baroque revision


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Baroque Art revision, including architecture, sculpture and painting.


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Cronology and geography

• From the end of 16th century until 1750.

• Geography: whole Europe+ America.• Characteristics of the period:

• Religious and political conflicts• Geographical colonization• Scientific development• New astrological discoveries Sun centre

of Universe

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Baroque Style

• The word means imperfection• New naturalism that reflects the

scientific advances• Taste for dramatic action and

emotion:• Colour and light contrasted• Rich textures• Asymmetrical spaces• Diagonal plans• New subjects: landscape, genre, still-life

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Baroque Style

• Variety within the style• Art at the service of power• Two main centres:

• Rome: Pope’s authority• France: powerful monarchy

• Influence of the Counter-Reform• Worry about plastic values

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Architecture: Characteristics

• Long narrow naves replaced by broader or circular forms

• Dramatic use of light• Opulent use of ornaments• Large-scale ceiling frescoes• External façade with dramatic central

projection• Interior a shell for painting and sculpture• Illusory effects• Onion domes in Eastern Europe

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Architecture: Italy

• They evolved from the Renaissance forms

• Movement toward grand structures with flowing, curving shapes

• Landscape was frequently incorporated• New elements as gardens, squares ,

courtyards and fountains.• Influence of the rebuilding of Saint Peter,

in which classical forms integrated with the city.

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Architecture: Italy

• Maderno• He made the Vatican’s façade• His work destroyed partially Michelangelo’s

design• His work combined the dome with the

creation of an space where the Pope could appear publicaly

• Other works:• Santa maria della Vittoria• Palazzo Barberini

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Architecture: Italy

• Longhena• He worked mainly in Venice• His design was selected for building

Santa Maria della Salute• It is building of central plan with a

great dome that became the symbol of Venice.

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Architecture: Italy

• Bernini• He created a fusion of architecture,

painting and sculpture• He used false perspective and trompe-l’

oeil to impact• He used a palace façade that became a

model with massive pilasters above a rusticated base.

• Works:• Saint Peter’s square• Baldaquin

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Architecture: Italy

• Borromini• His works spring from the contrast

between convention and freedom• He used tradition as a basis, but not as

a law• Works:

• San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane• San Carlo Borromeo• Oratorio degli Fillipenses

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Architecture: France

• It was elegant, ordered, rational and restraided

• It is a rectilinear model, closer to classicism

• It aimed at showing the power of Louis XIV monarchy.

• The main works are:• Louvre: Le Vay and Perrault• Versailles: Le Brun, Le Vau, Le Notre

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Architecture: Central Europe

• It began later due to the Thirty Years’ War

• Austria developed the Imperial style with Fischer von Erlach and Hildebrandt

• In Germany, in the Catholic South Jesuit models were followed while in the Protestant North works were less important

• Palace architecture was important in the whole area

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Architecture: England and Russia

• In England is important Wren• Baroque was the style used to design

town planning• In Russia it is very decorative, in

quite traditional churches sometimes made of brick; later it was imported from the Low Countries and finally it became an extravagant art.

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Architecture: Spain

• At the beginning it continued the pattern of the Escorial

• Decoration tends to concentrate just in the façade

• The Rococo was the time of the development of the Churrigueresque style, with exaggerated decoration around the door

• The Plateresque (last Renaissance that imitates the work on silver) and the Churrigueresque were exported to America, mainly to Mexico.

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• It is one of the most popular arts.• The clients are the church and the

nobility.• It is the way of expression of different

religious believes.• It was used as a way of advertising

power• Works are located in public places, such

as courtyards and fountains.

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Sculpture: Characteristics

• Creation of images that can be seen from different points of view.

• Tendency to open structures.• Complicated lines, being the

diagonal the most used.• Interest for the effects of light:

• different treatment of surfaces • Resource to breaking wall to get the

ideal illumination

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Sculpture: Characteristics

• Combination of different materials in the same work

• Grandiloquence of the gestures• Human treatment of the depicted

characters• Mythological and religious images frull

of humanities and passions• Perfect organisation of the volumes to

obtain the desired effect

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Sculpture: Characteristics

• Tension and drama: moment of maximum tension

• Violent contrast of light and shadows• Types of sculptures:

• Relief• Portrait• Equestrian portrait• Allegories• Mythological stories• Religious• Easter sculptures (Spain)• Fountains• Pantheons

• Regional differences

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Sculpture: Italy

• Bernini• He created a new style in sculpture• Sources of inspiration were the paintings of his

contemporaries• Sense of drama and naturalism (following

Caravaggio)• Captured in stone frozen moment of human

bodies in motion• Works:

• Apollo and Daphne• Sainte Therese Ecstasy• Fountain of the Four Rivers• Fountain of the Triton

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Sculpture: France

• Girardon• Quite classical conception• He worked for Louis XIV• Author of fountains (Apollo Tended by

Nymphs), pantheons (Richelieu)

• Puget• Impassioned work• Formed in Italy• Expressed physical vigour and emotional

intensity• Work: Milon of Crotona

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Sculpture: Spain

• Religious sculpture had an important development

• It is realised for the Easter parades.• Characteristics:

• Humanity (passions, mainly sufferance)• Symbols of sufferance: blood• Individual or group images• Wood is the most used material (polychrome)• Additional elements: real clothes, glazed eyes,

hair• Common images:

• Painful Virgin (Dolorosa)• Ecce Homo (Christ tied up to a column)• Death Christ• Calvary

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Sculpture: Spain

• Castilian School: Gregorio Fernandez• His style evolved from the refinement and

elegance of Court Mannerism to Baroque naturalism

• Master in depicting the human body with anatomical detail, tension in muscles, strength of bones and softness of flesh and skin

• Clothing heavy and flat, with rigid and angular folders, producing contrast of light and shadows

• Dramatic expressions• Simple polychromes (flat colours)• Works: Virgin with the Dead Christ, Road to the

Calvary, Saint Theresa

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Sculpture: Spain

• Andalusian School:• Greater classical tradition• Artist maintained the aesthetic of latter

Mannerism (athletic figures, elegant composition, and idealised beauty)

• Incorporation of the effects of naturalism in emotions

• Artists: Martinez Montañes, Alonso Cano, Pedro de Mena, Jose de Mora

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Sculpture: Spain

• Andalusian School:• Martinez Montañes: “ The God of Wood”

• Combined love of beauty and serenity of the Mannerism with the naturalism of the Baroque

• Elegant figures in restful poses• Human and contained emotions• Saint John the Evangelist

• Alonso Cano• Combines classicism and Baroque• Purity of form, delicacy and contaiment of expression• Careful anatomy and slender outline• Oval faces, eyes with melancholic and pensive gaze• Saint John the Baptists

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Sculpture: Spain

• Andalusian School:• Pedro de Mena:

• Greater simplification of form• Spiritual content• Pure sentiments or states of mind: ecstasy• Saint Peter of Alcántara, Ecce Homo

• Jose de Mora:• Simplicity and expression• Realistic pain• Faces with expression of introspection and sad

gazes• Impossibility of consolation• Virgin of Solitude

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Sculpture: Spain

• Pasos or processional scenes• Made of light but fragile materials at the beginning• Wooden carvings popular since 17th century• Polychrome and with fake additions: glass eyes

and tears, ivory teeth, hair• Viewpoints should be taken into account• Different work in characters:

• Goodies: meticolous, pretty to look, dressed in timeless clothing

• Baddies: less detail, no additions, ugly and unpleasant, clothing from the time they were made

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Sculpture: Spain

• Mounted in wooden platforms: scenes seemed almost alive with the movement

• Main images desmounted and put in altars and baddies packed

• There were famous those of Valladolid, made by Gregorio Fernandez

• Decadence during the 18th century

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Sculpture: Spain

• In the late Baroque there were French and Italian influences

• Creation of a new classicism• Murcia took relevance: Salcillo

• Influenced by the Neapolitan school (Belen tradition)

• Movement, delicacy and tender beauty• Perfection of form, serch of elegance and

refinement• Great dynamism• Added materials and polychrome

• Luisa Roldan• Larger sife sized an small terra-cotta compositions

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• Subjects: religious and profane (mythological, allegorical, historical or portraits)

• Composition: complicated; taste for big groups, with different centres of attention. Portraits are just essential

• Lines: dynamic and complicate. Diagonal is the most used or combinations of horizontal and vertical

• Colour: rich, with great effects due to the use of oil and contrast depending on the areas

• Strange elements: secondary plans, mirrors

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• Kinds of depiction:• Religious: martyrdoms, sufferance and blood• Mythological: generally developed with

contemporary characters• Allegorical: virtues and sins portrayed as humans• Portraits: royal, bourgeois (doelen), beggars,

handicapped• Customs: every day’s life• Historical: bear witness of historical events• Landscapes: never quiet sceneries• Still-life: food and vegetables, flowers, animals• Vanities or vanitas: remainders of the egalitarian

role of death

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Painting: Italy

• Caravaggio• Very naturalist• Theologically incorrect• Enormous contrasts of light• Difficult compositions• Known as the creator of tenebrism• Works: Supper at Emmaus, the Death of

the Virgin, Saint Mathew’s Conversion

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Painting: Italy

• Carracci• He received Caravaggio’s influence• Naturalism• Perfect and idealised world• His works are completely different

from those of Caravaggio• Works: Cerasi Chapel

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Painting: Flanders

• Rubens• He was a complete artist• Gifted with organization and a sense for

realism and idealism• He enjoyed harmony’s enviable balance

of opposites• Romantic but rooted in classical tradition• Works: The Three Graces, The Garden of

Love, Catalina of Medici’s Portrait

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Painting: Flanders

• Van Dyck• He was Rubens’ s student• In his works there in a languid melancholic

mood• Portraits of the aristocracy• Works: Charles I

• Jordaens• Specialized in genre and banquet scenes• Strong contrasts of light and shade• Realistic images• Works: The King Drinks

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Painting: Netherlands

• Rembrant• Thunderous use of light and shade• Dramatic figures filling the picture surface• Fluid and vigorous brushwork• He substituted the exact imitation of form by the

suggestion of it: painting looked to be unfinished• Limited palette but able to depict colours• He worked in complex layers• Great care to the physical qualities of the

medium• Works: The Night’s Ronda, Saskia having a Bath,

The Jew Bridegroom, The Philosopher

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Painting: Netherlands

• Hals• He brought life to groups• Portraits as a snapshot• Unconventional work for his moment• Quick depictions with a few touches of light• Works: The Gipsy Girl

• Vermeer• Domestic interiors• Serene sense of compositional balance and

spatial order• Mundane, domestic or recreational activities• He used the camera obscura to exaggerate

perspective• Works: Girl with the Pearl Earring, View of Delft,

the Procuress, The Geographer

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Painting: France

• Poussin• Founder of the classical school• Myths, essential subject and sensuality• Works: Et in Arcadia Ego

• La Tour• Preocupation with the realistic rendering of light• Effects of chiaroscuro and diffusion of artificial

illumination• Works: Marie Magdalene

• Le Nain• Common life, peasants and poor people• Grave presences, not comic or gallant, neither

picaresque or satirical• Works: Peasant’s Family

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Painting: Spain

• Zurbarán • He was a portrait painter• Main subjects: religious (saints,

monastic orders’ members)• Austere, harsh, hard edged style• Still-lives• Works: Paintings of the Guadalupe

Monastery, Sainte Casilde, Still-life with lemons

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Painting: Spain

• Velázquez• He painted any kind of subjects• He was Court Painter and travelled to Italy to buy

art works and he knew classical masters’ works• Portraits: include royal family and nobility, some

of them equestrian, but also normal people of the court or even beggars (Olivares, Juan de Pareja, Esopo, Meninas)

• Religious paintings are treated as common subjects, with great importance given to daily life objects (Christ in Martha and Mary’s house)

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Painting: Spain

• Mythological work appear normally in a secondary plan or represented by normal people (Spinners, Drunks)

• Historical scenes (Breda’s Surrender)• Nudes (Venus of the mirror)• Landscapes (Villa Medicci)• Genre scenes: same importance

given to the tools or to people (Old Woman Cooking Eggs, Sevilla’s Water-Seller)

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Painting: Spain

• Characteristics:• Great detail when wanted• Aerial perspective• Pre-Impressioniss (few matter and

impression of unfinished work)• Special conception of the space (no

divisions of it)• Resource to very baroque elements such

as mirrors that create an illusionist space• Richness of colours

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Painting: Spain

• Murillo• His work is not strong but his images are

convincing• Realism but a bit idealistic• He is reputed as children painter, works in

which beggars and poor children are depicted• He created a model of Immaculate, moved by

the wind and with a lot of putti• Works: Children Eating Fruit, Two Women at a

Window, the Holy Family of the Bird, Immaculate

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• French style for interior decoration• It developped mainly at the end of 1720• It was used in other countries as a

French Style• Characteristics:

• Galante: luxurious things• Contraste: asymmety• Chinoiserie: exotic character imitating

Chinese arts

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Rococo Architecture

• It caught the public taste• Small and curious buildings• Elegant parlours, dainty sitting-rooms and

boudoirs• Walls, ceiling, furniture and works of metal as

decoration• Ensemble of sportive, fantastic and sculptured

forms• Horizontal lines almost completely supressed• Shell-like curves• Walls covered by stucco• White and bright colours.

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Rococo Sculpture

• There is not a breaking with the former• The tune was set by courts and it is decorative• Staircases, columns with atlantes become

common• Gardens and parks were adorned more than

ever before with statues. These isolated and groups were placed on fountains

• The social role of sculpture increased to show the power of dynasties and nobility, mainly when cities expanded

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Rococo Sculpture

• Taste for technical virtuosity, sheer brilliance of manner

• Allegory was used because it had an elaborate system of symbols

• Religion was a bit less used during the Enlightement

• Portraits give importance to reallity with psychological quirks

• Female portrait were less austere• Cult of great men• Increase of the number of equestrian statues• Funeral monuments

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Rococo Sculpture

• Bouchardon:• Clean forms, can and harmonious rhythms• Precursor of the Neoclassicism • Works: Louis XIV

• Houdon:• Charming images a bit ambiguous

• Works: Voltaire, La Frileuse

• Pigalle: The Negro Paul, Tombe of Marshl Saxony

• Falconet: Equestrian statue of Peter the Great

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Rococo Painting

• Instead of portraying the moral depression of the time, they protrait high society and gallant festivals

• Beautiful sensuality is masterly depicted through the colour

• Conversations, rural pleasures, character as the Italian and French Commendians indicates the spirit of this art

• Slim images, in unaffected pose, in rural sceneries and painted with the finest colours

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Rococo Painting

• France• Wateau

• He depicted mankind as the most interesting natural element: affinity toward them

• Elegant characters in vibrant colours• Works: Embarkation to Citera, Gilles

• Fragonard• Rapid an spontaneous painter• He depicted the sense of human folly• Works: The Swing

• Chardin• Master of the still life• Paintings in brown colours with mids, but loyal to


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Rococo Painting

• England• Hogart

• Caricature in his morality paintings• Fluent and vigorous brushwork• Works: Shrimp Girl

• Gainsborough• Artist of the landscape and the portrait• Ability to regard all creatures with

sympathy• Works: Landscape with Gypsies, Sunset

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Rococo Painting

• Italy• Tiepolo

• Master of the decorative painting• He used the fresco• Works: Wurzburg Palace, Allegory of the Spanish


• Canaletto• Townscapes painter (vedute)• He apparently painted directly from nature• He used the camera obscura• Works: Architectural Capriccio, The Bucintoro

Returning to the Molo on Ascension Day