tonicity, osmoticity, osmolality & osmolarity

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TONICITY, OSMOTICITY, OSMOLALITY & OSMOLARITY. CHAPTER 18 PP 246-262. B. C. D. NAVIGATING YOUR . A. A. B. C. D. A. A. NAVIGATING YOUR . A. STRUCTURES. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS. EQUIVALENCY WEIGHT. EQUATION. ELECTROLYTES OR NONE. A PENCILE COST $ 0.10 ERASER;......MILLIONS. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TONICITY, OSMOTICITY,OSMOLALITY & OSMOLARITYCHAPTER 18 PP 246-262

NAVIGATING YOUR

ABCDA

ANAVIGATING YOUR ABCDA

ELECTROLYTES OR NONEEQUIVALENCY WEIGHTEQUATION

STRUCTURESMOLECULARWEIGHTS

A PENCILE COST $ 0.10

ERASER;......MILLIONS

FUNCTIONSe.g. TEMPERATURE; HEART RATE; BLOOD PRESSURE.OSMOTIC PRESSUREBOILING POINT VAPOR PRESSUREFREEZING POINTCOLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

ABCIsotonic Solutionscontain the same concentration of solute as an another solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in an isotonic solution, the water diffuses into and out of the cell at the same rate. The fluid that surrounds the body cells is isotonic.

The Osmosis definition :Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration.

Osmotic pressure is related to the number of particles.

The pressure required toprevent the movement ofmolecules of H O is the osmotic pressure. 2FACTTHE OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF OUR BODY FLUIDS, EQUIVALENT TO NaCl SOLUTION.?

0.9% WHY NaCl?WHY ONLY 0.9%?Where this (0.9%) came from?

Na &Cl are the most plentiful electrolyte in the body.NORMAL HEALTHY HUMAN: Na 138-146 mMol.L-1 Cl98-109 mMol.L-1 K 3.7-5.3 mMol.L-1 Ca 2.25-2.65 mMol.L-1WHY NaCl?WHY ONLY 0.9%?FREEZING POINT-0.52oCWHY ONLY 0.9%?

FREEZING POINT-0.52oCWhat are the relationsbetween 0.9% and -0.52C?Mole in gL-1.= - 1.86oC*iXgL-1.- 0.52oCFor NaCl58.5gL-1 = -1.86oC*1.8XgL-1 - 0.52oCX= 9.086021505376 g L-1.Wait a where did thisequation came from& What it means?

Count Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro diQuaregna e Cerreto, (TurinAugust 9, 1776 - July 9, 1856) Volumiegualidi gas nellestessecondizioniditemperatura e dipressionecontengono la stessonumerodimilecoleAmedeo AvogadroAMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776-1856)Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of moleculesAmedeo AvogadroAVOGADROS NUMBER

6.02x1023

AVOGADROS NUMBERTHE NUMBER OF PARTICLES IN A SOLUTION OF ONE Kg OF WATER.Any nonelectrolyte Mole will freeze at-1.86 CHow about electrolyte?IS RELATED TOTHE NUMBEROF PARTICLES.FREEZING POINTOsmolTHE WEIGHT IN g . OF A SOLUTE. EQUIVALENT TO A MOLE.mOsmTHE WEIGHT IN mg OF A SOLUTE. EQUIVALENT TO A mMOLE.OsmolIT IS THE AMOUNT OF A SOLUTE, WHICH WILL PROVIDE ONE AVOGADROS NUMBER

i concept

#BELIEVE IT OR NOT!Nonelectrolyte(1) Boric acidDextroseGlycerinMannitolmonks or nuns

Mole in gL-1.= - 1.86oC*iXgL-1.- 0.52oCFor Boric acid61.8gL-1 = - 1.86oC*1XgL-1 - 0.52oCX= 17.27741935484 g L-1.EQUIVALENT TO1 Mole of anhydrous Dextrose180 g.1 osmole 180 g.EQUIVALENT TO1 mMole of anhydrous Dextrose 180 mg.1 mosmole 180 mg.WHY?NONELECTROLYTE

ElectrolyteFREEZING POINT DEPRESSIONi = Dissociation(80%)NaClNa + Cl 20%80% + 80%180/100 = 1.8100NUMBER of PARTICLES1 Mole of NaCl= 2 Osmol29.25g of NaCl= 1 Osmol1 Mole of NaCl = 58.5 gL-1NUMBERofPARTICLES1 mOsmol of NaCl=29.25 mg.

Electro-lytePotassium ChlorideFREEZING POINT DEPRESSIONi = Dissociation(80%)KCl K + Cl 20%80% + 80%180/100 = 1.8100

Zinc SulfatFREEZING POINT DEPRESSIONi = Dissociation(40%)ZnSO4 Zn + SO460%40% + 40%140/100 = 1.4100Electro-lyteCalcium Chloride

FREEZING POINT DEPRESSIONi = DissociationCaCl2Ca +2 Cl20%80% + (2*80%)260/100 = 2.6

Potassium SulfateFREEZING POINT DEPRESSIONi = DissociationK2SO42 K+SO420%(2*80%) + 80%260/100 = 2.6

Ferric Chloride

FREEZING POINT DEPRESSIONi = DissociationFeCl3Fe+3CL20%80% + (3*80%)340/100 = 3.4What are the differences between ISO-OSMOTIC ---ISO-TONIC?ISO-OSMOTIC or ISOTONIC

or

Isotonic Iso = the sametonic =tone ,shapinfers tophysiologicalcompatibility.

Why?ISOTONICHYPOTONICHYPERTONIC

crenationWhat are the differences between58.5 g NaCl and 74.45 g KCl?

iso-osmoticbut notisotonic

17.277 gL-1BORIC ACID

IS ISO-OSMOTIC WITH BOTH BLOOD & LACRIMAL FLUID,

BUT ONLY ISOTONICWITH LACRIMAL FLUID.Boric Acid CausesHemolysis TO Red Blood CellsBoric Acid Pass Freely Through the RBC MembraneRegardless of Concentration.WHY?

Osmotic Diuretic

LAXATIVEMAGNESIUM SULFATEMAGNESIUM CITRATEGLYCERIN [RECTAL]Na PHOSPHATE &Na BIPHOSPHATE [FLEET]

LACTULOSE & CEPHULACNON-ELECTROLYTE NONABSORBABLE DISACCHARIDE, + COLON BACTERIA LACTIC ACIDOSMOTIC PRESSURE ACIDIFICATION SERVE AS A TRAP FOR AMMONIA BLOOD LEVELRx: SYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHYClassGeneric NameBrand NameAmmonia Detoxicants LactuloseCEPHULACS&S of OSMOTICITYNormal 285 mOsmol kg-1 282-288 mOsmol kg-1

THIRSTY 294-298 mOsmol kg-1

DRY MUCOUS MEMBRANE:299-313 mOsmol kg-1

WEAKNESS, DOUGHY SKIN: 314-329 mOsmol kg-1>330 mOsmol kg-1DISORIENTATIONPOSTURAL HYPOTENSIONSEVERE WEAKNESSFAINTINGCOMAifBut whatO.P.1%HEADACH :275-261 mOsmol kg-1DROWSINESS: 262-251 mOsmol kg-1

DisorientationCRAMPS250-233 mOsmol kg-1-0.52-0.52-0.52-0.52-0.52

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