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If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!: Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele

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Page 1: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!: Music of the Baroque Era

A. Gabriele

Page 2: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

The Baroque Era● 1600-1750; ended with J.S. Bach’s death● The English settled Jamestown in 1607● In 1610, Galileo confirms the Earth is round and revolves around

the sun● An apple falls from a tree, it knocks some sense into Isaac

Newton, and he publishes the Laws of Universal Gravitation in 1697.

● In 1692 there were trials. Which trials, you ask? The Salem Witch Trials.

Page 3: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

The term “baroque” comes from the French word for an irregularly shaped pearl.

The artwork of the time was considered odd, irregular, and very ornate.

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The style of Art and Architecture was ornate and decadent.

Louis XIV was the monarch of France from 1638-1715

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This is a depiction of Louis XIV as the Greek god Apollo

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This is his Palace of Versailles

Page 7: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

The Hall of Mirrors

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Louis XIV’s Bedroom

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Baroque Art

● Rembrandt● Caravaggio● Rubens

Page 10: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

Baroque Literature● Shakespeare (Hamlet, etc.)● Cervantes (Don Quijote)● Swift (Gulliver’s Travels)● Milton (Paradise Lost)

Page 11: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

Characteristics of Baroque Music● Rhythm either flowed like the music of the Renaissance, or it is

more free● There is now a focus on instrumental music or instrumental

accompaniment to voices.● Chords are emphasized as part of the accompaniment (harmony),

in addition to a bassline known as the basso continuo● The basso continuo usually consisted of two instruments:

○ a keyboard instrument played the chords and the bassline○ another low-sounding instrument to reinforce the

bassline, like a cello or bassoon

Page 12: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

Major Music Formats of the Baroque Era

Vocal MusicOperaOratorioCantataMass

Instrumental MusicChamber Music Concerto Grosso

Page 13: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

Opera● sung theatrical work, with

staging and acting

● usually based on a secular story, often from antiquity

● orchestral accompaniment

● vocal soloists and choruses

● elaborate costumes and sets

● example: Henry Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas

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Oratorio● sung theatrical work, but no

staging, acting, costumes or sets

● usually based on a religious story

● orchestral accompaniment

● vocal soloists and choruses (more choruses than Opera)

● example: Handel’s Messiah

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Cantata● similar to an oratorio,

narrates a story but unstaged

● shorter than an oratorio, designed to be part of a church service

● example: J.S. Bach’s Wachet Auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Sleepers Wake)

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Recitative vs. Aria● A vocal line in an opera,

oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythm and pitch fluctuations of speech

● It communicates the plot and advances the story.

● It often leads into an aria.

● A melodic song in an opera, oratorio, or cantata for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment.

● It communicates the emotions and inner thoughts of the character.

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Some instruments of the Baroque Era...

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The Keyboard Family

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The Modern String Family

The major instrument building families, like the Stradivari of Cremora, Italy, came into prominence during the Baroque.

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Wind Instruments

The wind family hand many new innovations like keys on the woodwinds. Brass instruments still do not have valves.

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The two main formats of instrumental music are chamber music and the concerto grosso.

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Chamber Music● Chamber Music uses a small

group of musicians● There is one player to a part● It can be as small as one

person playing a solo instrument

● Chamber Music is meant to be performed in a small venue, a chamber, like in someone’s house.

● Example: Archangelo Corelli’s Trio Sonata in D major

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Concerto Grosso● A composition for several

instrument soloists and small orchestra

● Tutti vs. Soli○ Tutti means “all”, the

entire ensemble is playing

○ Soli is the plural of “alone”, a small group of featured soloists are playing

● Example: J.S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5

Page 24: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

Some Composers...old dudes...

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George Frederic Handel

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We’ll be Bach tomorrow...

Page 30: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

Baroque Characteristics of the Elements of Music

Rhythm flowing like the music of the Renaissance; but sometimes the rhythm is more free with starts and stops

Melody elaborate, ornamented, continuously expanding, long and winding, based on scales

Harmony new emphasis on chords and bassline known as the basso continuo

Timbre new emphasis on instrumental music and instrumental accompaniment to voices

Texture more rapid changes in texture (homophony, imitative polyphony) throughout a single piece; homophony more important than before

Dynamics sudden changes from loud to soft called terraced dynamics

Form multi-movement dance formats in instrumental music; opera, oratorio, cantata, and mass formats in vocal music

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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

● Born to a family of musicians in Eisenach, Germany

● Orphaned at the age of 10

● Raised by his brother, who was his music teacher

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J.S. Bach as a young dude

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Bach: prolific and complex

● He wrote over 1000 musical compositions in every format of the Baroque, except Opera

● One cantata a week for eight years● The public complained about his

“flowery” music● Musicians though his music was too

difficult to perform

Page 34: Music of the Baroque Era If It Ain’t Baroque Don’t Fix It!anthonyggabriele.weebly.com/.../7/7/39776526/music_of_the_baroqu… · Music of the Baroque Era A. Gabriele. The Baroque

Bach’s Work● Church Musician

○ write music for services○ play organ○ teach choirs and soloists○ conduct orchestras/choirs

● Court Musician○ wrote music for entertainment○ wrote commissioned pieces

● School Teacher● Organ Teacher● Organ Construction Consultant● Composer● Husband and father

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“Since the best man could not be obtained for the job, mediocre ones would have to be accepted.”

-Leipzig town council member commenting on the hiring of Bach

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Bach’s Life● Married his cousin Maria

Barbara, and they had 7 children

● After she died in 1721, he married Anna Magdalena Wilken and they had 13 more children

● Do the math: that is 20 children total.