What the Internet of Things needs to become a reality

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<ul><li> 1. freescale.com / arm.comWhite PaperWhat the Internet of Things (IoT) Needs to Become a Reality Kaivan Karimi Executive DirectorGlobal Strategy and Business Development, MCUs, Freescale SemiconductorGary AtkinsonTable of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Making Things Smart 4 Application CategoriesDirector of Emerging Technologies, ARM5 IoT Use CasesAbstract8 Building Blocks ofWere entering a new era of computing technology that many are calling the Internet of Things (IoT). Machine to machine, machine to infrastructure, machine to environment, the Internet of Everything, the Internet of Intelligent Things, intelligent systemscall it what you want, but its happening, and its potential is huge. We see the IoT as billions of smart, connected things (a sort of universal global neural network in the cloud) that will encompass every aspect of our lives, and its foundation is the intelligence that embedded processing provides. The IoT is comprised of smart machines interacting and communicating with other machines, objects, environments and infrastructures. As a result, huge volumes of data are being generated, and that data is being processed into useful actions that can command and control things to make our lives much easier and saferand to reduce our impact on the environment. The creativity of this new era is boundless, with amazing potential to improve our lives. What does the IoT need to become a reality? In this white paper, Freescale and ARM partner to answer that question.the IoT15When Does the IoT Become a Reality?</li></ul><p> 2. What the Internet of Things Needs to Become a RealityIntroduction Depending on who you talk to, the Internet of Things (IoT) is defined in different ways, and it encompasses many aspects of lifefrom connected homes and cities to connected cars and roads (yes, roads) to devices that track an individuals behavior and use the data collected for push services. Some mention one trillion Internet-connected devices by 2025 and define mobile phones as the eyes and ears of the applications connecting all of those connected things. Depending on the context, others give examples that are less phone-centric, speak of a class of devices that do not exist today or point to Googles augmented-reality smart glasses as an indication of things to come. Everyone, however, thinks of the IoT as billions of connections (a sort of universal global neural network in the cloud) that will encompass every aspect of our lives. All of this public discussion suggests the IoT is finally becoming a hot topic within the mainstream media. Many recent articles point to the IoT as the interaction and exchange of data (lots of it) between machines and objects, and now there are product definitions reflecting the same concept. Hence, from a technology perspective, the IoT is being defined as smart machines interacting and communicating with other machines, objects, environments and infrastructures, resulting in volumes of data generated and processing of that data into useful actions that can command and control things and make life much easier for human beings similar to the world envisioned in the 1970s cartoon The Jetsons, only better. Estimates of the future market size of the IoT cover a broad range, but most pundits agree it will dwarf any other market. In mature markets today, the ultimate, pervasive consumer device is a mobile phone. Consider your own household, and count the number of mobile phones you currently have. Then count the number of windows, doors, electrical outlets, lights, appliances and heating and AC units you have. Youll quickly see why the IoT market will surpass the mobile phone market, at least in the western world. A quick Internet search highlighted the following example use cases/applications under consideration: Machine-to-machine communication Machine-to-infrastructure communication Telehealth: remote or real-time pervasive monitoring of patients, diagnosis and drug delivery Continuous monitoring of, and firmware upgrades for, vehicles Asset tracking of goods on the move Automatic traffic management Remote security and control Environmental monitoring and control Home and industrial building automation Smart applications, including cities, water, agriculture, buildings, grid, meters, broadband, cars, appliances, tags, animal farming and the environment, to name a fewWhite Paper2arm.com / freescale.com 3. What the Internet of Things Needs to Become a RealityThe IoT: Different Services, Technologies, Meanings for EveryoneSmart LightingSmart Grid Remote Appliance AvoidancePedestrian NavigationSmart HomesSmart CarsSmart Energy Miniaturization and advances in packaging technologiesM2MBLDG AutomationSmart ParkingTechnology InnovationsAuto Safety Air Quality ControlSupply Chain Automation Advances in ashSmart Tags New class of powerful, but low-cost and low-power MCUs Cloud-based servicesplications Smart HealthoftwareSensing Accelerometer Mognetometer Gyroscope Pressure Altimeter Temperature etc.Embedded Processing MCU MPU Hybrid MCU/MPU Network ProcessorConnectivity NFC GPS 6LoPAN BT/BTLE Sub-Gig Wi-Fi ZigBee RFID CellularMaking Things Smart Do an IoT-related web search, and youll quickly notice the overuse of the term smart. So, what does it really mean when something is smart, and what makes an object smart? For example, how would a refrigerator or a toaster oven that hasnt been considered smart become a smart appliance? Today, we are seeing the electrification of the world around us. Almost any manufactured good now includes an embedded processor (typically a microcontroller, or MCU), along with user interfaces, that can add programmability and deterministic command and control functionality. The electrification of the world and the pervasiveness of embedded processing are the keys to making objects smart. Your old toaster that mechanically controlled the color of your toast now has an MCU in it, and the MCU controls the color of your toast. The toaster completes its task more consistently and reliably, and because it is now a smart toaster, it has the ability to communicate with you electronically using its touchpad or switches. After a device becomes smart through the integration of embedded processing, the next logical step is remote communication with the smart device to help make life easier. For example, if I am running late at the office, can I turn on my house lights for security reasons using my laptop or mobile phone?White Paper3arm.com / freescale.com 4. What the Internet of Things Needs to Become a RealityCommunication capability and remote manual control lead to the next step how do I automate things and, based on my settings and with sophisticated cloud-based processing, make things happen without my intervention? Thats the ultimate goal of some IoT applications. And, for those applications to connect with and leverage the Internet to achieve this goal, they must first become smart (incorporate an MCU/embedded processor with an associated unique ID) then connected and, finally, controlled. Those capabilities can then enable a new class of services that makes life easier for their users. For the network, sophisticated cloud-based processing requires a new generation of communications processors that can keep track of all of those connected devices, communicate with them and translate their functionality into useful services all with nonlinear improvement to their performance and efficiency. The challenge will be to build secure networks that keep up with demand, while simultaneously reducing energy consumption and cost of equipment. This will require all kinds of innovations, well beyond the improvements Moores law can deliver.Application Categories Lets look at some categories for IoT-related applications. While there are literally hundreds of applications being considered and identified by different industries, they can be categorized in a simple, logical way.Category One Category one encompasses the idea of millions of heterogeneous aware and interconnected devices with unique IDs interacting with other machines/objects, infrastructure, and the physical environment. In this category, the IoT largely plays a remote track, command, control and route (TCC&amp;R) role. As with all aspects of the IoT, safety and security are paramount. These applications are not about data mining of peoples behaviors (along the lines of big brother watching) but rather they extend the automation and machine-to-machine (M2M), machine-to-infrastructure (M2I) and machine-to-nature (M2N) communications that can help simplify peoples lives.Category Two The second category is all about leveraging the data that gets collected by the end nodes (smart devices with sensing and connectivity capability) and data mining for trends and behaviors that can generate useful marketing information to create additional commerce. Credit card companies and membership shopping clubs already track and use peoples behavior, to an extent, to come up with offers that may promote incremental sales. Now, the question is how far will this data mining go? Use cases could include a store tracking which aisles you visited, where you spent the most time within those aisles and even what type of items you lifted and browsed. This scenario is easily possible using a mobile phones GPS capability, RFID and smart tags in stores and wireless tags. The result could be as simple as providing email offers or push services at the point of sale. Or, it could go further, with your car insurance company tracking your driving habits and places traveled to assign risk factors that help determine your monthly premium, for example. You can see how this category can become a slippery slope and how the IoT can enable data collection in every aspect of ones everyday life and assign a category to a person with pleasant or unpleasant consequences.White Paper4arm.com / freescale.com 5. What the Internet of Things Needs to Become a RealityWhen others become aware of the context associated with an entity, a person or a group (hence, knowing identity, location, activity and time), to what extent can that data be used, and to what extent should the entity, person or group have a say in how that data gets used? This second category, especially, spurs discussions about privacy, security, governance and the social responsibility that comes along with such a self-aware, connected world. This paper is focused on category onespecifically, the technologies and devices required to enable the IoT for TCC&amp;R purposes.IoT Use Cases When devices can sense and communicate via the Internet, they can go beyond local embedded processing to access and take advantage of remote super-computing nodes. This allows a device to run more sophisticated analyses, make complex decisions and respond to local needs quickly, often with no human intervention required. Lets take a look at the most common use cases for the IoT.Pervasive Remote Tracking/Monitoring and (if needed) Command, Control and Routing (TCC&amp;R) This refers to remote tracking/monitoring and, if needed, command, control and routing functions for tasks and processes today usually done manually, or, if done remotely, that require additional infrastructure. For example, in most homes today, its a manual process to turn on and off certain lights, set temperature zones and turn on and off a washing machine. In the future, doors, windows, electrical outlets, appliances and many other types of standalone equipment will become smart with a unique ID. Those smart devices can then be connected via wired or wireless communication, allowing a user to monitor his or her house remotely, change settings on a refrigerator or washing machine and control household tasks through a laptop or mobile phone. In fact, there are some services offered today by security or Internet service providers to do exactly that, but on a much smaller scale and with fewer capabilities than we expect to see in the future.Remote Patient MonitoringWhite Paper5arm.com / freescale.com 6. What the Internet of Things Needs to Become a RealityAsset Tracking An extension of these kinds of services is asset tracking, which today is done via barcode and a variety of manual steps, but in the future will leverage smart tags, near-field communication (NFC) and RFID to globally track all kinds of objects, interactively. The word geo-tagged is now being used by some companies to refer to this class of applications. In a future scenario, a user would be able to use Google Earth to track anything with an RFID tag. Alternatively, your refrigerator could keep track of your smart-tagged groceries and tell your cell phone app you are low on a certain item. If your bag of frozen vegetables can have a smart tag, other objects such as valuable cars, jewelry and handbags could too, and they could be tracked via the Internet and also take advantage of a variety of available web-based applications. Some telehealth-related services also belong in this category.Process Control and Optimization This is when various classes of sensors (with or without actuation capabilities) are used for monitoring and to provide data so a process can be controlled remotely. This could be as simple as the use of cameras (the sensing nodes in this example) to position boxes of various sizes on a conveyer belt so a label machine can properly apply labels to them. This task can be done in real time by sending the data to a remote computer, analyzing it and bringing a command back to the line so various control actions can be taken to improve the process without any human intervention.Resource Allocation and Optimization The smart energy market provides an ideal example of this use case. The term smart energy has been used in many ways, but it basically refers to accessing information about energy consumption and reacting to the information to optimize the allocation of resources (energy use). In the case of a household, for example, once the residents know theyve been using their washing machine during peak hours when the grid is most constrained and the cost of electricity is at premium, they could adjust their behavior and wash their laundry during nonpeak hours, saving money and helping the utility company cope with the peak demand.Context-aware Automation and Decision Optimization This category is the most fascinating, as it refers to monitoring unknown factors (environmental, interaction between machines and infrastructures, etc.) and having machines make decisions that are as human-like as possible only better! Heres a personal example from Kaivans past that can help illustrate this: When I was a young engineer, I worked on a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS). In that system, when two airplanes were approaching each other on a collision path, the machines in the two airplanes would take over. The system first would send an audible warning to the pilots about the danger ahead, while at the s...</p>