorers.

9. Students will create a journal entry.

413

Answer: silver, dyes, gold, cotton,vanilla, hides, potatoes, cocoa, corn,tobacco

trade across the Pacific. Spanish ships carried silverfrom Mexico to the Philippines and returned to Mex-ico with silk and other luxury goods.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, anEnglish fleet landed on the northwestern coast ofIndia and established trade relations with the peoplethere. Trade with Southeast Asia soon followed.

The first Dutch fleet arrived in India in 1595.Shortly after, the Dutch formed the East India Com-pany and began competing with the English and thePortuguese.

The Dutch also formed the West India Companyto compete with the Spanish and Portuguese in theAmericas. The Dutch colony of New Netherlandstretched from the mouth of the Hudson River northto Albany, New York. Present-day names such asStaten Island and Harlem are reminders that it wasthe Dutch who initially settled the Hudson RiverValley.

During the 1600s, the French also colonized partsof what is now Canada and Louisiana. In 1608Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec, the first per-manent French settlement in the Americas. Mean-while, English settlers were founding Virginia andthe Massachusetts Bay Colony.

After 1660 the English-French rivalry broughtabout the fall of the Dutch commercial empire in theAmericas. The English seized the colony of NewNetherland, renaming it New York. By 1700 theEnglish had established a colonial empire along theeastern seaboard of North America. They had also setup sugar plantations on several Caribbean islands.

413CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

Checking for Understanding1. Define conquistador, colony, mercan-

tilism, balance of trade.

2. Identify Vasco da Gama, ChristopherColumbus, John Cabot, AmerigoVespucci, Francisco Pizarro, FerdinandMagellan.

3. Locate Portugal, Africa, Melaka, Cuba.

4. Explain why the Spanish were so hun-gry for gold.

5. List the institutions of European societythat were brought to the Americas byEuropean missionaries.

Critical Thinking6. Describe Identify and briefly describe

the negative consequences of the Span-ish encomienda system. Were thereany positive consequences?

7. Identifying Information Use a webdiagram like the one below to listmotives for European exploration.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the photograph of the Incan

mask shown on page 412 of your text.How could artifacts such as this haveincreased the European desire toexplore and conquer the Americas?

Motives forExploration

9. Descriptive Writing Research oneof the expeditions discussed in thissection. Write a journal entrydescribing your experiences as a sailor on the expedition. Providedetails of your daily life on the shipand what you found when you firstreached land.

Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism Led by Por-tugal and Spain, European nations in the 1500s and1600s established many trading posts and coloniesin the Americas and the East. A colony is a settle-ment of people living in a new territory, linked withthe parent country by trade and direct governmentcontrol.

With the development of colonies and tradingposts, Europeans entered an age of increased interna-tional trade. Colonies played a role in the theory ofmercantilism, a set of principles that dominated eco-nomic thought in the seventeenth century. Accordingto mercantilists, the prosperity of a nation dependedon a large supply of bullion, or gold and silver. Tobring in gold and silver payments, nations tried tohave a favorable balance of trade. The balance oftrade is the difference in value between what a nationimports and what it exports over time. When the bal-ance is favorable, the goods exported are of greatervalue than those imported.

To encourage exports, governments stimulatedexport industries and trade. They granted subsidies, orpayments, to new industries and improved transporta-tion systems by building roads, bridges, and canals. Byplacing high tariffs, or taxes, on foreign goods, theytried to keep these goods out of their own countries.Colonies were considered important both as sources ofraw materials and markets for finished goods.

Identifying What products were sentfrom the Americas to Europe?

Reading Check

CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413CHAPTER 13Section 1, 407–413

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 13–1

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 13, Section 1

For use with textbook pages 407–413

EXPLORATION AND EXPANSION

KEY TERMS

conquistadors Spanish conquerors of the Americas (page 412)

colony a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by tradeand direct government control (page 413)

mercantilism a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century,which emphasized the accumulation of bullion through government involvement in the pro-motion of industries and trade (page 413)

balance of trade the difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exportsover time (page 413)

Name Date Class

Connecting Across TimeAsk students to research theDutch East India Company andbusiness strategies of multina-tional corporations. How hasforeign trade changed since theseventeenth century? L3

Reteaching ActivityHave students work in pairs tooutline this section. L1

4 CLOSEAsk students how life in Europewas changed by exploration inAfrica, Asia, and the Americas.What might the impact ofexpanded trade have been onEuropeans’ daily lives? Havestudents explain the political,economic, cultural, and techno-logical influences of Europeanexpansion on Europeans. L2

L1

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ANSWERS TO ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES

1. Columbus wanted to win the affection of the people ofHispaniola, to encourage them to become Christians,to win their loyalty for the Spanish monarchs, and toencourage them to give things to him in return.

2. In trade transactions, Native Americans unwittinglyexchanged disproportionate sums of gold for items oflittle worth that the explorers had brought with them.

414

TEACHAnalyzing Primary SourcesBased on this letter, how wouldstudents describe the attitude ofthe natives of Hispaniola towardColumbus and his men?(Answers will vary.) To whomwas Columbus writing this let-ter? (Spanish king and queen) Howdo you know? (Addresses “YourHighnesses”) How does the factthat he was writing to his spon-sors explain why Columbusclaims to have given the natives“good things,” rather thanworthless things? (says he hopednatives would become Christiansubjects of Spain, willing to giveSpain what it wanted) L2

Critical ThinkingAsk students to speculate whyColumbus assumed the nativesof Hispaniola were “very mar-velously timid.” L2

Connecting Across TimeDuring the Age of Exploration,most explorers were financed by their governments or by theirmonarchs. Guide students in adiscussion of the ways contem-porary explorers obtain financ-ing for their work. L2

414

Columbus Lands in the AmericasON RETURNING FROM HIS VOYAGE TO THE

Americas, Christopher Columbus wrote a letter describinghis experience. Inthis passage fromthe letter, he tellsof his arrival onthe island ofHispaniola.

“The people of this island and of all the otherislands which I have found and of which I haveinformation, all go naked, men and women, as theirmothers bore them. They have no iron or steel orweapons, nor are they fitted to use them. This is notbecause they are not well built and of handsomestature, but because they are very marvelously timid.They have no other arms than spears made ofcanes, cut in seeding time, to the end of which theyfix a small sharpened stick.

They refuse nothing that they possess, if it beasked of them; on the contrary, they invite any oneto share it and display as much love as if they wouldgive their hearts. They are content with whatever tri-fle of whatever kind they may be given to them,whether it be of value or valueless. I forbade thatthey should be given things so worthless as frag-ments of broken crockery, scraps of broken glassand lace tips, although when they were able to getthem, they fancied that they possessed the bestjewel in the world. So it was found that for a leatherstrap a soldier received gold to the weight of twoand half castellanos, and others received muchmore for other things which were worthless. . . . I gave them a thousand handsome good things,which I had brought, in order that they might con-ceive affection for us and, more than that, mightbecome Christians and be inclined to the love andservice of Your Highnesses [king and queen ofSpain], and strive to collect and give us of the thingswhich they have in abundance and what are necessary to us.

They practice no kind of idolatry, but have a firmbelief that all strength and power, and indeed allgood things, are in heaven, and that I haddescended from thence with these ships and sailors,and under this impression was I received after theyhad thrown aside their fears. Nor are they slow orstupid, but of very clear understanding; and thosemen who have crossed to the neighbouring islandsgive an abominable description of everything theyobserved; but they never saw any people clothed,nor any ships like ours.”

—Christopher Columbus, The Journal of Christopher Columbus

Caribbean Sea

ATLANTICOCEAN

HispaniolaCUBA

HAITI DOMINICANREPUBLIC

Columbus landing in the Americas

Analyzing Primary Sources

1. Why did Columbus give the peoples of Hispaniola “a thousand handsome good things”?

2. How did the explorers take advantage of Native Americans?

FCAT LA.A.2.4.1

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Africa in an Age of Transition

Preview of Events

Early European explorers sought gold in Africa but were soon involved in the slavetrade. One Dutch trader noted:

“As the slaves come down to Fida [a port on the west coast of Africa] from theinland country, they are put into a booth, or prison, built for that purpose, near thebeach, all of them together; and when the Europeans are to receive them, they arebrought out into a large plain, where the surgeons examine every part of them, menand women being all stark naked. Such as are found good and sound are set on oneside. Each of those which have passed as good is marked . . . with a red-hot iron,imprinting the mark of the French, English, or Dutch companies, so that each nationmay distinguish its own and prevent their being changed by the natives for worse.”

—Documents Illustrative of the Slave Trade to America, Elizabeth Dorman, ed.,1930

The exchange of slaves became an important part of European trading patterns.

The Slave TradeTraffic in slaves was not new, to be sure. As in other areas of the world, slavery

had been practiced in Africa since ancient times. In the fifteenth century, it con-tinued at a fairly steady level.

The primary market for African slaves was Southwest Asia, where most slaveswere used as domestic servants. Slavery also existed in some European countries.

Voices from the Past

CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration 415

Economic/ Economic/Political Factors Political Effects

1518A Spanish ship carries the first boat-load of African slaves to the Americas

1591Moroccan forces defeatthe Songhai army

✦1510 ✦1525 ✦1540 ✦1555 ✦1570 ✦1585 ✦1600

Guide to ReadingMain Ideas• European expansion affected Africa with

the dramatic increase of the slave trade.• Traditional political systems and cul-

tures continued to exist in most ofAfrica.

Key Termsplantation, triangular trade, MiddlePassage

People to IdentifyKing Afonso, Ibo

Places to LocateBrazil, Benin, South Africa, Mozambique

Preview Questions1. How did European expansion affect

Africa’s peoples and cultures? 2. How were the African states structured

politically?

Reading StrategyCause and Effect Use a table like theone below to identify economic and polit-ical factors that caused the slave trade tobe profitable. List the economic and polit-ical effects of the trade.

CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 13-2

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. the need for labor increased 2. corruption anddepopulation 3. African leaders used guns obtained bytrading slaves to raid neighboring peoples

Africa in an Age of Transition

UNIT

3Chapter 13

Why did the planting ofsugar cane in the Americasincrease the demand forslaves?

How did the demand forslaves affect some Africancountries?

Describe how the demandfor slaves increased warfareamong African peoples.

1 2 3

Cause

Effect

Depopulation of some African

countries

Local Africanrulers’ view of slavetrade as an income

Demand for laborto grow sugar cane in

the Americas

Demand fordomestic servants in

Europe

Demand fordomestic servants in

southwest Asia

Increasedwarfare amongAfrican peoples

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–2

SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 13–2• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–2• Guided Reading Activity 13–2• Section Quiz 13–2• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 13–2

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–2

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section explains the impactof European expansion on Africaand the cultures of Africa.

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

1

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: Factors: marketfor African slaves in the Middle East,planting of sugarcane, demand forslaves increased; Effects: depopula-tion of some areas, increased warfareand violence

Preteaching VocabularyTo understand triangular trade, havestudents draw a triangle and label thethree points as Europe, Africa andAsia, and the Americas. Have themuse arrows to indicate the shippingpatterns of goods and slaves. L1

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2 TEACH

During the last half of the fifteenth century, for exam-ple, about a thousand slaves were taken to Portugaleach year. Most wound up serving as domestic ser-vants. The demand for slaves changed dramatically,however, with the discovery of the Americas in the1490s and the planting of sugarcane there.

Cane sugar was introduced to Europe from South-west Asia during the Middle Ages. During the six-teenth century, plantations, large agricultural estates,were set up along the coast of Brazil and on islandsin the Caribbean to grow sugarcane. Growing canesugar demands much labor. The small Native Amer-ican population, much of which had died of diseasesimported from Europe, could not provide the laborneeded. Thus, African slaves were shipped to Braziland the Caribbean to work on the plantations.

Growth of the Slave Trade In 1518, a Spanish shipcarried the first boatload of African slaves directly fromAfrica to the Americas. During the next two centuries,the trade in slaves grew dramatically and became partof the triangular trade that marked the emergence of anew world economy. The pattern of triangular tradeconnected Europe, Africa and Asia, and the Americancontinents. European merchant ships carried Europeanmanufactured goods, such as guns and cloth, to Africa,where they were traded for a cargo of slaves. Theslaves were then shipped to the Americas and sold.European merchants then bought tobacco, molasses,sugar, and raw cotton and shipped them back toEurope to be sold in European markets.

An estimated 275,000 African slaves were exportedduring the sixteenth century. Two thousand wentevery year to the Americas alone. In the seventeenthcentury, the total climbed to over a million and jumpedto six million in the eighteenth century. By then thetrade had spread from West Africa and central Africa toEast Africa. Altogether, as many as ten million Africanslaves were brought to the Americas between the earlysixteenth and the late nineteenth centuries.

One reason for these astonishing numbers, ofcourse, was the high death rate. The journey of slavesfrom Africa to the Americas became known as theMiddle Passage, the middle portion of the triangulartrade route. Many slaves died on the journey. Thosewho arrived often died from diseases to which theyhad little or no immunity.

Death rates were higher for newly arrived slavesthan for those born and raised in the Americas. Thenew generation gradually developed at least a partialimmunity to many diseases. Owners, however, rarelyencouraged their slaves to have children. Many slaveowners, especially on islands in the Caribbean,believed that buying a new slave was less expensivethan raising a child from birth to working age.

Sources of Slaves Before the coming of Europeansin the fifteenth century, most slaves in Africa wereprisoners of war. When Europeans first began to takepart in the slave trade, they bought slaves from localAfrican merchants at slave markets on the coasts inreturn for gold, guns, or other European goods.

416 CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection2,000 kilometers0

2,000 miles0

N

S

EW

30°E90°W 60°W 30°W 0°

30°S

30°N

EQUATOR

TROPIC OF CANCER

TROPIC OF CAPRICORN

AtlanticOcean

pacificOcean

CaribbeanSea

Con

go R.

Niger R.

.R

ipp

issi

ssi

M

.RnozamA

AFRICA

EUROPE

SOUTHAMERICA

NORTHAMERICA

West Indies

BRAZIL

MOROCCO

Timbuktu

Fida(Whydah)

Mozambique

Lisbon

Liverpool

Nantes

Salvador

SavannahNew Orleans

Rio de Janeiro

Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500s–1600s

Slave-gathering areasMajor concentrations of slavesGold CoastIvory CoastSlave CoastRoutes of slave traders

From 1450 to 1600, about275,000 Africans wereexported as slaves to theAmericas.

1. Interpreting MapsWhat part of Africa wasthe greatest source ofslaves? Why?

2. Applying GeographySkills What climateadjustments wouldAfrican slaves have tomake in North Americaand Europe?

CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418

Guided Reading Activity 13–2

Name Date Class

Africa in an Age of Transition

DIRECTIONS: As you are reading the section, decide if a statement is true or false. Write T ifthe statement is true or F if the statement is false. For all false statements write a correctedstatement.

1. The primary market for African slaves was Southwest Asia, where most slaveswere used as field hands.

2. The demand for slaves changed dramatically with the discovery of the Americasand the planting of sugarcane there.

3. In 1518, a Spanish ship carried the first boatload of African slaves directly fromAfrica to Spain.

Guided Reading Activity 13-2

Answers:1. the west coast, closest to ships

from North and South America2. They would have to wear more

clothing, since both Europe andNorth America have cooler cli-mates than the regions of Africafrom which they came.

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–2

I. The Slave Trade (pages 415–417)

A. In the fifteenth century the primary market for African slaves was Southwest Asia,where they were used principally as domestic servants. Some European countries alsohad slaves, used as servants for wealthy families.

B. The demand for slaves rose dramatically with the European voyages to the Americasand the planting of sugar cane there. Plantations, large agricultural estates, were setup on the eastern coast of Brazil and on islands in the Caribbean to grow sugar cane.Growing cane is labor intensive. The small native population, much of which had diedfrom European diseases, could not handle the work. African slaves were imported tomeet the need.

C. A Spanish ship carried the first boatload of African slaves to the Americas in 1518. The

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 13, Section 2

Did You Know? Historians define a slave as having the follow-ing characteristics: a slave is a form of property, either movable orimmovable; a slave is the object of law, not its subject, and is notable to enter into contracts; a slave has fewer rights than his or herowner; few, if any, limits exist on how slaves may be abused; theproduct of the slave’s labor belongs to someone else; a slave hasfew, if any, political rights.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

EnrichGuide students in a discussion ofhow the European discovery ofthe Americas and the planting ofsugarcane in South America andthe Caribbean changed Africanslavery. L1

L1

SS.D.2.4.6

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

12

READING THE TEXT

Making Inferences Slavery in Europe was well entrenched in the later Middle Ages. The bubonicplague, famine, and other epidemics created a severe labor shortage. This encouraged Italianbankers and merchants to buy slaves from the Balkans, southern Russia, and central Anatolia. Prof-its were considerable and papal threats of excommunication failed to stop the slave trade.Genoese traders set up colonial stations in the Crimea and along the Black Sea for the needs ofplantation agriculture in the Mediterranean area and the Americas. This form of slavery had noth-ing to do with race; almost all slaves were white. Have students discuss how black African slavesbegan to be traded in Europe. L1 SS.B.2.4.2

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417

Answer: it provided a market formanufactured goods from Europe(Africa), for slaves from Africa (theAmericas), and for raw materialsfrom the Americas (Europe)

Critical ThinkingHave students speculate on theeffects of the slave trade on Euro-pean traders and sailors. Howmight they justify their liveli-hoods? How might they rational-ize the conditions on slave ships?How might Europeans develop a“comfort level” in thinking aboutAfrican slavery? Remind stu-dents that views about the differ-ences between races were verydifferent three hundred yearsago. L2

At first, local slave traders obtained their suppliesof slaves from the coastal regions nearby. As demandincreased, however, they had to move farther inlandto find their victims.

Local rulers became concerned about the impact ofthe slave trade on the well-being of their societies. Ina letter to the king of Portugal in 1526, King Afonsoof Congo (Bakongo) said, “so great is the corruptionthat our country is being completely depopulated.”

Protests from Africans were generally ignored byEuropeans, however, as well as by other Africans. Asa rule, local rulers who traded slaves viewed theslave trade as a source of income. Many sent raidersinto defenseless villages in search of victims.

Effects of the Slave Trade The effects of the slavetrade varied from area to area. Of course, it alwayshad tragic effects on the lives of individual victimsand their families. The slave trade led to the depopu-lation of some areas, and it deprived many Africancommunities of their youngest and strongest menand women.

The desire of local slave traders to provide a con-stant supply of slaves led to increased warfare inAfrica. Coastal or near-coastal African leaders andtheir followers, armed with guns acquired from thetrade in slaves, increased their raids and wars onneighboring peoples.

Only a few Europeanslamented what they weredoing to traditional Africansocieties. One Dutch slavetrader remarked, “From usthey have learned strife,quarrelling, drunkenness,trickery, theft, unbridleddesire for what is not one’sown, misdeeds unknownto them before, and theaccursed lust for gold.”

The slave trade had a devastating effect on someAfrican states. The case of Benin in West Africa is agood example. A brilliant and creative society in thesixteenth century, Benin was pulled into the slavetrade.

As the population declined and warfare increased,the people of Benin lost faith in their gods, their artdeteriorated, and human sacrifice became more com-mon. When the British arrived there at the end of thenineteenth century, they found a corrupt and brutalplace. It took years to discover the brilliance of theearlier culture destroyed by slavery.

Describing Describe the purposeand path of the triangular trade.

Political and Social StructuresThe slave trade was one of the most noticeable

effects of the European presence in Africa between1500 and 1800. Generally, European influence did notextend beyond the coastal regions. Only in a fewareas, such as South Africa and Mozambique, werethere signs of a permanent European presence.

Traditional Political Systems In general, tradi-tional African political systems continued to exist. Bythe sixteenth century, monarchy had become a com-mon form of government throughout much of thecontinent. Some states, like the kingdom of Benin inWest Africa, were highly centralized, with the kingregarded as almost divine.

Other African states were more like collections ofsmall principalities knit together by ties of kinship orother loyalties. The state of Ashanti on the GoldCoast was a good example. The kingdom consistedof a number of previously independent small stateslinked together by kinship ties and subordinated tothe king. To provide visible evidence of this unity,each local ruler was given a ceremonial stool of officeas a symbol of the kinship ties that linked the rulers

Reading Check

CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration 417

Slaves were kept in the ship’s cargo deck, called the hold.

HISTORY

Web Activity Visitthe Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

andclick on Chapter 13–Student Web Activity to learn more about theAge of Exploration.

wh.glencoe.com

CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418

EXTENDING THE CONTENTCreating a Newspaper By now, students have done a lot of thinking about and discussing theissue of slavery and its impact on the various people involved. Have students work in groups toprepare a one or two-page report for a Dutch newspaper of this era. Have the students write arti-cles covering both sides of the slavery issue. Students might have an eyewitness account of a slave-ship; a comparison of Dutch slaveships to those of Portugal or Spain; an interview with a slave(where he or she is from, what has happened, how he or she feels); or an interview with a ship’scaptain. Encourage students to be creative in both their writing and newspaper layout. Consider“publishing” the various newspapers for the entire class, or post them. L3

COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITYCOOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITY

Music and Sociology The com-poser of the hymn “Amazing Grace”was a former slave trader. Ask stu-dents to research the composition ofthis song. Students might wish towatch Bill Moyers’ program “Amaz-ing Grace,” produced for public tele-vision. Have students analyze howthe hymn reflects the history of theculture in which it was produced. L2

3 ASSESSAssign Section 2 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

FCAT LA.A.2.4.4

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. King Afonso (p. 417); Ibo (p. 418)3. See chapter maps. 4. bought them from African mer-

chants; see cities noted on map 5. population declined, warfare

increased, people lost faith in gods,art deteriorated, human sacrificebecame more common

6. sale of enemies profitable, groupsnot engaged in slave trade likely tobe victims; answers will vary

7. Benin: highly centralized, kingalmost divine; Ashanti: small stateslinked by kinship ties subordinatedto king; Ibo: independent villages

8. slaves chained, had little room, tormented by slave handlers

9. Students will write an editorial.Encourage students to use otherexamples from history to supporttheir position.

418

Reteaching ActivityHave students create an outlineof the information contained inthis section. L1

4 CLOSEGuide students in a discussionidentifying the causes of Euro-pean expansion in the sixteenthcentury. L2

9. Persuasive Writing Does the factthat Africans participated in enslav-ing other Africans make the Euro-pean involvement in the slave tradeany less wrong? Write an editorialon your position.

Nevertheless, the Europeans were causing changes,sometimes indirectly. In the western Sahara, forexample, trade routes shifted toward the coast. Thisled to the weakening of the old Songhai tradingempire and the emergence of a vigorous new Moroc-can dynasty in the late sixteenth century.

Morocco had long hoped to expand its influenceinto the Sahara in order to seize control over the tradein gold and salt. In 1591, after a 20-week trek across thedesert, Moroccan forces defeated the Songhai armyand then occupied the great trading center of Tim-buktu. Eventually, the Moroccans were forced to leave,but Songhai was beyond recovery. Its next two centuries were marked by civil disorder.

Foreigners also influenced African religious beliefs.Here, however, Europeans had less impact than theIslamic culture. In North Africa, Islam continued toexpand. Muslim beliefs became dominant along thenorthern coast and spread southward into the statesof West and East Africa.

Although their voyages centered on trade with theEast, Europeans were also interested in spreadingChristianity. The Portuguese engaged in some mis-sionary activity, but the English, the Dutch, and theFrench made little effort to combine their tradingactivities with the Christian message. Except for atiny European foothold in South Africa and the iso-lated kingdom of Ethiopia, Christianity did not stopthe spread of Islam in Africa.

Describing What was the mostcommon form of government throughout Africa? What otherpolitical systems existed?

Reading Check

418 CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

together. The king had an exquisite golden stool tosymbolize the unity of the entire state.

Many Africans continued to live in small political units in which authority rested in a villageleader. For example, the Ibo society of eastern Nigeriawas based on independent villages. The Ibo wereactive traders, and the area produced more slaves thanpractically any other in the continent.

Foreign Influences Many African political systems,then, were affected little by the European presence.

Benin Ashanti Ibo

King Afonso Ic.1456–c.1545—African king

Afonso I was the greatest king ofCongo (present-day Angola and theDemocratic Republic of the Congo).He was born Mvemba Nzinga, son ofthe king of Congo. After the Portuguesearrived in the kingdom, Mvemba con-verted to Catholicism and changed his name toAfonso. After he became king in 1506, Afonso soughtfriendly relations with the Portuguese. In return for tradeprivileges, the Portuguese sent manufactured goods,missionaries, and craftspeople to Congo. Afonso soonfound, however, that the Portuguese could not betrusted. They made more and more raids for Africanslaves and even attempted to assassinate King Afonsowhen they thought that the king was hiding gold fromthem. Afonso remained a devout Christian, buildingchurches and schools.

Checking for Understanding1. Define plantation, triangular trade,

Middle Passage.

2. Identify King Afonso, Ibo.

3. Locate Brazil, Benin, South Africa,Mozambique.

4. Explain how the Europeans obtainedaccess to slaves. To what port cities inEurope and the Americas were theAfrican slaves shipped?

5. Identify the effects of the slave tradeon the culture of Benin.

Critical Thinking6. Analyze Why did Africans engage in

slave trade? Did they have a choice?

7. Compare and Contrast Use a tablelike the one below to compare andcontrast the political systems of Benin,the state of Ashanti, and the Ibo peoples.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the picture of the inside of a

slave ship shown on page 417. Fromlooking at this picture, what conclu-sions can you draw about the condi-tions that slaves endured during theirvoyage to the Americas?

CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418CHAPTER 13Section 2, 415–418

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 13–2

DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII

Have you ever visited a plantation? How did the plantation owners live? How did

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 13, Section 2

For use with textbook pages 415–418

AFRICA IN AN AGE OF TRANSITION

KEY TERMS

plantations large agricultural estates that often depended on slavery to provide the labor theyneeded (page 416)

triangular trade a pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa and Asia, and the Americancontinents (page 416)

Middle Passage the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas (the middle portion of the tri-angular trade route) (page 416)

Name Date Class

Answer: monarchy; collections ofsmall principalities, political units ledby village leader

Section Quiz 13–2

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. trade route connecting Europe, Africa and the Americas

2. the journey of slaves form Africa to America

3. large agricultural estates

4. crop introduced to Europe from Southwest Asia

5. Gold Coast state

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. Early African political systems were mainly A city states C purely tribal clans

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

✔ ScoreChapter 13

Section Quiz 13-2

Column B

A. sugar cane

B. middle passage

C. triangular trade

D. Ashanti

E. plantations

L1

L2

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

13

2

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419

1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section discusses the impactof the European trade on South-east Asia.

1511Portuguese seizeMelaka

c. 1600Dutch enter spicetrade

1619Dutch establish a fort at Batavia(present-day Jakarta)

Guide to Reading

Southeast Asia in theEra of the Spice Trade

Preview of Events✦1510 ✦1530 ✦1550 ✦1570 ✦1590 ✦1610 ✦1630

After establishing control of the island of Java, the Dutch encountered a problem inruling it. One observer explained:

“The greatest number of the Dutch settlers in Batavia [present-day Jakarta, Indone-sia], such as were commonly seen at their doors, appeared pale and weak, and as iflaboring with death. . . . Of the fatal effects of the climate upon both sexes, however, a strong proof was given by a lady there, who mentioned, that out of eleven personsof her family who had come to Batavia only ten months before, her father, brother-in-law, and six sisters had already died. The general reputation of the unhealthiness of Batavia for Europeans, deter most of those, who can reside at home with anycomfort, from coming to it, notwithstanding the temptations of fortunes to be quicklyamassed in it.”

—Lives and Times: A World History Reader, James P. Holoka and Jiu-Hwa L. Upsher, eds., 1995

Such difficult conditions kept Southeast Asia largely free of European domination.

Emerging Mainland StatesIn 1500, mainland Southeast Asia was a relatively stable region. Throughout

mainland Southeast Asia, from Burma in the west to Vietnam in the east, king-doms with their own ethnic, linguistic, and cultural characteristics were beingformed.

Voices from the Past

Main Ideas• The Portuguese occupied the Moluccas

in search of spices but were pushed outby the Dutch.

• The arrival of the Europeans greatlyimpacted the Malay Peninsula.

Key Termsmainland states, bureaucracy

People to IdentifyKhmer, Dutch

Places to LocateMoluccas, Sumatra, Java, Philippines

Preview Questions1. How did the power shift from the Por-

tuguese to the Dutch in the control ofthe spice trade?

2. What religious beliefs were prevalentin Southeast Asia?

Reading StrategySummarizing Information Use a chartlike the one below to list reasons why,unlike in Africa, the destructive effects ofEuropean contact in Southeast Asia wereonly gradually felt.

CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration 419

European Contact in Southeast Asia

CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422

Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.

DAILY FOCUS SKILLSTRANSPARENCY 13-3

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. cinnamon, mace, nutmeg, and pepper 2. for bakingpound cakes and all yellow cakes 3. mustard

Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade

UNIT

3Chapter 13

1

2

3

Which of thesespices are found inSoutheast Asia?

What are someuses for mace?

Which of thesespices is found in the United States?

SPICE SOURCE SOME USESCinnamon Southeast Asia Baked goods,

puddings

Ginger Jamaica, India Gingerbread, other baked goods,ginger ale

Mace Southeast Asia, Pound cakes, all West Indies yellow cakes

Mustard United States, Meats, sauces, Canada mustard spread

Nutmeg Southeast Asia, Baked goods, West Indies puddings, egg nog

Pepper Southeast Asia, Adds spicy tang to India, Sri Lanka foods

B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–3

SECTION RESOURCESSECTION RESOURCES

Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 13–3• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–3• Guided Reading Activity 13–3• Section Quiz 13–3• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 13–3

Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–3

MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

Guide to Reading

Answers to Graphic: cohesive character of the mainland states,Europeans did not colonize in South-east Asia

Preteaching VocabularyHave students look up the wordbureaucracy and explain its meaning.L1

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420

2 TEACH

420 CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration420 CHAPTER 5 Rome and the Rise of ChristianityCHAPTER 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity

Although gunpowder was invented in China, it wasthe Europeans who used it most effectively toestablish new empires. Evaluate the reasons whythis occurred. In your explanation, be sure toinclude the historical impact of European expansionthroughout the world.

Conflicts did erupt among the emerging states onthe Southeast Asian mainland. The Thai peoples hadsecured their control over the lower Chao PhrayaRiver valley. Conflict between the Thai and theBurmese was bitter until a Burmese army sacked theThai capital in 1767, forcing the Thai to create a newcapital at Bangkok, farther to the south.

Across the mountains to the east, the Vietnamesehad begun their “March to the South.” By the end ofthe fifteenth century, they had subdued the rival stateof Champa on the central coast. The Vietnamese thengradually took control of the Mekong delta from theKhmer. By 1800, the Khmer monarchy (the successorof the old Angkor kingdom—see Chapter 8) had vir-tually disappeared.

The situation was different in the Malay Peninsulaand the Indonesian Archipelago. The area was grad-ually penetrated by Muslim merchants attracted tothe growing spice trade. The creation of an Islamictrade network had political results as new statesarose along the spice route. Islam was accepted firstalong the coast and then gradually moved inland.

The major impact of Islam, however, came in thefifteenth century, with the rise of the new sultanate at

Melaka. Melaka owed its new power to its strategiclocation astride the strait of the same name, as well asto the rapid growth of the spice trade itself. Within afew years, Melaka had become the leading power inthe region.

Examining How did Muslim mer-chants affect the peoples of Southeast Asia?

The Arrival of EuropeansIn 1511, the Portuguese seized Melaka and soon

occupied the Moluccas. Known to Europeans as theSpice Islands, the Moluccas were the chief source ofthe spices that had originally attracted the Por-tuguese to the Indian Ocean.

The Portuguese, however, lacked the military andfinancial resources to impose their authority overbroad areas. Instead, they set up small settlementsalong the coast, which they used as trading posts oras way stations en route to the Spice Islands.

A Shift in Power The situation changed with thearrival of the English and Dutch traders, who werebetter financed than were the Portuguese. The shift in

Reading Check

420

Gunpowder and Gunpowder EmpiresGunpowder and guns were invented in China in the

tenth century and spread to Europe and Southwest Asiain the fourteenth century. However, the full impact ofgunpowder was not felt until after 1500.

Between 1500 and 1650, the world experienced adramatic increase in the manufacture of weaponsbased on gunpowder. Large-scale production of can-nons was especially evident in Europe, the Ottoman

Empire, India, and China. By 1650, gunswere also being made in Korea,

Japan, Thailand, Iran, and, to alesser extent, in Africa.

Firearms were a crucialelement in the creation ofnew empires after 1500.Spaniards armed with

firearms devastated the civiliza-tions of the Aztec and Inca andcarved out empires in Central

and South America. TheOttoman Empire, the Mogul

Empire in India, and the SafavidEmpire in Persia also owed muchof their success in creating andmaintaining their large empires to theuse of the new weapons. Historianshave labeled these empires the “gunpow-der empires.”

The success of Europeans in creating newtrade empires in the East owed much to the useof cannons as well. Portuguese ships, armed withheavy guns that could sink enemy ships at a dis-tance of 100 yards (91 m) or more, easily defeated thelighter fleets of the Muslims in the Indian Ocean.

� Spanish galleon with cannons

� Seventeenth-century

pistol

CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 13–3

I. Emerging Mainland States (pages 419–420)

A. In 1500 mainland Southeast Asia was relatively stable. From Burma to Vietnam king-doms with their own ethnic, linguistic, and cultural characteristics were being formed.

B. Conflicts then did erupt between the emerging states. Burma and Thailand clashed.The Vietnamese began their “March to the South.” By the end of the fifteenth century,they subdued the rival state of Champa. They then took control of the Mekong deltafrom the Khmer, a monarchy that virtually disappeared by 1800.

Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Chapter 13, Section 3

Did You Know? General Phraya Chakkri became the Thaimonarch in 1782 and founded the royal dynasty that still rulesThailand today. Chakkri built a new capital called Bangkok, stillThailand’s capital, after the Burmese army sacked the previous Thaicapital in 1767. He renamed the Thai kingdom Siam.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Geography Ask students to createa thematic map of exploration inAsia. Have students share their mapswith the class. You might wish to cre-ate a bulletin board with the theme“Age of Exploration.” L2

Answer: The growing spice traderesulted in the creation of an Islamictrade network; Islam was acceptedfirst along the coast and graduallymoved inland.

Answer: Answers will vary, but shouldbe backed by logical arguments. Encour-age students to read Guns, Germs, andSteel, by Jared Diamond.

STUDENT EDITIONSUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS

21

READING THE TEXT

Identifying the Main Idea Students should identify main ideas as they read. Text features, such asheadings, subheadings, boldfaced terms, and graphics, are good indicators of main or key ideas. Asstudents read, have them make a list of ideas by creating an outline using the headings, subhead-ings, and boldfaced terms. Some students may prefer to represent the outline by drawing a graphicorganizer. L1

Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

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INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYINTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYScience and Technology Have students research and write a brief illustrated report on one of thefollowing: developments in ship design and construction from antiquity through the age of explo-ration; the history of cartography from antiquity (beginning with Babylonian maps on clay tablets)through the age of exploration; the locations of various spices that Europeans sought. Ask the stu-dents to explain exactly what a spice is, why certain ones were especially prized, and why theywere concentrated in certain parts of Asia. L2

For grading this activity, refer to the Performance Assessment Activities booklet.

421

N

S

EW

1,000 kilometers0Two-Point Equidistant projection

1,000 miles0

MekongRiverDelta

Mekong R.

Ganges R.

ChaoPhraya R.

PacificOcean

SouthChina

Sea

Bay ofBengal

LAOS

CAMBODIA

INDIA

CHINA

THAILAND

Ceylon(Sri Lanka)

BURMAPhilippines

VIE

TN

AM

Java

Borneo

Sumatra

MalayPeninsula

SpiceIslands

(Moluccas)

RECNACFOCIPORT

ROTAUQE

20°N

10°N

10°S

70°E 80°E 90°E 100°E 110°E 120°E

Daman

Pondicherry

Ayutthaya

Macao

Bangkok

Manila

Batavia(Jakarta)

Melaka

Madras

Bombay

Colombo

Goa

Calcutta

Calicut

Cochin

power began in the early 1600s when the Dutch seizeda Portuguese fort in the Moluccas and then graduallypushed the Portuguese out of the spice trade.

During the next 50 years, the Dutch occupied mostof the Portuguese coastal forts along the trade routesthroughout the Indian Ocean, including the island ofCeylon (today’s Sri Lanka) and Melaka. The aggres-sive Dutch traders drove the English traders out ofthe spice market, reducing the English influence to asingle port on the southern coast of Sumatra.

The Dutch also began to consolidate their politicaland military control over the entire area. They triedto dominate the clove trade by limiting cultivation ofthe crop to one island and forcing others to stopgrowing and trading the spice. Then the Dutchturned their attention to the island of Java, wherethey established a fort at Batavia in 1619. The pur-pose of the fort was to protect Dutch possessions inthe East. Gradually the Dutch brought the entireisland under their control.

Impact on the Mainland Portuguese and thenDutch influence was mostly limited to the MalayPeninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago.

The arrival of the Europeans had less impact onmainland Southeast Asia. The Portuguese estab-lished limited trade relations with several mainlandstates (part of the continent, as distinguished frompeninsulas or offshore islands), including Thailand,Burma, Vietnam, and the remnants of the old Angkorkingdom in Cambodia. By the early seventeenth cen-tury, other European nations had begun to competeactively for trade and missionary privileges. In gen-eral, however, the mainland states were able to uniteand drive the Europeans out.

In Vietnam, a civil war temporarily divided thecountry into two separate states, one in the south andone in the north. After their arrival in the mid-seventeenth century, the European powers began totake sides in local politics. The Europeans also set uptrading posts for their merchants.

By the end of the seventeenth century, however, ithad become clear that economic opportunities werelimited. Most of the posts were abandoned at thattime. French missionaries tried to stay, but theirefforts were blocked by the authorities, who viewedconverts to Catholicism as a threat to the prestige ofthe Vietnamese emperor.

Why were the mainland states better able to resistthe European challenge than the states in the MalayPeninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago? Themainland states of Burma, Thailand, and Vietnamhad begun to define themselves as distinct politicalentities. They had strong monarchies that resistedforeign intrusion.

In the non-mainland states, there was less politicalunity. Moreover, these states were victims of their own

421CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

Port city controlled by:EnglandFranceNetherlands

PortugalSpain

Trading forts were established in port cities of India andSoutheast Asia.

1. Interpreting Maps According to this map, which coun-try controlled the most ports?

2. Applying Geography Skills Do outside research tocreate your own map of European trade. Show the traderoutes each country used. What route do ships taketoday between Europe and Southeast Asia?

European Trade in Southeast Asia, 1700

� Replica of a Dutch ship.

CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422

Answers:1. Netherlands2. Maps made by students will vary;

Suez Canal

Writing ActivityAfter they have read the chapter,have students write an essay inwhich they explain the political,economic, cultural, and techno-logical influences of Europeanexpansion on both Europeansand non-Europeans. L2

EnrichDiscuss with the students whyEuropeans had less impact onmainland Southeast Asia thanthey did on the islands along thespice route. (strong monarchies,internal cohesion)

3 ASSESSAssign Section 3 Assessment ashomework or as an in-classactivity.

Have students use InteractiveTutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.

Guided Reading Activity 13–3

Name Date Class

Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 3.

I. In 1500, mainland southeast Asia was a relatively region.

A. The Thai people created a at Bangkok in the south.

B. By the end of the fifteenth century, the took over the central

coast and Mekong delta.

C. The Peninsula and Indonesian archipelago were less stable.

II. Europeans arrived in the area in 1511 with the .

A. Well-financed and traders soon followed.

1. In the early 1600s the pushed the Portuguese out of the spice

trade.

2 The Dutch began to consolidate their and

Guided Reading Activity 13-3

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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Khmer (p. 420); Dutch (p. 420)3. See chapter maps. 4. lacked military and financial

resources 5. Moluccas, Ceylon, Melaka, Batavia;

to control trade by limiting cultiva-tion, establishing military and political control, driving out

competition 6. less political unity 7. Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia:

Buddhist style of kingship; Java:kingship based on Indian politicaltraditions; Malay Peninsula,Indonesian Archipelago: Islamicsultanates; Vietnam: emperor, ruleaccording to teachings of Confucius

8. king elevated and isolated, reflect-ing his divine status and superior-ity over all other human beings

9. Students will compose a letterfrom the point of view of a Portuguese merchant.

422

sacred and the material world. The royal palace wasdesigned to represent the center of the universe. Raysspread outward to the corners of the realm.

Islamic sultans were found on the Malay Penin-sula and in the small coastal states of the IndonesianArchipelago. In the Islamic pattern, the head of statewas a sultan. He was viewed as a mortal, although hestill possessed some special qualities. He was adefender of the faith and staffed his bureaucracy (abody of nonelective government officials) mainlywith aristocrats.

In Vietnam, kingship followed the Chinese model.Like the Chinese emperor, the Vietnamese emperorruled according to the teachings of Confucius. Hewas seen as a mortal appointed by Heaven to rulebecause of his talent and virtue. He also served as theintermediary between Heaven and Earth.

Comparing How did the Javanesestyle of kingship compare to the Buddhist style of kingship?

Reading Check

422 CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration

Checking for Understanding1. Define mainland states, bureaucracy.

2. Identify Khmer, Dutch.

3. Locate Moluccas, Sumatra, Java,Philippines.

4. Explain why the Portuguese decided toset up only small settlements in theMoluccas.

5. List the places where the Dutch estab-lished their forts. What were the majorobjectives of the Dutch? How did theygo about accomplishing their objectives?

Critical Thinking6. Evaluate Why did the Malay world fall

to foreign traders, while the countriesof mainland Southeast Asia retainedtheir independence?

7. Categorizing Information Use a tablelike the one below to describe the four types of political systems thatdeveloped in Southeast Asia.

Analyzing Visuals8. Examine the picture of the Thai king

shown above. How does this picturereflect the Buddhist model of kingshippracticed in Southeast Asian states suchas Thailand?

9. Expository Writing Pretend thatyou are a Portuguese merchant try-ing to establish trade relations withSoutheast Asia. Write a letter to theauthorities in Portugal explaining the particular difficulties you areencountering in Southeast Asia.

Region Political System

resources. The spice trade there was enormouslyprofitable. European merchants and rulers were deter-mined to gain control of the sources of the spices.

Evaluating Why were Europeans sointerested in Southeast Asia?

Religious and Political SystemsReligious beliefs changed in Southeast Asia during

the period from 1500 to 1800. Particularly in the non-mainland states and the Philippines, Islam andChristianity were beginning to attract converts. Bud-dhism was advancing on the mainland, where itbecame dominant from Burma to Vietnam. Tradi-tional beliefs, however, survived and influenced thenew religions.

The political systems in Southeast Asian statesevolved into four styles of monarchy. Buddhist kings,Javanese kings, Islamic sultans, and Vietnameseemperors all adapted foreign models of governmentto local circumstances.

The Buddhist style of kingship became the chiefform of government in the mainland states of Burma,Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. In the Buddhistmodel, the king was considered superior to otherhuman beings, and served as the link betweenhuman society and the universe.

The Javanese style of kingship was rooted in thepolitical traditions of India and shared many of thecharacteristics of the Buddhist system. Like Buddhistrulers, Javanese kings were believed to have a sacredquality, and they maintained the balance between the

Reading Check

Thai king

CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422CHAPTER 13Section 3, 419–422

Section Quiz 13–3

DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)

Column A

1. the Spice Islands

2. Islamic sultanate in the Malay Peninsula

3. portion of Southeast Asia comprised of Thailand, Burma,Vietnam, and Cambodia

4. dominant new religion from Burma to Vietnam

5. body of non-elective government officials

DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)

6. In the Malay Peninsula and small coastal states of Southeast Asia the

Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

Score✔ ScoreChapter 13

Section Quiz 13-3

Column B

A. Melaka

B. mainland states

C. the Moluccas

D. bureaucracy

E. Buddhism

Reading Essentials andStudy Guide 13–3

DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII

Have you ever thought what life would be like if you did not have spices for yourfood? What spices do you like best? How much would you be willing to pay for yourfavorite spices?

In the last section, you learned about the impact of Europeans and the slave trade on

Reading Essentials and Study GuideChapter 13, Section 3

For use with textbook pages 419–422

SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE ERA OF THE SPICE TRADE

KEY TERMS

mainland states states that are part of a continent, as distinguished from peninsulas or offshoreislands (page 421)

bureaucracy a body of nonelective government officials (page 422)

Name Date Class

Answer: the spice trade

Answer: Buddhist king consideredsuperior; Javanese kings shared char-acteristics of the Buddhist system,both had a sacred quality.

Reteaching ActivityAsk students to prepare a quiz,complete with answers, for thissection. L1

4 CLOSEAsk students to discuss whetheror not they believe that South-east Asia became part of “the ageof Western Dominance” duringthe years covered by this chap-ter. L1

ELL

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ANSWERS TO PRACTICING THE SKILL1. The writer describes the European takeover of the

spice market.2. Among the facts presented are the date of the original

European takeover, identities of the conquerors, terri-tories conquered, date of beginning of the shift ofpower and the duration of the takeover.

3. Dutch traders wanted to control the spice market.4. Among conclusions that students may draw is the fact

that the spice market was very lucrative.

Applying the Skill: Answers will vary.

423

TEACHMaking Inferences and Draw-ing Conclusions Bring to class ashort news story from the localnewspaper or, if appropriate,from the school newspaper.Duplicate and circulate the story,or read it aloud to the class.Have students summarize thefacts as stated, review what theyalready know about the situa-tion, and then form one or moreconclusions about the topic. Iftime permits, have the class fol-low up later if additional infor-mation appears to support orrefute the conclusions. L1

Additional Practice

Making Inferences and Drawing ConclusionsWhy Learn This Skill?

While driving, you hear a news report about afire downtown. As you approach downtown, trafficis very heavy. You cannot see any smoke, but youinfer that the traffic is caused by the fire.

To infer means to evaluate information andarrive at a conclusion. When you make inferences,you draw conclusions that are not stated directly.

Learning the SkillFollow the steps below to help make inferences

and draw conclusions:

• Read carefully to determine the main facts and ideas.

• Write down the important facts.

• Consider any information you know that relatesto this topic.

• Determine how your own knowledge adds to orchanges the material.

• What inferences can you make about the materialthat are not specifically stated in the facts thatyou gathered from your reading?

• Use your knowledge and reason to develop con-clusions about the facts.

• If possible, find specific information that provesor disproves your inference.

Practicing the SkillRead the passage below, then answer the ques-

tions that follow.

In 1511, the Portuguese seized Melaka and soonoccupied the Moluccas. Known to Europeans as theSpice Islands, the Moluccas were the chief source ofthe spices that had originally attracted the Por-tuguese to the Indian Ocean.

The Portuguese, however, lacked the military andfinancial resources to impose their authority overbroad areas. Instead, they set up small settlementsalong the coast, which they used as trading posts oras way stations en route to the Spice Islands.

The situation changed with the arrival of theEnglish and Dutch traders, who were betterfinanced than were the Portuguese. The shift inpower began in the early 1600s, when the Dutchseized a Portuguese fort in the Moluccas and droveout the Portuguese.

During the next fifty years, the Dutch occupiedmost of the Portuguese coastal forts along the traderoutes throughout the Indian Ocean. The aggressiveDutch traders also drove the English traders out ofthe spice market, reducing the English influence to asingle port on the southern coast of Sumatra.

1 What events does the writer describe?

2 What facts are presented?

3 What can you infer about the Dutch tradersduring this period?

4 What conclusion can you make about the spicemarket, other than those specifically stated bythe author?

423

Bags of spices for sale

Applying the Skill

Scan the newspaper or a magazine for a political car-toon. Paste the cartoon on a piece of paper or posterboard. Underneath, list three valid inferences based onthe work.

Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,Level 2, provides instruction and practice in keysocial studies skills.

CD-ROMGlencoe Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook CD-ROM, Level 2

This interactive CD-ROM reinforcesstudent mastery of essential socialstudies skills.

Skills ReinforcementActivity 13

Name Date Class

Many Italians ventured north to further trade and share their learning among theEuropeans. As they did so, many sent back letters and kept journals of their impressions.

Skills Reinforcement Activity 13✎

Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions

DIRECTIONS: Read the following observations of life among the English by an Italian fromabout 1500, then answer the questions below in the space provided.

. . . the English are great lovers of themselves, and of everything belonging to them; theythink that there are no other men than themselves, and no other world but England; and when-ever they see a handsome foreigner, they say that “he looks like an Englishman,” and that “it is agreat pity that he should not be an Englishman”; and when they partake of any delicacy with aforeigner, they ask him “whether such a thing is made in their country?” . . .

They have an antipathy to foreigners, and imagine that they never come into their island butto make themselves masters of it, and to usurp their goods; neither have they any sincere andsolid friendships amongst themselves, insomuch that they do not trust each other to discusseither public or private affairs together, in the confidential manner we do in Italy.

—From A Relation . . . of the Island of England, trans. C.A. Sneyd

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SpiceIslands

MJ

MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz to review Chapter 13 content.

Available in VHS.

CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration424

Using Key Terms1. A set of principles that dominated economic thought in the

seventeenth century was called .

2. were Spanish conquerors who were motivated byreligious zeal and the desire for glory and riches.

3. A body of nonelective government officials is called a .

4. Many Africans were removed from their homes and shippedto large landed estates in the Americas called .

5. States that form part of a continent are called .

6. The is the difference in value between what a nationimports and what it exports.

7. A settlement in a new territory, linked to the parent country,is called a .

8. is the route between Europe, Africa, and America.

9. The journey of slaves from Africa to America on the worstportion of the triangular trade route was called the .

Reviewing Key Facts10. History What did the Europeans want from the East?

11. History Who was the conquistador who overthrew theAztec Empire? Who conquered the Inca?

12. Economics What did Europeans want from the Americas?

13. Geography What was the name of the city located on theMalay Peninsula that was the central point in the spicetrade?

14. Economics When Vasco da Gama reached India, whatcargo did he bring back? How profitable was his voyage?

15. History How did most Africans become slaves?

16. History What European country conquered Brazil?

17. Science and Technology How did the Portuguese makeeffective use of naval technology?

18. Geography What did Christopher Columbus believe aboutthe size and shape of Earth?

19. History Why were European diseases devastating to thepeoples of America?

Marco PoloBartholomeu DiasChristopher ColumbusJohn CabotVasco da GamaAmerigo VespucciPedro CabralAfonso de AlbuquerqueVasco de BalboaJuan Ponce de LeónHernán CortésFerdinand MagellanGiovanni da VerrazanoFrancisco PizarroJacques CartierHernando de SotoFrancisco de CoronadoJoão CabrilhoSamuel de ChamplainHenry Hudson

Late 13th cent.1488149214971498149915001511151315131519152015241531153415391540154216031609

ItalyPortugalSpainEnglandPortugalPortugal, SpainPortugalPortugalSpainSpainSpainSpainFranceSpainFranceSpainSpainSpainFranceNetherlands, England

AsiaCape of Good HopeBahamas, Cuba, HispaniolaNew England coastlineIndiaSouth American coastBrazilMelakaPacific OceanFloridaMexicoSailed around the worldEast coast of North AmericaPeruSt. Lawrence RiverNorth America’s southeastNorth America’s southwestCaliforniaGreat Lakes and QuebecHudson River, Hudson Bay

Date Sponsoring Country DiscoveryExplorer

Listed below are the major European explorers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Marco Polo is the one explorer listed who predates the Age of Exploration.

424

Using Key Terms 1. mercantilism 2. conquistadors3. bureaucracy 4. plantations5. mainland states 6. balance of trade7. colony 8. triangular trade 9. MiddlePassage

Reviewing Key Facts10. spices

11. Cortés; Pizarro

12. gold, silver, and agricultural products

13. Melaka

14. a cargo of spices; the profit was sev-eral thousand percent

15. prisoners of war; rewards of victors

16. Portugal

17. the compass and astrolabe aided inexploration, allowing them to deter-mine what direction they were mov-ing and to navigate; lateen sailsmade ships more maneuverable andallowed them to carry heavy cannonand more goods

18. He knew the world was round butunderestimated the circumference.

19. They had little or no resistance toEuropean diseases.

Critical Thinking20. Answers will vary, but may include:

may have killed newborns, discour-aged or forbade marriage, kept thesexes apart.

21. Answers may include: the age ofexploration brought the people ofEurope, Asia, the Americas, andAfrica into direct contact for the firsttime and led to a transfer of ideasand products. However, the Euro-pean colonization took a great toll in

human life and often had a negative impact on cul-tures that were conquered.

Writing About History22. Answers will vary, but should be supported by logical

arguments.

Analyzing Sources23. Answers will vary but might include a discussion of

morals and values.

24. Answers will vary, depending on how students inter-pret the words used.

CHAPTER 13Assessment and Activities

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CHAPTER 13Assessment and Activities

425

HISTORY

Have students visit the Web site atto review Chapter

13 and take the Self-Check Quiz.wh.glencoe.com

StandardizedTest Practice

Answer: BAnswer Explanation: confirmed bymodern map; students should startby eliminating the answers that areobviously incorrect based on theirknowledge of world geography

Analyzing Maps and ChartsStudy the chart on the opposite page to answer the followingquestions.

27. Approximately how many years separated the explorationsof Marco Polo and those of Vasco da Gama?

28. Which countries sponsored the most explorations?

29. The voyages of discovery began in Europe. What continentsdid the explorers visit?

Self-Check QuizVisit the Glencoe World History Web site at

and click on Chapter 13–Self-CheckQuiz to prepare for the Chapter Test.wh.glencoe.com

HISTORY

Critical Thinking20. Drawing Conclusions What might have resulted from the

fact that many slave owners believed it was more economi-cal to buy a new slave than to raise a child to working age?

21. Making Generalizations Describe the impact on history ofthe voyages of Christopher Columbus.

Writing About History22. Informative Writing Write an essay in which you analyze

the reasons why Native Americans in both North and SouthAmerica might be offended by the term New World. Whatdoes the use of the term suggest about European attitudestoward the rest of the world? Refer to the Treaty of Torde-sillas and use other specific examples.

Analyzing SourcesRead the following comment by an Aztec describing the Spanishconquerors:

“[They] longed and lusted for gold. Their bodiesswelled with greed, and their hunger was ravenous;they hungered like pigs for that gold.”

23. Based on this quote, what might the Aztec have inferredabout the Spaniards and their civilization?

24. What do you think is meant by “they hungered like pigs forthat gold”?

Applying Technology Skills25. Using the Internet Search the Internet for additional infor-

mation about early European explorers and their achieve-ments. Organize your information by creating a spreadsheet.Include headings such as name, regions of exploration, typesof technology used, and contributions.

Making Decisions26. Pretend that you are the leader of a country and must

decide whether or not to explore outer space. What are thebenefits and risks involved in undertaking space exploration?Compare and contrast modern space explorations withEuropean voyages of exploration. Consider the technologiesused, the ways explorations were funded, and the impact ofthese ventures on human knowledge.

Directions: Use the map and your knowl-edge of world history to choose the bestanswer to the following question.

The Dutch established Batavia as a fort in 1619 to helpthem edge the Portuguese traders out of the area nowcalled Indonesia. Today, which city is located where Bataviawas established?

A New Delhi

B Jakarta

C Phnom Penh

D Beijing

Test-Taking Tip: If a test question involves reading a map,make sure you read the title of the map and look at themap carefully for information before you try to answer thequestion.

Batavia

Melaka

PACIFIC OCEAN

INDIANOCEAN

Java

SpiceIslandsSpice

Islands

0 mi. 750

0 km 750

N

E

S

W

Spice Islands, Early Seventeenth Century

CHAPTER 13 The Age of Exploration 425

StandardizedTest Practice

Applying Technology Skills25. Students will create a spreadsheet.

Making Decisions26. Answers will vary.

Analyzing Maps and Charts27. 200 years

28. Spain, followed by Portugal

29. Asia, Africa, North America, South America

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