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Whole Foods Production NS430. Nazia Sadat RD, LDN, MS, MPH Seminar 4 Fruits/Phytochemicals. Today’s Agenda. Today we will be covering these topics: Phytochemicals Fruits. Phytochemicals. Phytochemicals. Phytochemicals – a chemical synthesized from plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Whole Foods ProductionNS430Nazia SadatRD, LDN, MS, MPH

    Seminar 4Fruits/Phytochemicals

  • Todays AgendaToday we will be covering these topics:PhytochemicalsFruits

  • Phytochemicals

  • PhytochemicalsPhytochemicals a chemical synthesized from plantsphyto is the Greek word for plantPhytochemicals were produced by plants in order to help maintain their growth and to protect themAnimals consumed these phytochemicals and were able to maintain their growth and be protected from damageMultiple studies have found that many phytochemicals exert buffering action at one or more stages of cancer developmentThey also prevent formation of carcinogens, scavenge and quench free radicals, reduce certain damage to DNA, etc.

  • More about PhytochemicalsIt is estimated that >5000 individual phytochemicals have been identifiedBut a large % still remain unknownWhy phytochemicals help prevent cancer?We are constantly exposed to oxidative damage in our everyday lifeWe need a balance of oxidation versus antioxidants to remain healthyBest way is to obtain antioxidants through whole foods like fruits, vegetables and whole grains

  • What are free radicals?

  • Free Radicals and AntioxidantsDuring normal metabolism, oxygen can from damaging byproducts called free radicalsFree radicals are also present in the environmentWhy are free radicals bad?Free radicals are molecules with an odd number of electrons which makes then very unstable. They are highly reactive and if not quenches can cause damage in the bodyHow are free radicals quenched?When they combine with another unpaired electronIf free radicals are not quenches, in the long run they can cause enough damage to lean to heart disease, cancer, etc.

  • Common PhytochemicalsPhenolics:Products of metabolism in plants that provide essential functions (reproduction, defense)High in cranberries and broccoliFlavonoids:More than 4000 identifiedMany different subgroupsCarotenoids:Natures most widespread pigmentsReceived much needed attention due to their provitamin and antioxidant rolesCarotenoids react with free radicals

  • Common PhytochemicalsPhenolic compounds or PolyphenolFlavonoids Anthocyanins, anthocynidins, isoflavonoids, flavonols, flavones found in vegetables, fruits, green tea, soybeansPhenolic acids: ferulic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ellagic acid and gallic acid --- found in whole grains, berries, cherriesTannins: Catechins ---found in lentils, beans, tea, grape, wine...TerpenesCarotenoids: beta-carotene, alpha carotene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxantin, licopene, lutein ---- They give the color orange: carrots, peaches, mangos, but can also be found in leafy greens.Limonoids: limonin, nomilin, d limonine--- found in citrus fruitsSulfur containing chemicalOrganosulfur compounds: Allicin in garlicIsothiocyanates: Sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables

  • Fruits

  • FruitsIt is important to remember that fruits and vegetables are NOT equalThe main emphasis should be on vegetable consumptionIt is very easy to overindulge in sweet fruitsAdvise is very vague as fruits and veggies are put into a single categoryIt is important to remember that not all fruits are equal and fruits juice DOES NOT equate to fruit servingsFruits are great as in between meal snacks and are convenient to use as an on the go food

  • Question

    Why are fruit juices not the best recommendation for substitution of fruits?

  • Benefits of FruitsAlong with vitamins, minerals and trace minerals fruits have been found to contain beneficial phytochemicalsCarotenoidsFlavonoidsPhenolsEllagic acidResveratrol

    Benefits against free radicalsWork better than phytochemicals from supplements

  • Common FruitsBerries: anthocyanins Cranberries: bioflavonoid, anthocyanins, procyanins, phenolic acidsRaspberries: Ellagic acid, anthocyanins, flavovolApple: flavonoid quercetin, fiberBanana: potassium, fiberCherries: anthocyaninsCitrus fruits: flavonoidsGrapes: Ellagic acidMelons: Caretenoids, lycopenePomegranates: Ellagic acid, flavonoids, polyphenols

  • Dried FruitsPortability makes them an ideal snackBe careful on portion sizes due to high sugar contentRaisinsFlavonoids: catechin and quercetinPrunes: inhibits growth of major bacteria

  • Buying and Storing FruitsSome fruits are available year roundBananas, applesOthers are seasonalPeaches, cherriesFactors to consider when buying fruitPlan on use? Immediately or laterStorage spaceTime to prepareREMEMBER to wash all fruits just before you use themEven fruits with thick rindsCut fruits just before use to prevent browning

  • Recommendations5 a day/Fruits & Veggies More MattersOn average 3 servings of veggies and 2 servings of fruitCDC 5 fruit/veggies servings per dayNational Cancer InstituteDoubled their recommendation to 10 servings per dayThe Dietary Guidelines for AmericansIn 2005, changed fruit and vegetable recommendations.The new guidelines recommend 2 to 6 1/2 cups of fruits and vegetables a day or the equivalent of 4 to 13 servings

  • Any Questions?

  • ProjectFind a peer reviewed research article on phytochemicalsAssociated with a specific type of fruitsApples and anti cancer benefitsBerries and cancer fighting benefits1 page follow APA formatting discussed last weekWhat is a peer reviewed journal?Articles that have been reviewed for there research and informationUsually from journals American Journal of Public Health, American Dietetic Association, American Medical Association journal, etc.

  • Readings for this Week!Chapter 2 in the textFruits