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Biswajit Ray. December 1 st , 2007 The Baroque

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Page 1: Baroque

Biswajit Ray.December 1st ,

2007

The Baroque

Page 2: Baroque

Baroque

Striving to Impress

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Baroque: Definition• A period of history :1600 – 1750

• A description of artistic/musical style after the Renaissance

• Originally a derogatory term:means excessive ornamentation of art, clothes, architecture, music.

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Causes and Origins

• Counter reformation movement (glory of the church)

• Rulers wanted a style signifying glory

• Artist’s desire to be more expressive

• Originated in Italy

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Characteristics

• How does Baroque compare with the Renaissance?

• Unique contributions– Emotion/Religious fervor/Realism– Dramatic (light and shade/perspective)– Exploration of form (elaborateness,

exaggeration) but all in control– Virtuosity

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Architecture and Sculpture

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Architecture Style

Versailles- Landscaping

Hall of MirrorsExtravagance

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Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Baldacchino (Altar covering in St. Peters)

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Bernini

David

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Different Countries, Different Styles

Present constant characteristics but acquires originality in each country.

Zacatecas Cathedral, Mexico

In South America, indigenous art is introduced to complement the typical barroque columns, pilars and cornices

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Rococo Rococo was the French interior design answer to the Barroque movement.

Elegant and ornate furniture (shell like curves), small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings.

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THE PAINTERSMasters of the light

• Caravaggio - Italy• El Greco - Spain• Velazquez - Spain• Rubens - Belgium• Van Dyke - Belgium• Rembrandt - Holland• Vermeer - Holland• De La Tour - France

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Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)

• The Calling of Saint Matthew – Chiaroscuro– Realism

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El Greco

• The Burial of Count Orgaz– Religious fervor– Virtuosity (color)

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Diego Velazque

z• Las Meninas

(Maids of Honor)– Perspective– Virtuosity (detail)– The art of

creating art (similar to the view of literature making literature in Don Quixote)

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Peter Paul RubensHenri IV

Receiving the Portrait of Marie De Medici

Rape of the Daughters of

Leucippus

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Anthony Van DykeCharles I on Horseback

Charles I: King of England at the Hunt

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Rembrandt: Night Watch

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Jan VermeerThe Art of Painting

Study of a Young Woman

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Georges de La TourChrist in the

Carpenter’s Shop

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Music

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Baroque Music Innovations

• Invention of Opera• Homophony• Development of the orchestra and types

of orchestration• Development of new forms of vocal music• Development of purely instrumental

music• New instruments• Temperament

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Invention of Opera

• Singing and orchestra work together• Use of an overture, several acts, etc• Size of the orchestra increased• Homophony

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Baroque Music Innovations

• Purely instrumental music– Counterpoint (a type of polyphony)

• Fugues– Sonata, concerto, suite

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Violin Invention

• Cremona, Italy– Amati, Stradivari, Guarneri

• Became the heart of the orchestra• Construction has not changed

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Baroque composers

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Antonio Vivaldi

• “Red Priest”• Details and complexity• Operas• Influenced Bach• The Four Seasons

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Johann Sebastian Bach

• Musical Contributions:– Over 1000 pieces in every genre except

opera– Cantatas (one per week for 8 years)– Protestant themes (in search of God)– Counterpoint/fugue– Complex compositions (upside down)– Hymns (A Mighty Fortress)– Brandenburg Concertos

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“Since the best man could not be obtained, mediocre ones would

have to be accepted.”

-Leipzig town council member commenting on the hiring of Bach

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George Frederick Handel

• Oratorios– Long text with chorus and orchestra– No costumes and staging– Developed after lack of interest for operas

• Messiah– Overture– Glory to God– Hallelujah Chorus

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LITERATURE

• Cervantes – (Spain) = Don Quixote

• John Milton – (England) = Paradise Lost