# the scientific method basis of all scientific experiments

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The Scientific Method

The Scientific MethodBasis of All Scientific ExperimentsScientific MethodQuestion (find a problem)Observation (Research)Hypothesis (guess)Experiment Record & Analyze resultsConclude (this is what we found)6 StepsThis process is a painwhy use it?Scientific Method designed to logically solve problems and construct theories.

To begin: YOU OBSERVE SOMETHING.

Ex. Hey I just tried to turn the lights on in my apartment, but Im still in a dark room. Lame.When Doing LabsUse the Scientific Method accepted method for scientists to explain how things work

Steps:

State Problem and Collect DataFormulate HypothesisPerform Experiments

Step 2: Collecting Data [Two Types]Quality vs. Quantity?Qualitative (Quality)

NO NUMBERS involved

Ex. The sky is blue

Ex. The solution is cloudyQuantitative (Quantity)

NUMBERS involved

Ex. The solution is 34.50 grams

Ex. Water boils at 100 degrees

Step 3: HypothesisHypothesis a POSSIBLE explanation for why something happens

Observations are NOT hypotheses

Ex. the solution is cloudy (observation)Ex. the solution is cloudy because it is contaminated (hypothesis)

Step 4: ExperimentsUse controls and variables

Control the constant

Variable the thing that changes in the experiment

Lake vs. Ocean

Quick Quiz #1Jeremy noticed the sky was cloudy outside. Is this a qualitative or quantitative observation? How do you know?

How could Jeremy turn this observation into a hypothesis?

What is a control, and how does it differ from a variable?Warm Up #1Make an observation about something you see in this room. Is it qualitative or quantitative?

How can you turn this observation into a hypothesis?

Why do you think it is important to perform multiple trials in an experiment?Step 5: Record and Analyze ResultsPerform multiple Trials attempts at experiment. Why?

Collect data in DATA TABLE organize information effectively

Analyze data using GRAPHS. Trends that may appear

Example:What happens to the population as time increases?

Step 6: Making Sense of Your DataAfter making sense of your data, come to a CONCLUSION.

Does my data prove my hypothesis?

If so, you can construct a theory

Theory vs. LawTheory a conclusion based on REPEATED TESTINGCan be disputed/disproven via testing

Law explains things, but do not describe them. NO EXCEPTIONS to lawsALWAYS TRUE.Laws are rare

Quick Quiz #2Why would you perform multiple trials in an experiment?

Once your hypothesis has been tested and proven several times, it becomes a _______.

What is the biggest difference between a theory and a law?California: A Journey Through TimeCalifornia is a mess.Environmentally falling apart:

SustainabilityPopulation GrowthWealth GapTypes of ResourcesPollution

How did this happen?SustainabilitySustainability the quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting natural resources, and thereby supporting long-term ecological balance.

AirWaterEarthAir CO2 EmissionsCO2 = Carbon Dioxide

CO2 linked to Greenhouse Effect retention of warm air, thus increasing earths temperature

California = one of the worst states in USwhy?Freeways!58% CO2 emissions comes from cars/trucks on the roads

Freeways = a necessary evil?

How are we trying to improve air quality (transportation incentives?)

Forest Fires = CO2California = dry heat

Forest Fires started:LighteningSpontaneous Combustion

Wildfires increase CO2 emissions

WaterCalifornia = a desert climate

Acquire water from outside sources (Colorado River)

How? Aqueducts.

Can we keep this up?Earth. Wellconcrete.National Parks = a California landmark

Budget crisis = park closures

Effect on wildlife/biodiversity in California?