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<ul><li><p>Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Preparedness </p><p>in Southern Africa</p><p>Zimbabwe Country Report</p><p>2010</p><p>Prepared by Tigere Chagutah</p></li><li><p>ii</p><p>This report presents the findings of one of three studies commissioned by the Heinrich Bll Stiftung Southern Africa (HBS) in Botswana , South Africa and Zimbabwe to evaluate the state of preparedness for climate change adaptation in the region.</p><p>The Heinrich Bll Stiftung, associated with the German Green Party, is a legally autonomous and intellectually open political foundation. Its foremost task is civic education in Germany and abroad with the aim of promoting informed democratic opinion, socio-political commitment and mutual understanding. In addition, the Heinrich Bll Stiftung supports artistic and cultural, as well as scholarly projects, and co-operation in the development field. The political values of ecology, democracy, gender democracy, solidarity and non-violence are the foundations chief points of reference. Heinrich Blls belief in, and promotion of citizen participation in politics is the model for the foundations work.</p><p>Heinrich Bll Stiftung Southern AfricaThe Avalon Building123 Hope StreetGardens, 8001Cape TownSouth Africa</p><p>Tel: +27 (0) 21 461 62 66Fax: +27 (0) 462 71 87Email: info@boell.org.zahttp://www.boell.org.za</p></li><li><p>iii</p><p>Contents</p><p>ACRONYMS vLIST OF FIGURES, TABLES AND BOXES vEXECUTIVE SUMMARY vi</p><p>CHAPTER 1: Introduction 11.1 Structure of the report 21.2 Methodology 21.3 Limitations 2</p><p>CHAPTER 2: Background 32.1 Country profile 32.1.1 Biophysical setting 32.1.2 Demographic profile 42.1.3 Socio-economic and development profile 52.1.4 Contribution to global emissions 62.2 Vulnerability to climate change 62.2.1 Micro-level vulnerability 72.2.2 Macro-level vulnerability 72.2.2.1 Agriculture and food security 82.2.2.2 Water resources 92.2.2.3 Energy generation 92.2.2.4 Health 102.2.3 Zimbabwes crisis and vulnerability to climate change 102.3 Gender aspects of vulnerability to climate change 11</p><p>CHAPTER 3: Climate Change Adaptation Legislative and Policy Review 123.1 Adaptation response policy and legislative architecture 123.1.1 The Environmental Management Act No.13 of 2002 123.1.2 The National Water Act No.31 of 1998 and the Zimbabwe National Water Authority </p><p>Act No.11 of 1998 123.1.3 The Civil Protection Act No.10 of 1989 133.1.4 The Meteorological Services Act of 1990 133.1.5 Agriculture policy framework 143.1.6 Drought mitigation policy 143.2 National communications under the UNFCCC 143.3 Policy development process 143.4 Appropriateness and quality of adaptation policy, plans and strategies 15</p></li><li><p>iv</p><p>3.4.1 Generalist frameworks 153.4.2 Agricultural marketing and pricing policies 153.4.3 Water management and land policy 163.4.4 Disaster management policy 173.5 Climate change adaptation preparedness at policy level 173.6 Climate change adaptation projects in Zimbabwe 173.7 Gender analysis of adaptation policy frameworks 17</p><p>CHAPTER 4: Climate Change Adaptation Institutional Review 194.1 Institutional capacity for climate change adaptation 194.1.1 National Climate Change Committee 194.1.2 National Climate Change Office 194.1.3 Early warning institutions 194.1.4 Water and agricultural sector institutions 204.1.5 Disaster management institutions 204.1.6 Non-governmental organisations 204.2 Institutional deficiencies in government 224.3 Organisational constraints among NGOs 224.4 Mainstreaming gender in adaptation institutions 23</p><p>CHAPTER 5: Public Awareness of Climate Change 245.1 Climate change awareness 245.1.1 Role of the media 255.2 Public awareness initiatives 255.3 Gendering public awareness of climate change 25</p><p>CHAPTER 6: Regional and International Actions 276.1 Zimbabwe and the UNFCCC 276.2 Role of state and non-state actors 276.3 Zimbabwes position 276.4 Relationships with regional groupings 286.5 Constraints to effective involvement at negotiations 286.6 Gender in climate change negotiations 28</p><p>CHAPTER 7: Conclusions and Recommendations 29</p><p>REFERENCES 31ENDNOTES 34</p></li><li><p>v</p><p>ACRONYMS</p><p>AMCEN African Ministerial Conference on the EnvironmentAREX Department of Agricultural Research and ExtensionCCA Climate Change AdaptationCDM Clean Development MechanismCOP Conference of PartiesDMC Drought Monitoring CentreEMA Environmental Management AgencyENSO El Nio-Southern OscillationFAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United NationsFEWSNET Famine Early Warning System of the United States Agency for International DevelopmentFTLRP Fast Track Land Reform ProgrammeGEF Global Environment FacilityGHG Greenhouse GasGPA Global Political AgreementGoZ Government of ZimbabweIDRC International Development Research CentreINC Initial National Communication on Climate ChangeIPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeITCZ Inter-Tropical Convergence ZoneMENRM Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources ManagementNAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation ActionNAPA National Adaptation Plan of ActionNGO Non-Governmental OrganisationSADC Southern African Development CommunitySARCOF Southern African Regional Climate Outlook ForumSNC Second National Communication on Climate ChangeUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeUNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeZIMVAC Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment CommitteeZINWA Zimbabwe National Water Authority</p><p>LIST OF FIGURES, TABLES AND BOXES</p><p>Figure 1: Map of Zimbabwe 3Figure 2: Average annual precipitation in Zimbabwe 3Figure 3: Topographical map of Zimbabwe 4Figure 4: Average annual temperature in Zimbabwe 4Figure 5: Evolution of the number of cold and warm days in Zimbabwe 4Figure 6: National rainfall deviation 4Figure 7: Zimbabwe maize production, 19932008 5Figure 8: Rainfall variability and economic growth in Zimbabwe 6Figure 9: Zimbabwe agro-ecological regions 8Figure 10: Water withdrawals, 2002 9Figure 11: Discharge rate (000 m3/s) of the Zambezi River, 19241989, upstream of Lake Kariba 10Table 1: Area of natural regions 8Table 2: selection of mini-hydro power generation sites 10Box 1: Stakeholder consultation for the Zimbabwe Second National Communication on Climate Change 15</p></li><li><p>vi</p><p>Executive SummaryThis report is the result of an initiative by the Heinrich Bll Foundation (HBF). It is aimed at supporting the demands of state and non-state southern African actors for climate change adaptation finance and the efficient administration of such funds. The report details the findings of a desk study evaluating the state of knowledge on climate change vulnerability and adaptation preparedness in Zimbabwe. </p><p>Zimbabwe has a total population of 11.63 million. The country has suffered political upheaval coupled with extraordinary economic collapse since the year 2000, leaving a significant proportion of the population largely dependent on exploitation of environmental resources for their livelihoods. This period has also coincided with pronounced increases in temperature, recurrent droughts and unpredictable rainfall patterns, all of which have exacerbated suffering among the people of Zimbabweespecially in the rural areas, where 65 percent of the population resides. </p><p>The reliance of the vast majority of Zimbabweans on rain-fed agriculture and the sensitivity of major sectors of the economy to the climate make Zimbabwe particularly susceptible to climate change. Despite this, very little research has been carried out on climate change, particularly adaptation, in Zimbabwe over the past five years. Although past studies have yielded significant information on sectoral vulnerability to climate change in Zimbabwe, there is a paucity of data relating to vulnerability at community and household levels. Considerable knowledge about sectoral vulnerability is not matched by efforts towards adaptation, and very little is available in the way of sectoral adaptation response plans. Additionally, while communities have developed many varied ways of coping with perennial droughts, very few studies have systematically recorded these coping strategies so as to map existing community adaptation strategies. Data here are currently available only from isolated studies. </p><p>Zimbabwe currently has no specific policy response to climate change. Instead, fragmented responses are implied in a battery of sectoral policies, including those relating to environment and natural resources management, water resources management, agriculture and food security, and disaster management. There exists a need for the definition of a specific policy response to climate change. There is also a need to mainstream climate change adaptation in the policies and work programmes of various government ministries, and to harmonise existing uncoordinated and fragmented pieces of legislation and strategies aimed at enabling and enhancing an adaptive response to climate change in the various sectors of the economy. </p><p>The established institutional scenario is characterised by weak capacity to implement policies and strategies related to climate change adaptation. Specialist skills in climate change research across the key sectors of health, water and natural resources management are </p><p>lacking, as is the capacity to generate same through the national tertiary education system. As with other sectors of government, skills flight and inadequate funding mechanisms have impacted heavily on the capacity of various institutions to implement policies, plans and strategies relating to climate change adaptation in Zimbabwe. Vital institutions in need of such support include the Climate Change Office; institutions involved in early warning, such as the National Early Warning Unit; the Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment Committee; and the Meteorological Services Department. Other vital institutions in need of capacity-related support are the Zimbabwe National Water Authority, the Department of Agricultural Research and Extension, and the Department of Civil Protection. Although the non-governmental organisations are also affected by skills flight, their capacity constraints are less crippling. However, NGOs continue to work individually and without coordination, resulting in duplication of </p><p>The reliance of the vast majority of Zimbabweans on rain-fed agriculture and the sensitivity of major sectors of the economy to the climate makes Zimbabwe particularly susceptible to climate change.</p></li><li><p>vii</p><p>interventions, among other problems. There is a need to bring together NGOs under a coordination mechanism dedicated solely to climate change issues. </p><p>Public awareness, especially as it relates to adaptation, is sorely lacking in Zimbabwe. Chief among the constituencies in need of increased awareness-raising efforts are the legislators, whom evidence has shown have very little knowledge of climate change and the need for an urgent policy response to it. In addition, very little information is available through the countrys media on long-term climate change. Media practitioners still view reporting on climate change as a specialty area, and many do not make necessary connections to climate change in their day-to-day reporting, even on environment-related issues. In addition to increased professional training on reporting climate change issues, a bigger challenge and need exists within journalism training schools to encourage and develop curricula on climate and environmental reporting. </p><p>Many farmers are aware of climate change, although many still view its effects in the light of normal seasonal climatic variability. There is need for a concerted effort to raise awareness of climate change among farmers, with an emphasis on its implications for their choice of farming methods, timing, and crop and seed varieties. </p><p>Zimbabwes participation at regional and international climate change forums has suffered because resources to build a stronger and larger negotiating team for the country have been unavailable. Also, there is limited participation of civil society in crafting the countrys position on climate change. This excludes the views of a large section of Zimbabwes population, leaving this task to government bureaucrats and a small section of the research community. Members of civil society active in climate change issues need to form a strong coalition, and to create space for their views and participation in crafting the countrys position and policy on climate change. Civil society must also have a voice in the actual negotiations. </p><p>A deliberate and extensive effort is needed to integrate gender issues into Zimbabwes response to climate change. Gender disaggregated data on vulnerabilities is needed at both micro and macro levels. The accentuated vulnerability of women to climate change should be acknowledged, researched and integrated in planning and strategy building. Policy making in response to climate change must ensure the participation of women, children, the elderly, the disabled and other vulnerable groups. Gender parity should </p><p>be mainstreamed in the institutional frameworks and programmes of all organisations and bodies involved in responding to climate change in Zimbabwe. Likewise, institutions involved in public awareness raising should ensure that communities are informed of the implications of climate change on gender relations, and are aware of restorative alternatives. </p></li><li><p>1</p><p>IntroductionCHAPTER 1: The people of Africa will bear the brunt of global climate change, with severe impacts already affecting their varied livelihoods systems and the unique biodiversity of African ecosystems. Disproportionately, no significant contribution by Africa to global warming can be established. Africa has contributed less than 3 percent of the worlds total emissions of greenhouse gases.1 </p><p>The global response to climate change has focused on mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the changing climatic conditions and consequent environmental changes. In this response, coordinated mainly through the ongoing United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, Africas contribution to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions will play a significant role. However, Africas major focus is on issues of adaptation. Successful adaptation depends upon technological advances, institutional arrangements, availability of financing, and information exchange.2 The UNFCCC recognises the need to adapt to climate change and to assist those countries least able to adapt.3</p><p>According to Article 4.1 of the UNFCCC, parties are committed to: </p><p>Formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national and, where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change [Art.4.1. (b)]; and </p><p>Cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change; develop and elaborate appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management, water resources and agriculture, and for the protection and rehabilitation of areas, particularly in Africa,4 affected by drought and desertification, as well as floods [Art.4.1 (e)]. </p><p>Article 4.4...</p></li></ul>

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