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Submitted to: ADITI JOSHISubmitted by: KEYUR MISTRY
Features: humanism rationalism materialism liberalism
In some ways Humanism was not a philosophy per se, but rather a method of learning.
In contrast to the medieval scholastic mode, which focused on resolving contradictions between authors, humanists would study ancient texts in the original, and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence.
Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', that being the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.
Teatro Carlo Felice, designed by Aldo Rossi, who is considered the founder of neo-rationalism
The intellectual principles of Rationalism are based on architectural theory. Vitruvius had already established in his work De Architectura that architecture is a science that can be comprehended rationally.
This formulation was taken up and further developed in the architectural treatises of the Renaissance.
Progressive art theory of the 18th-century opposed the Baroque beauty of illusionism with the classic beauty of truth and reason.
Twentieth-century Rationalism derived less from a special, unified theoretical work than from a common belief that the most varied problems posed by the real world could be resolved by reason.
In that respect it represented a reaction to historicism and a contrast to Art Nouveau and Expressionism.
A dome is a structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. Dome structures made of various materials have a long architectural
Dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome crowned by a cupola. Designed primarily by Michelangelo, the dome was not completed until 1590
lineage extending into prehistory.
A dome can be thought of as an arch which has been rotated around its central vertical axis.
Thus domes, like arches, have a great deal of structural strength when properly built and can span large open spaces without interior supports.
Corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each horizontal layer of stones inward slightly farther than the previous, lower, one until they meet at the top.
These are sometimes called false domes. True, or real, domes are formed with
increasingly inward-angled layers which have ultimately turned 90 degrees from the base of the dome to the top.
The Pantheon in RomeEarly history and primitive domes
The façade is often cited as the least satisfactory part of the design of St. Peter's.
The facade designed by Maderno, is 114.69 metres (376.3 ft) wide and 45.55 metres (149.4 ft) high and is built of travertine stone, with a giant order of Corinthian columns and a central pediment rising in front of a tall attic surmounted by statues of Christ, John the Baptist, and eleven of the apostles.
Paired Corinthian pilasters on the county courthouse in Springfield, Ohio.
A pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile.
A Vault (French. voute, Italian. volta,) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Gothic rib-vault ceiling of the Saint-Séverin church in Paris.
Barrel vault Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces.
A groin vault viewed from the underside, showing the arris or 'groin'.
Plan of the vault from above showing resultant outward thrust.
Vault from above.
Rococo less commonly roccoco, also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, which affected several aspects of arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music and theatre. The Rococo developed in the early part of the 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially that of the Palace of Versailles
ArchitectureRococo architecture, as mentioned above, was a
lighter, more graceful, yet also more elaborate version
of Baroque architecture, which was ornate and
austere. Whilst the styles were similar, there are
some notable differences between both Rococo and Baroque architecture, one
of them being
Although Rococo is usually thought of as developing first in the decorative arts and interior design, its origins lie in the late Baroque architectural work of Borromini (1599–1667) mostly in Rome and Guarini (1624–83) mostly in Northern Italy but also in Vienna, Prague, Lisbon, and Paris. Italian architects of the late Baroque/early Rococo were wooed to Catholic (Southern) Germany,Bohemia and Austria by local princes, bishops and prince-bishops. Inspired by their example, regional families of Central European builders went further, creating churches and palaces that took the local German Baroque style to the greatest heights of Rococo elaboration and sensation.
Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative arts, the style showed clearly in painting. These painters used delicate colors and curving forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and myths of love. Portraiture was also popular among Rococo painters. Some works show a sort of naughtiness or impurity in the behavior of their subjects, showing the historical trend of departing away from the Baroque's church/state orientation. Landscapes were pastoral and often depicted the leisurely outings of aristocratic couples.
Rococo "worldliness" and the Roman Catholic Church
An interesting illustration of the hostility sometimes aroused by this style (similar to that of early Modernists to High Victorian style) can be found in the critical view of Rococo taken by the 1913Catholic Encyclopedia, especially on the unsuitable nature of Rococo for ecclesiastical contexts.
due to the style's lack of simplicity, its outwardness and its frivolity, all of which tend to distract from prayer and recollection.When the outwardness of the style was toned down it became more acceptable in religious environments and contexts. As such, Rococo decoration was able to be incorporated in sacred architecture, although, due to the style's garishness, even when religious motifs were used the results might not have always been pleasing.
1749–1774, by the Brazilian master Aleijadinho
The Rococo staircase of Gruber Palacein LjubljanaThe Rococo staircase Ljubljana