skeleton, muscles, and skin

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SKELETON, MUSCLES, AND SKIN. PROTECTION - INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. The Skin (Largest organ of the body) is composed of all four types of body tissues: EPITHELIUM – lining of organ CONNECTIVE – made of collagen and elastin protein fibers NERVE – transmit impulses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • The Skin (Largest organ of the body) is composed of all four types of body tissues:

    EPITHELIUM lining of organ

    CONNECTIVE made of collagen and elastin protein fibers

    NERVE transmit impulses

    MUSCLE associated with hairs

  • The Skins Roles1. Regulates Body Temperature

    A. Blood vessel dilation and constriction

    B. Sweat cools the body

  • 2. Protects body from injury and disease3. Sense Organ6. Produces Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight4. Removes wasteproducts5. Layer of fat insulatesthe body

  • I. EPIDERMIS Outer thin layer

    A. OUTER LAYER Dead cells

    B. INNER LAYER Living cells

    MELANOCYTES Produce melanin (colors and protects skinby absorbing UV light)2. KERATINOCYTES Produce keratin (tough fibrous protein that waterproofs the skin)

    Structures of the Skin

  • II. DERMIS inner, thicker layer of skin; contains collagen fibers, blood vessels, smooth muscle, nerves, sweat glands, hair follicles, and oil glands*Sweat Glands Regulate body temperature and excrete wastes in sweat*Sebaceous Glands Produce sebum (oily) Keeps skin flexible and waterproof

  • III. SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER (hypodermis)

    Below the dermis;

    Contains fat which cushions, insulates, retains heat and stores energyFANCY WORD FORFAT!!!!

  • HAIR

    HAIR FUNCTIONS - Protects and provides insulation

    2. Prevents particle from entering the body (in nose and ear)*Produced from hair follicles in thedermis *Hair is dead cells filled with keratin

    *Oil glands keep hairs from becoming brittleHAIR FOLLICLEOIL GLAND

  • Nails form from nail rootMade of keratinNAILSFingernails grow 4X as fast as toenails!

  • SKIN DISORDERSCARCINOMAS Skin cancers in non-pigmented cells Usually high cure rate

    MALIGNANT MELANOMA In pigmented cells Usually low cure rates

  • ACNE Clogged oil duct and infection

    PSORIASIS Inherited; Rapid growth of Epidermal cells causing scaly white skin

  • FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM1. Provides a framework

    2. Protects internal organs

    3. Efficient movement

    4. Produces blood cells

    5. Stores minerals

  • STRUCTURE OF BONECOMPACT BONE -Hard layer of bone under the membraneSPONGY BONE -Less dense bone; adds strength without mass; under compact bone at ends of long bones and in middle of short flat bonesPERIOSTEUM Outside membrane; supplies nutrients and oxygen to bone

  • Soft tissue filling center spaces in most large bones

    Two Types:1. RED MARROW - Makes blood cells;Mainly found in flat bones and ends of long bones

    2. YELLOW MARROW - Mainly fat, can make blood cells if needed; in center of long bonesBONE MARROWGREEN BOXESSHOW MARROWCAVITY


  • Formation of Bones - Ossification

    Bone from cartilage cells which are in protein fibers of tough collagen and flexible elastin

    Immature bones (OSTEOBLASTS) secrete minerals that replace cartilage in response to force

  • In compact bone, layers of collagen and calcium salts form around hollow channels called HAVERSIAN CANALS that contain blood vessels and nerves

    Bone cells are trapped in the rings and are then called OSTEOCYTES (mature bone cells)HAVERSIAN CANALOSTEOCYTEOSTEOCLASTS break down bone so it can be rebuilt by osteoblasts

  • Growth Plates

    In the ends of long bones

    Cartilage grows causing an increase in thelength of the bone

    Growth continues until cartilageis replaced by bone

    In adults, cartilage is still found in ears, nose, where ribsattach to sternum


  • AFFECTS OF AGE ON THE SKELETAL SYSTEMOSTEOPOROSIS - Loss of bone mass; more common in older woman When work of osteoclasts and osteoblasts isnt balanced, bones are weakened.



    Two Main Parts -

    1. AXIAL SKELETON - Bones of skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum

    2. APPENDICULAR SKELETON - Arms, legs, shoulders, pelvis

  • JOINTS Where two bones meetCan be movable or immovable (fixed) STRUCTURES OF MOVABLE JOINTS:LIGAMENTS (connect bone to bone)TENDONS (connect muscle to bone)SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE produces synovial fluid to lubricateBURSA sac of SYNOVIAL FLUID for shock absorption and reducing friction CARTILAGE end of bones

  • THREE MAIN TYPES OF JOINTS1. IMMOVABLE Little or no movement skull

    2. SLIGHTLY MOVABLE Limited movement- vertebrae

    3. FREELY MOVABLE AllowsMovement in one or more directions:A. Ball and socket- shoulderB. Hinge- kneeC. Pivot- neck to headD. Saddle- thumbE. Gliding- foot

  • Pivot - A ring of bone rotating around another bone. For example, the neck. Ball-and-Socket - Allows movement in all directions. For example, the shoulder joint. Hinge - Allows the joint to bend and straighten, but does not rotate. For example, the elbow joint. Ellipsoid - A less flexible version of the ball-and-socket joint. For example, the wrist joint. Saddle - Fit together to allow all movements except rotation. For example, the thumb joint. Gliding - Two generally flat surfaces gliding over each other. For example, the joints between the tarsals of the foot. TYPES OFMOVEABLEJOINTS

  • COMMON PROBLEMS WITH JOINTSSPRAINS - Injury due to forcible twisting

    ARTHRITIS -Inflammation of joint

    BURSITIS -Inflammation of the bursaRHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Immune system attacks joints and deposits bone in them

  • THREE TYPES OF MUSCLE1. SMOOTH - Found in internal organs and blood vessels

    Involuntary slow contractions


    Found in heart

    Striped (Striated)


    interconnected for rhythmic contractions


    Attached to bones to move them

    Voluntary and consciously controlled by the central nervous system Striped (Striated)with dark and light bands

  • MAKING THE SKELETON MOVEORIGIN End attached to stationary bone

    INSERTION End attached to moving bone which moves toward the originMuscles work in opposing pairs (ANTAGONISTIC)FLEXOR Bends the jointEXTENSOR Straightens the joint


    Skeletal muscle is composed of MUSCLE FIBERS, Composed of smaller structures (MYOFIBRILS)

    Muscle fiber

  • Composed of two types of smaller structures (FILAMENTS):

    A. Thick Filaments - Protein MYOSIN

    B. Thin Filaments - Protein ACTIN

    Alternating myosin and actingive striped appearance ofmuscle

  • SARCOMERE Section of myofibril containing actin and myosin and bound by Z lines which are discs attached to actin


    Actin filaments slide towards each other during contraction as myosin heads attach to actin bending inwardMYOSIN

  • Exercise tones muscle and increases strength by increasing the size of the fibersEnergy comes from ATP from aerobic cellular respirationWhen there isnt enough oxygen

    Anaerobic respiration

    Lactic acid (causes cramping until more oxygen is available)

  • Muscle Sprain Torn or overly stretched muscle, ligament or tendon

    Muscle Strain Pulled muscle; overstretching usually because not warmed up

    Tendonitis Inflammation of tendonsMuscle Injuries