Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change

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<ul><li><p>GEO INITIATIVES</p><p>Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar ReddyCEO, GEO</p><p>http://e-geo.org</p><p>Workshop on Climate Change to Civil Society Organisations in Andhra Pradesh.Venue: St. Anns Generalate, Tarnaka, SecunderabadNovember 18-19, 2010.POVERTY LEARNING FOUNDATION [plf] </p></li><li><p>VulnerabilityVulnerability to climate change is the risk of adverse </p><p>things happening </p><p>Vulnerability is a function of three factors:</p><p>Exposure</p><p>Sensitivity</p><p>Adaptive capacity</p></li><li><p>Adaptationadjustment in natural or human systems in response to </p><p>actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm of exploits beneficial opportunities </p><p>(Third Assessment Report, Working Group II)</p><p>Includes actual (realized) or expected (future) changes in climate </p></li><li><p>Adaptation (continued)Two types of adaptation</p><p>Autonomous adaptation or reactive adaptation tends to be what people and systems do as impacts of climate change become apparent</p><p>Anticipatory or proactive adaptation are measures taken to reduce potential risks of future climate change</p></li><li><p>Understanding the Stakeholder Linkages and Decision Process</p><p>Small Farmers (80%)</p><p>Regional Policy Makers</p><p>V&amp;A Assessment</p><p>Central Policy Maker</p><p>(Ministry of agriculture)</p><p>Technical Policy Makers</p><p>National commissions</p><p>Extension service</p><p>De</p><p>cisi</p><p>on</p><p>s</p><p>Project</p><p>Extension Service</p></li><li><p>GEO INITIATIVES</p><p>CAPACITYBUILDING</p><p>ACTIVITY</p><p>RESEARCHFACILITATI</p><p>ON</p></li><li><p>SOURCES OF BIOMASS FOR BIOCHAR</p><p>CROP RESIDUE</p><p>PROSOPIS JULIFLORA</p><p>RICE HUSK</p><p>OTHER BIOMASS</p></li><li><p>PROSOPIS JULIFLORA AS MAIN SOURCE</p></li><li><p>PROSOPIS JULIFLORA - CAUSE AND USEClimate change / variability</p><p>Groundwater use Contribution of salts-Use of complex fertilizers-Surfacing of natural salts from deep inside the ground through groundwater</p><p>Decrease in rainfallHigh temperatures</p><p>Increase in intensity of cultivation</p><p>+</p><p>ALKALINE SOILS</p><p>SEMI-ARID ENVRIONMENT</p><p>Poor germination, Non-availability of soil mineralsDecrease in yield</p><p>Fallow lands</p><p>Suitable for growth of Prosopis Juliflora</p><p>-Energy Needs-Charcoal Making- Wood for agricultural implements / funiture-Pods / leaves as livestock feed</p></li><li><p>CHARCOAL PRODUCTION TRADITIONAL</p></li><li><p>EFFICIENT BIOCHAR RETORTS</p><p>GSBC Project</p></li><li><p>MAGH SERIES BIOCHAR PRODUCING STOVES</p></li><li><p>MAGH SERIES BIOCHAR PRODUCING STOVES</p></li><li><p>MAGH 3G GOOD STOVE</p></li><li><p>MAGH CM GOOD STOVE</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR PRODUCERS COOPERATIVE FOR SUSTAINABILITY</p><p>Formation of Biochar producers cooperative societies </p><p>To form a network of Biochar producers</p><p>To adopt the improved Biochar production technologies</p><p>To add value to the Biochar, Biochar compost and Biochar fertilizers, etc.</p><p>To market the Biochar themselves as cooperatives</p><p>To liaison with the relevant departments for marketing the produce</p><p>To facilitate the commons for Biochar production like, place, water, shelter, power, etc.</p><p>To plant more trees for availability for Biochar production</p><p>To insure all the Biochar producers, who are members of the cooperative society</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR SOURCESCharcoal and ash from crop residue burnt in the fields </p><p>(traditional practice)</p><p>Charcoal produced from Prosopis </p><p>Juliflora</p><p>Charcoal from cook stoves</p><p>Rice husk charcoal a by-product from </p><p>cook stoves / parboiled rice mills</p></li><li><p>TRADITIONAL USE OF BIOCHAR</p></li><li><p>ENHANCING SOIL MICROBES AND APPLICATION IN THE FIELDS</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR URINALS</p><p>TAPPING NITROGEN FROM URINE OF ANIMALS AND PEOPLE USING BIOCHAR</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR COMPOST</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR MULCHING1. Retention of the soil moisture, reduction of evaporation of water from the soil</p><p>2. Reduction in leaching of the bio / chem fertilizers applied</p><p>3. Increase in the soil microbes / worms at the biochar and soil interface</p><p>4. Regulation of the soil temperture</p><p>5. Suppression of weeds by blocking the sunlight the weeds sprouting and growth is suppressed.</p><p>6. Repulsion of the termites / ants which might attack the live plants </p><p>7. Over a period of time due to various activities the biochar mixes with the soil. </p><p>8. Prevents soil erosion too.</p><p>9. Can increase the ph of the soil towards neutral (mulch very good for acidic soils)</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR PREPARATIONS &amp; APPLICATIONBiochar compost Application</p><p> Point - eg. Horticulture</p><p> Spread - eg. Paddy</p><p>Biochar compost preparation practice</p><p> Biochar + compost + green mulch + soil microbes + (pottery shards / fish bones / brick pieces / urine / jaggery / etc.)</p><p> Addition of biochar to Farm Yard Manure pits in small quantities every day from traditional stoves - a traditional practice most common in India. The composition is (Cattle dung, cattle urine, straw, biochar, ash, pottery shards, pottery tile pieces, etc.)</p><p>Biochar only application</p><p> Point - Biochar mulching - eg. Horticulture</p><p> Spread - Biochar broadcasting - eg. paddy</p><p>Biochar Prepartion methods - Many.</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR APPLICATION RESULTS</p></li><li><p>150 TO 200 % INCREASE IN CROP PRODUCTION</p></li><li><p> CONTROL</p><p> 4 KGS BIOCHAR COMPOST</p><p> 8 KGS BIOCHAR COMPOST</p><p>RESEARCH PLOT</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR RESULTS</p><p>GSBC PROJECT, 2009 (DORUGHT PREVAILED DURING THE GROWING SEASON)</p></li><li><p>OTHER BIOCHAR APPLICATIONS</p><p>BIOCHAR BRICKS, GREEN BUILDINGS</p><p>WATER LESS CLEANING</p></li><li><p>TERRA PRETA VS BIOCHAR</p></li><li><p>ENVIRONMENTAL</p><p>CARBON SEQUESTRA</p><p>TION</p><p>REDUCED GREEN HOUSE </p><p>GAS EMISSIONS</p><p>SECURING FROM </p><p>CLIMATE VARIABILITY</p><p>ONE OF THE GLOBAL </p><p>WARMING AND CLIMATE </p><p>CHANGE MITIGATION SOLUTIONS</p><p>LIVELIHOODS</p><p>INCREASED CROP YIELD</p><p>INCREASED INCOME</p><p>RECLAMATION OF DEGRADED </p><p>SOILS</p><p>BIOLOGICAL</p><p>- INCREASED SOIL </p><p>MOCROBES AND</p><p>FUNGI. REPULSION OF </p><p>ANTS AND TERMITES, </p><p>PHYSICAL</p><p>- SOIL MOISTURE </p><p>RETENTION, SOIL TEXTURE, </p><p>AND TEMPERATURE, SURFACE AREA </p><p>CHEMICAL</p><p>RETENTION AND ACCESS OF </p><p>NITROGEN, PHOSPHOROUS, ADSORBTION </p><p>OF HAZARDOUS PESTICIDES</p><p>BIOCHAR</p><p>CHARCOAL PLUS </p><p>AMENDMENTS TO SOIL</p><p>BIOCHAR FRAMEWORK</p></li><li><p>GSBC PROJECT INTEGRATED APPROACH</p></li><li><p>GOOD STOVES AND BIOCHAR COMMUNITIES PROJECT</p><p> GSBC PROJECT, being implemented in parts of Andhra Pradesh State is an integrated project.</p><p> This project started in May 2009, Geoecology Energy Organisation is responsible for planning, implementation and monitoring of the project. The Alternative Carbone Project portfolio of Action Carbone has promoted this project to be implemented in the rural areas of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.</p><p> http://goodplanet.org</p><p>http://www.biocharindia.com | http://www.e-geo.org</p><p>http://www.goodstove.com</p><p>Group: http://groups.google.com/group/biocharindia</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR FIELDS GSBC PROJECT</p><p> 16 FARMERS</p><p> KHARIF AND RABI2009</p><p> 25 FARMERS</p><p> KHARIF2010</p><p>7.5 TONNES OF BIOCHAR FACILITATED..</p></li><li><p>BIOCHAR LINKS</p><p>Terra Preta Info - Indian conextBiochar ExperimentsBiochar - Alkaline soilsBiochar - Alkaline soils reportCharcoal productionBiocharculture</p><p>Biochar ProductionMagh Biochar RetortGEO mini metal kilnARTI - Charcoal</p><p>Biochar PlantsProsopis JulifloraProsopis Juliflora report</p><p>StovesMagh series tlud woodgas or microgasifier stovesAnila</p><p>Biochar UrineBiochar Urinals</p><p>Biochar Soil lifeTermitesEarthworms</p><p>Pottery ShardsIn soils</p><p>CleaningBiochar for Cleaning</p><p>Green BuildingsBiochar Bricks</p><p>Rural TrashBiochar plus</p><p>GSBC PROJECT ON CNN</p></li></ul>