vulnerability and adaptation to climate change situational analysis

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Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change, Andhra Pradesh

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  • 1. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportCHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONMahabubnagar District (Map 1 and Map2) inAndhra Pradesh State is selected for theprogramme on Vulnerability Assessmentand Enhancing Adaptive Capacity to ClimateChange in Semi-Arid Areas of India alsocalled SDC V&A Programme.Mahabubnagar District is semi-arid, droughtprone and one of the most backwardDistricts in Andhra Pradesh State. DurationMap 1 Location of Mahabubnagar District inof the programme is 4 years (2005 toAndhra Pradesh2009).Program Objective: The core objectives of this program is to secure thelivelihoods of rural poor and vulnerable communities by building and enhancingtheir adaptive capacity to better cope with adverse impacts of climate change andimprove their disaster preparedness.Expected Outcomes: To enhance the adaptive capacity of the local communities To improve the delivery systems, especially the extension services To promote multi-level policy dialogues and general awareness to climaterelated impacts.1. OBJECTIVES OF THE SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS STAGE 1 a. Reconnaissance of Mahabubnagar District for identification of potentialareas and prioritization for the SDC V&A Programme. b. Collection of secondary information for Situational Analysis NaturalResources (Agriculture, Water andEnergy),SocioEconomic,Institutions, etc. c. Identification of NGOs and their area of operation in the District. d. Planning for the Situational Analysis Stage 21AFPRO

2. SDC V&A ProgrammeSituational Analysis Stage I Report2. METHODOLOGY 1. Reconnaissance field visit 2. Interaction and discussions with various officials in the District Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Chief Planning Officer (CPO) Project Director, District Water Management Agency (DWMA) Deputy Director, Ground Water Department, Officers at Agriculture Department Faculty at the RARS, Palem Mandal level officials, MDO, MRO, Statistical officers, Agriculture officers,etc of the potential Mandals. Village level secretaries 3. Interaction and discussion with community members in the villages visited 4. Secondary data collection and analysis 5. Referring the programme document and in consultation with InternationalConsortium and National Consortium members.Map 2 Mahabubnagar District with Mandals 2AFPRO 3. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportCHAPTER 2 DISTRICT PROFILEMahabubnagar is the largest District in Telangana Region and Second Largest inAndhra Pradesh State. This District consists of 1553 Revenue Villages, 1347 GramPanchayats, 64 Mandals1 and 5 Revenue Divisions. Mahabubnagar District has 13Assembly Constituencies and 2 Parliamentary Constituencies.It is located in the semiarid region of India with recurring meteorological drought(because of erratic and scanty rainfall) and worsened by overexploitation ofmeager groundwater resources. This is a backward District with diverse socio-economic problems like lowest literacy rate, migrations, extreme poverty, etc.1. LOCATION AND TOPOGRAPHYThe District is located in the Central Part of Peninsular India. It is bounded byRanga Reddy and Nalgonda Districts in the North, Nalgonda and Guntur Districts inthe East, Kurnool District in the South. Raichur and Gulbarga Districts of KarnatakaState in the West. In the South Eastern Parts of the District there are hill rangesextending from North to South, the Hills are mostly Flat Topped.The District islocated between 16 Degree and 17 Degree N latitudes and 77 Degree and 79Degree E longitudes (see Map 3).2. LAND USE PATTERNTotal Geographical area of the District is 18.48 Lakhs Hectares and the landutilization of this District, as per Agriculture Census 2000-2001, is as follows:Table 1 Land use particularsS.No. Type ( Area in Ha.) % age1 Forest Area263560 14.26172 Barren and uncultivable lands937985.0755783 Permanent pastures and grazing lands 254471.3769834 Land put for non-agricultural use786004.2531875 Cultivable waste 111426 6.0294616 Other fallow lands 158657 8.5852157 Current fallows467442 25.294128 Total Normal Area of all crops 649066 35.12212Total Geographical Area of the District18480261001Administrative unit in each district, consisting of an average of 20 to 30 villages3AFPRO 4. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Report Map 3 Mahabubnagar District location w.r.t. other Districts3. CLIMATEThe climate of the District is generally hot. The District summer period is fromMarch to May. The daily Temperature during the period ranges from 16.9 deg.Centigrade to 41.5 deg. Centigrade, the minimum temperature during the winterseason i.e. November to January ranges between 16.9 deg. Centigrade to 19.1deg. Centigrade.The rainfall in the District is scanty and the South West Monsoon is erratic. Most ofthe Rainfall is received during the South West Monsoon. The normal annual rainfallof the District is 604.56 mm. Out of this, the South West monsoon accounts for71% i.e. 489.0 mm and the balance is covered from North East monsoon. (seegraph 1)4AFPRO 5. SDC V&A ProgrammeSituational Analysis Stage I Report GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RAINFALL DATA FROM 1980-81 TO 2002-20031000.0 900.0 800.0 700.0NORMAL IN M.M 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 1980- 1981- 1982- 1983- 1984- 1985- 1986- 1987- 1988 - 1989 - 1990 - 1991 - 1992 - 1993 - 1994 - 1995 - 1996 - 1997 - 1998 - 1999 - 2000 - 2001- 2002-8182838485868788 89 90 91 929394 95 96 97 98 992000 2001 2002 2003 YEARSGraph 1 Rainfall Pattern Mahabubnagar DistrictPhoto 1 This farmer of Kosgi Mandal said that he had seen good rains about 14 years back when all thetanks in his village got filled up, since then he is facing drought4. GEOLOGICAL RESOURCESThe Dharwars are exposed in parts of Gadwal and Makthal Taluka in the form ofnarrow bands. They consists of hornblends, schists, Traversed by quartz veins.Almost all parts of the District is comprised of the Granites, except some parts inKodangal Taluka in the North and the Purana sedimentaries in Krishna Basin in theSouth. The Granites are broadly divided into the Pink and Gray series. There are5AFPRO 6. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Reportnumerous pegmatites and quartz veins intrusive into these granites. The DeccanTraps occur in small patches i.e., the Northern Portions of Kodangal Taluka, wherein some places the trap has been lateritised.5. SOILSThe Soils of the District can be classified into three broad groups i.e., Red Soil,Black Cotton and Chalka Soil or mixed Soils. Major soil group in the district is RedSandy Soils. Type of soil % age A) Loamy Sand Soils (Dubba)13% B) Red Sandy Soils (Chalka)67% C) Black Soils 20%About 70% of the total area is under mixed soils, which do not have water-retaining capacity. The Chalka soils are predominate in the Talukas of Shadnagar,Mahabubnagar, Jadcherla, Kalwakurthy and Kollapur. The Dubba Soils are in theTalukas of Achampet and Gadwal while the Black Cotton Soils, which constitute20% of the District, are in the Talukas of Alampur and Kodangal.Photo 2 Patch of rich black cotton soils ~3 feet thick found at Reddy Guda Village, Midjil Mandal6AFPRO 7. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I Report6. AGRICULTUREThe dry crops are predominant in the District as the Irrigated area is only 15% ofthe net area sown. Net area sown: 8.767 Lakhs Hect. and Gross area sown: 9.767Lakhs Hect. The percentage of areas sown under different crops is a follows:Table 2 Cropping patternCrop PercentageCrop Percentage Crop Percentage1. Paddy 10 %2. Millets 28 % 5. Others9%3. Pulses11 %4. Oil 42 % SeedsTable 3 Major types of cropsMajor Food Crops:Major Oil seeds Crops Major Pulses CropsJowarCastorRed GramPaddyGroundnut Green GramBajra / sajja / pearl millet Sun FlowerHorse GramRagi / Finger milletThe net sown area is not more than 50% of the total geographical area. Thedistrict has been declared as one of the 12 drought prone districts of AndhraPradesh. Major livelihood in the district includes agriculture and animal husbandry.About 1.75 Lakhs small farmers and 2.94 marginal farmers are dependent on wageemployment. About 3.20 Lakhs agricultural laborers who are below poverty line arealso dependent on agricultural wage employment.7AFPRO 8. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportPhoto 3 A farmer of Reddy Guda Village, Midjil Mandal is preparing the land for sowing7. LIVESTOCKMahabubnagar has large numbers of small ruminants and cattle. The dependencyon small ruminants like sheep and goat is very high. For many farmers, livestock isan important asset to sell off to cope with drought; therefore, it is an importantresource against vulnerability.Due to failure of monsoons in the initial stages, fodder shortage is noticed. Thegreen fodder position in the district has become critical and the grazing facilitieshave almost dwindled. Fodder requirement in the District upto June 2005 is 9.47lakhs MT. The people are found buying fodder in large quantities to meet therequirement and shepherds are migrating with their sheep to other places.Table 4 Livestock NumbersLivestockNumbersTotal White & Black cattle population27.40 LakhsSheep11.98 LakhsGoats3.85 LakhsTotal livestock19.10 Lakhs cow units8AFPRO 9. SDC V&A Programme Situational Analysis Stage I ReportPhoto 4 This shepherd from Wanaparthy area is migrating with his sheep towards northwestern part ofthe District as it has rained there - photo was taken near Mahabubnagar town.8. WATEROne of the important agencies in the district is District Water ManagementAgency(DWMA) started in 1995. Each watershed project covers about 500 hectaresand there are 942 such projects sanctioned in the district. Presently the newwatersheds are being carried following Hariyali Guidelines Involvement ofGrampanchayat, Village Organisation and the Watershed Committee, the actionplanning and monitoring is participatory. The status of watershed projects is assuch:Table 5 Scheme wise watershedsS.No Scheme Sanctioned co