southern baroque

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Italian Baroque (1600-1700)

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Page 1: Southern Baroque

Italian Baroque (1600-1700)

Page 2: Southern Baroque

Western Europe ca. 1648.

Page 3: Southern Baroque

Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy.

Page 4: Southern Baroque

Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, c. 1599-1600, oil on canvas, Contarelli Chapel, S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome , 11’1” x 11’5”.

Page 5: Southern Baroque

Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, c. 1599-1600, oil on

canvas, Contarelli Chapel, S. Luigi dei

Francesi, Rome.

Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper,c. 1495-1497, fresco, refectory ofSanta Maria della Grazie, Milan.

Page 6: Southern Baroque

Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, c. 1599-1600, oil on

canvas, Contarelli Chapel, S. Luigi dei

Francesi, Rome.

Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, 1599-

1600, Oil on canvas, 10’7” x 11’2”.

Page 7: Southern Baroque

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, c. 1625, oil on canvas, 6’1/2” x 4’7”.

Page 8: Southern Baroque

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes,

ca. 1625, oil on canvas, 6’1/2” x 4’7”.

Donatello, Judith and Holofernes,1455-1460.

Page 9: Southern Baroque

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes,

ca. 1625, oil on canvas, 6’1/2” x 4’7”.

Caravaggio, Judith Beheading Holofernes, 1598-1599.

Page 10: Southern Baroque

Palazzo Farnese, Rome.

Page 11: Southern Baroque

Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, 1597-1601, ceiling fresco, approx. 66’ x 21’7”, Palazzo Farnese, Rome.

Page 12: Southern Baroque

Michelangelo,Sistine Chapel, Vatican,

Rome, fresco.

Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, 1597-1601, ceiling fresco, approx. 66’

x 21’7”, Palazzo Farnese, Rome.

Page 13: Southern Baroque

Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623, marble, Galleria Borghese, Rome (life-size).

Page 14: Southern Baroque

Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623, marble, Galleria Borghese, Rome (life-

size).

Detail of David’s head.

Page 15: Southern Baroque

Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623, marble,

Galleria Borghese, Rome.

Donatello, David,ca. 1446-1460.

Michelangelo, David,ca. 1501-1504.

How would you compare and contrast Donatello’s, Michelangelo’s and Bernini’s respective representations of

the subject of David?

Page 16: Southern Baroque

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624-33, gilt bronze.

Page 17: Southern Baroque

Aerial view of St. Peter’s, Rome. Nave and façade by Carlo Maderno, 1607-12; colonnade by

Gianlorenzo Bernini, designed 1657.

Page 18: Southern Baroque

St. Peter's Basilica from the Middle Ages to the Baroque.

Page 19: Southern Baroque

Plan of New St. Peter’s with Bernini’s Piazza and Colonnade.

Page 20: Southern Baroque

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Colonnade. Above left, from entrance; below

left, from pavement disc.

Page 21: Southern Baroque

Francesco Borromini, Façade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, ca. 1665-7.

Page 22: Southern Baroque

Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1665-7 (plan).

Page 23: Southern Baroque

Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1665-7 (view of the dome).

Page 24: Southern Baroque

Spanish Baroque (1600-1700)

Page 25: Southern Baroque

Jusepe de Ribera, St. Jerome and the Angel of Judgment, 1626, oil on canvas 103 x 42”.

Page 26: Southern Baroque

Diego Velázquez, The Water Carrier of Seville, c. 1619, oil on canvas41 ½ x 31 ½”.

Page 27: Southern Baroque

Diego Velázquez, The Maids of Honor (Las Meninas), 1656, oil on canvas,10’5” x 9’.

Page 28: Southern Baroque

Details of the Infanta Margarita, Diego Velázquez, The Maids of Honor (Las Meninas), 1656, oil on canvas, 10’5 x 9’.

Page 29: Southern Baroque

Details of Velázquez’s self-portrait and the mirror in the

background, Diego Velázquez, The Maids of Honor (Las

Meninas), 1656, oil on canvas,10’5” x 9’.

Jan van Eyck, The “Arnolfini Wedding,”1434, oil on panel.

Page 30: Southern Baroque

Camera obscura (Left) the actual object

(Right) projection using acamera obscura.

Page 31: Southern Baroque

Pablo Picasso, Variation on Las Meninas, 1957, oil on canvas.

Francisco Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800, oil on canvas.

Page 32: Southern Baroque

Francisco de Zurbarán. St. Serapion, 1628, oil on canvas,47 ½ x 41”.

Page 33: Southern Baroque

Summary of Italian and Spanish Baroque Art and Architecture

 • The Baroque – the dramatic and didactic style of the seventeenth century – started in Italy and spread throughout Europe through the travel of artists and patrons. It conveyed dynamism and strong emotions and was used as the style of the Counter Reformation, to proclaim the triumph the Church over Protestantism.

• Painting in Italy: Caravaggio was the most significant Baroque painter because of his innovations at the beginning of the seventeenth century and his enduring influence. He had many followers in Italy, among them Artemisia Gentileschi, and throughout Europe, especially in Holland and Flanders. His innovations were found in his subject matter: the dramatic treatment of religious subject matter, with half-length, realistic figures set behind a table against a neutral background or life-size figures. Caravaggio is also credited with stylistic innovations: tenebrism, dramatic lighting and the suggestion of temporality. His altarpieces were revolutionary. Annibale Carracci’s art reflects another important trend in Italian Baroque painting, which emphasizes calm, classicizing, monumental forms that are shaped by Roman antiquity and High Renaissance art.

• Sculpture in Italy: Baroque sculpture suggested action, vitality, and emotion – with a single figure such as David or with more theatrical productions. Bernini was the most significant sculptor, both for his own works and, as coordinator of the decoration plan for St. Peter’s, for creating assignments for other artists.

• Architecture in Italy: The new St. Peter’s (begun at the turn of the sixteenth century) was completed during the Baroque period and became the greatest symbol of the revival and triumph of the Church. The central sculptural/architectural focus of the interior decoration was the Baldacchino (central altar) executed by Bernini. The exterior, a monumental elliptical arc, and the piazza, also designed by Bernini, was a remarkable development, suggesting the all-encompassing arms of the Church. Smaller churches, organic and irregularly shaped, with complex domes by Borromini, also became typical of the time.

• Spanish Baroque: Spanish Baroque paintings suggested strong religious piety: they were commissioned by monastic orders, as in the case of Zurbarán.

• Spanish Baroque painting would be largely influenced by Italian art and by Caravaggio through Naples. Ribera’s religious paintings and genre scenes reflect his interest in naturalism.

• Velázquez, the most renowned painter of the Spanish Golden Age, was court painter to King Philip IV of Spain in Madrid, but began his career in Seville. His early style would be influenced by Caravaggio. His later works produced at court would be influenced by the art of Titian, whose works were owned by the king, and, by Rubens, who traveled to the Spanish court and advised Velázquez.