seminar report on 3d printing Shubham srivastava
Post on 12-Jan-2017
SIR. ANUJ GUPTA
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGIEC Group of InstitutionsGreater Noida (UP) 2013062016 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all those who helped in making of this seminar. I am grateful to SIR ANUJ GUPTA, for his necessary help in the fulfilment of this seminar. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to our seminar coordinator Mrs. RINKU YADAV for their valuable guidance, constant encouragement and creative suggestions on making this seminar.
I am also grateful to all my friends and classmates for helping me to make this seminar.
Table Of Contents
1. Introduction- what is 3D printing.................................( i )
2. History of 3D printing..................................................( ii )
3. Sustainable Environment Friendly.............................( iv )
4. 3D Printing Material.....................................................( v )
5. Choosing Printing Inks.................................................( vii )
6. General Principles.......................................................( vii )
7. 3D Printing Application...............................................( xi )
8. Consumers...................................................... ( xv )
9. Advantages........................................................( xvi )
10. Disadvantages................................................( xvi )
11. Glossary...........................................................( xiv )
12. Reference........................................................( xvii )
Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, has the potential to vastly accelerate innovation, compress supply chains, minimize materials and energy usage, and reduce waste.Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1993. 3D printing technology forms the basis of Z Corporations prototyping process. 3DP technology creates3D physical prototypes by solidifying layers of deposited powder using a liquid binder. By definition 3DP is an extremely versatile and rapid process accommodating geometry of varying complexity in hundreds of different applications, and supporting many types of materials. Z Corp. pioneered the commercial use of 3DP technology, developing 3D printers that leading manufacturers use to produce early concept models and product prototypes. Utilizing 3DP technology, Z Corp. has developed 3D printers that operate at unprecedented speeds, extremely low costs, and within a broad range of applications. This paper describes the core technology and its related applications.Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, is a new way of making products and components from a digital model. Like an office printer that puts 2D digital files on a piece of paper, a 3D printer creates components by depositing thin layers of material one after another ,only where required , using a digital blueprint until the exact component has been created.
Interest in additive techniques is growing swiftly as applications have progressed from rapid prototyping to the production of end-use products Additive equipment can now use metals, polymers, composites, or other powders to print a range of functional components, layer by layer, including complex structures that cannot be manufactured by other means.
By eliminating production steps and using substantially less material, additive processes could be able to reduce waste and save more than 50% of energy compared to todays subtractive manufacturing processes, and reduce material costs by up to 90%. The use of additive manufacturing can potentially benefit a wide range of industries including defence, aerospace, automotive, biomedical, consumer products, and metals manufacturing. Introduction What is 3D printing ?
3D Printing is a process for making a physical object from a three-dimensional digital model, typically by laying down many successive thin layers of a material. It brings a digital object (its CAD representation) into its physical form by adding layer by layer of materials.There are several different techniques to 3D Print an object. 3D Printing brings two fundamental innovations: the manipulation of objects in their digital format and the manufacturing of new shapes by addition of material.Digital+Additive ManufacturingTechnology has affected recent human history probably more than any other field. These technologies have made our lives better in many ways, opened up new avenues and possibilities, but usually it takes time, sometimes even decades, before the truly disruptive nature of the technology becomes apparent.Fig (i) simplified process of 3d printingIt is widely believed that 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) has the vast potential to become one of these technologies. 3D printing has now been covered across many television channels, in mainstream newspapers and across online resources. What really is this 3D printing that some have claimed will put an end to traditional manufacturing as we know it, revolutionize design and impose geopolitical, economic, social, demographic, environmental and security implications to our every day lives?The most basic, differentiating principle behind 3D printing is that it is an additive manufacturing process. And this is indeed the key because 3D printing is a radically different manufacturing method based on advanced technology that builds up parts, additively, in layers at the sub mm scale. This is fundamentally different from any other existing traditional manufacturing techniques. History of 3D Printing
1980: The Birth of a Technology3d printing story starts in the 1980s. Cumbernauld got its big Hollywood break as the backdropforGregorys Girl,Pac-Mac was busy takingthe world by storm and Taggar started solving crimes in Glasgow. Fig (ii) first 3d printer by MakerBot IndustriesOn the other side of the world,Japans Dr Kodama submitteda patent for Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies. This tech was envisaged asa means to create prototypes faster and is the first glimpse we got of 3D printing.Sadly Dr Kodamaspatent wasnt actuallyfiled because the submission exceeded the one-year deadline.Six years later and 11,000 miles away in South Carolina, 3D printing rears its head again.Chuck Hull invents and patentsthe worldsfirst stereolithography (SLA) rapid prototyping system and founds the now iconic 3D Systems.Stereolithography is the process of building an object in exceedingly thin slices from the ground up. Sort of like stacking a pile of plastic Digestives until youve got a shiny new prototype. Although the SLA technology hasbeen largely supplantedby Selective Laster Sintering (SLS) and Multijet Printing (MJP), itsstillused in somerapid prototyping machinestoday.This is the first proper glimpsewe get at 3D printing.1990: 3D Printing Grows UpWhile 3D Systems patented the first SLA machine during the 1980s, it would take a further six years until the first 3D printerwasactually built. In 1992 3D Systems took their first steps into the practical world of 3D printing and actually built a SLA printer.Their first machine used a UV laser to solidify layers of photopolymer and could gradually build up complex objects over the course of hours.The process was slow and was far from perfect but it was and is ground breaking stuff.At the end of the 90s things began to sound like ascience fictionmovie:scientists began printing human organs. Okay, technically theorganswerent printed but the organ in question a bladder was actually grown around a 3D printed scaffold.Nonetheless, a manmade bladder was grown around a 3D-printed mould and successfully implanted in a person. Its amazing stuff.2000: The Open-Source EraIt was during the 2000s that3D printing technology started to gain popularity and take off in the mainstream. Alot of that success is down to the efforts of a few people who tried to promote open-source versions of the technology..A couple years later 3D printing technology startsto creep into commercial uses. The first3D-printed prosthetic was manufactured in 2008 andDIY printing kitstargeted at kids followed the next year.2010s: How Far Can We Push It?Were only half way through the decade but weve already pushedback the edges of the printing sphere.Engineers at the University of Southampton recently designed and flewthe worlds first 3D-printed aircraft.Despite including traditionally expensive features like elliptical wings, the unmanned aircraft cost a measly 5,000. Such is the benefits of 3D printing technology.The same year, Kor Ecologic introducedthe worlds first 3D-printed car. Well, the body was 3D-printed at least.The ultra-efficient car achieves 200 mpg around four times fuel efficiency of the average modern car.The year after that,Dutch doctors worked with engineers to design a 3D-printed jawfor an 83-year-old women suffering from chronic bone infection. Sustainable / Environmentally Friendly3D printing is also emerging as an energy-efficient technology that can provide environmental efficiencies in terms of both the manufacturing process itself, utilising up to 90% of standard materials, and, therefore, creating less waste, but also throughout an additively manufactured products operating life, by way of lighter and stronger design that imposes a reduced carbon footprint compared with traditionally manufactured products.Furthermore, 3D printing is showing great promise in terms of fulfilling a local manufacturing model, whereby products are produced on demand in the place where they are needed eliminating huge inventories and unsustainable logistics for shipping high volumes of products around the world. 3D Printing Materials
The materials available for 3D printing have come a long way since the early days of the technology. There is now a wide variety of different material types, that are supplied in different states (powder, filament, pellets, granules, resin etc). PlasticsNylon, or Polyamide, is commonly used in powder form with the sintering process or filament form with theFDM process. Fig (iv) Polyamide wireIt is a strong, flexible and durable plastic material that has proved reliable for 3D printing. It is naturally white in colour but it can be coloured pre- or post printingLayWood is a specially developed 3D printing material for entry-level extrusion 3D printers. It comes in filament form and is a wood/polymer composite (also referred to as WPC).MetalsA growing number of metals and metal composites are used for industrial grade 3D printing. Two of the most common are aluminium and cobalt derivatives.One of the strongest and therefore most commonly used metals for 3D printing is Stainless Steel in powder form for the sintering/melting/EBM processes. It is naturally silver, but can be plated with other materials to give a gold or bronze effect. In the last couple of years Gold and Silver have been added to the range of metal materials that can be 3D printed directly, with obvious applications across the jewellery sector. These are both very strong materials and are processed in powder form.CeramicsCeramics are a relatively new group of materials that can be used for 3D printing with various levels of success. The particular thing to note with these materials is that, post printing, the ceramic parts need to undergo the same processes as any ceramic part made using traditional methods of production namely firing and glazing.Bio MaterialsLiving tissue is being investigated at a number of leading institutions with a view to developing applications that include printing human organs for transplant, as well as external tissues for replacement body parts. Other research in this area is focused on developing food stuffs meat being the prime example.FoodAn experiment with extruders for 3D printing food substances has increased dramatically over the last couple of years. Chocolate is the most common (and desirable). There are also printers that work with sugar and some experiments with pasta and meat. Looking to the future, research is being undertaken, to utilize 3D printing technology to produce finely balanced whole meals
CHOOSING PRINTING INKS
Printing inks are chosen according to the need and kind of object that has to print. Different types of inks are available according to the size, type, resolution and function of the object.
Three-dimensional periodic structures fabricated from colloidal building blocks may find widespread technological application as advanced ceramics, sensors, composites and tissue engineering scaffolds. These applications require both functional materials, such as those exhibiting Ferro electricity, high strength, or biocompatibility, and periodicity engineered at length scales (approximately several micrometers to millimeters) far exceeding colloidal dimensions. Colloidal inks developed for robotic deposition of 3-D periodic structures. These inks are also called general purpose inks.
These types of inks are used for creating soft devices. The type of ink is capable for self-organizing which results in self regenerative devices.
The object that has to be printed sometimes need conductor for its function. For printing conductors, special types of inks called Nanoparticle inks are used.
1. MODELLING 2. PRINTING 3. PROCESS
1. MODELLINGThere are some procedures for printing. First we must create a computer model for printing the object. For creating that, we can use Computer Aided Design Software like AutoCAD, 3DS Max etc. After the object file is created, the file need to be modified. The object file contains numerous amount of curves. Curves cannot be printed by the printer directly. The curves has to be converted to STL (Stereo lithography) file format. Fig(v) CAD Model of an objectThe STL file format conversion removes all the curves and it is replaced with linear shapes. Then the file need to be sliced into layer by layer. The layer thickness is so chosen to meet the resolution of the 3D printer we are using. If you are unable to draw objects in CAD software, there are many websites available which are hosted by the 3D printing companies to ease the creation of 3D object.2. PRINTINGOnce completed, the STL file needs to be processed by a piece of software called a "slicer," which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces aG-codefile containing instructions tailored to a specific type of 3D printer (FDM printers).This G-code file can then be printed with 3D printing client software (which loads the G-code, and uses it to instruct the 3D printer during the 3D printing process) The sliced file is processed and generates the special coordinates. These coordinates can be processed by a controller to generate required signal to the motor for driving extruder. This layer by layer process generate a complete object. Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution indots per inch(dpi) ormicrometres(m). Typical layer thickness is around 100 m , although some machines can print layers as thin as 16 m . The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 m (510 to 250DPI) in diameter
Fig(vi) An overview of the printing process from 2d diagram to real 3d printed object
3. PROCESSSeveral 3D printing processes have been invented since the late 1970s.The printers were originally large, expensive, and highly limited in what they could produce.
Fig(vii) Block diagram of 3d printer
A large number of additive processes are now available. The main differences between processes are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used. Some methods melt or soften the material to produce the layers, for example SELECTIVE LASER MELTING(SLM) orDIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING (DMLS), SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING (SLS), FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING(FDM), , Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, which is why some companies offer a choice of powder and polymer for the material used to build the object.Others sometimes use standard, off-the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype. The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, costs of the 3D printer, of the printed prototype, choice and cost of the materials, and color capabilities.
3D Printing Applications
The developments and improvements of the process and the materials, since the emergence of 3D printing for prototyping, saw the processes being taken up for applications further down the product development process chain. Similarly for final manufacturing operations, the improvements are continuing to facilitate uptake.The following are some of the applications Medical and DentalProfessorLeroy CroninofGlasgow Universityproposed in a 2012that it was possible to use chemical inks to print medicineSimilarly, 3D printing has been considered as a method of implantingstem cellscapable of generating new tissues and organs in living humans.With their ability to transform into any other kind of cell in the human body, stem cells offer huge potential in 3D bio-printing. Fig (viii) Real 3d printed earA printing based on fused filament fabrication (FFF) approach has been already implemented for the creation of microstructures having an internal 3D microstructure geometry. These objects can be produced without any sacrificial structures or additional support materials, just by precisely tuning the nozzle heating, fan cooling and translation velocity parameters. The manufactured microporous structures out of polylactic acid (PLA) can have fully controllable porosity (20%60%). Such scaffolds could serve as biomedical templates for cell culturing, as well as biodegradable implants for tissue engineering.
PillsThe first pill manufactured by 3D printing was approved by theFDAin August 2015.Binder-jettinginto a powder bed of the drug allows very porous pills to be produced, which enables high drug doses in a single pill which dissolves quickly and can be ingested easily. AerospaceBecause of the critical nature of aircraft development, the R&D is demanding and strenuous, standards are critical and industrial grade 3D printing systems are put through their paces. Process and materials development have seen a number of key applications developed for the aerospace sector and some non-critical parts are all-ready flying on aircraft.High profile users include GE / Morris Technologies, Airbus / EADS, Rolls-Royce, BAE Systems and Boeing. While most of these companies do take a realistic approach in terms of what they are doing now with the technologies, and most of it is R&D, some do get quite bullish about the future. AutomotiveIn early 2014, the Swedishsupercarmanufacturer,Koenigsegg, announced the One:1, a supercar that utilizes many components that were 3D printed. In the limited run of vehicles Koenigsegg produces Fig(ix) 3d printed wearable itemthe One:1 has side-mirror internals, air ducts, titanium exhaust components, and complete turbocharger assemblies that were 3D printed as part of the manufacturing process.Urbeeis the name of the first car in the world car mounted using the technology 3D printing (his bodywork and his car windows were "printed"). Created in 2010 through the partnership between the US engineering groupKor Ecologicand the companyStratasys(manufacturer of printers Stratasys 3D), it is a hybrid vehicle with futuristic look. Many automotive companies are now also looking at the potential of 3D printing to fulfill after sales functions in terms of production of spare/replacement parts, on demand, rather than holding huge inventories. JewelleryFor the jewellery sector, 3D printing has proved to be particularly disruptive. There is a great deal of interest and uptake based on how 3D printing can, and will, contribute to the further development of this industry. From new design freedoms enabled by 3D CAD and 3D printing, through improving traditional processes for jewellery production all the way to direct 3D printed production eliminating many of the traditional steps, 3D printing has had and continues to have a tremendous impact in this sector. ConstructionAccording to Erik Kinipper, clients usually need to see the product from all possible viewpoints in space to get a clearer picture of the design and make an informed decision. In order to get these scale models to clients in a small amount of time, architects and architecture firms tend to rely on 3D printing. Using 3D printing, these firms can reduce lead times of production by 50 to 80 percent, producing scale models up to 60 percent lighter than the machined part while being sturdy. The use of 3D printing in architecture is still small as logistics are being ironed out, but a new proof of concept has just been unveiled. The 250-square-metre space (2,700 square foot) is what Dubai's Museum of the Future project is calling the world's first 3D-printed office building. China unveiled the world's first 3D printed office building and mansion in early 2015. FashionAs 3D printing processes have improved in terms of resolution and more flexible materials, one industry, renowned for experimentation and outrageous statements, has come to the fore. We are of course talking about fashion! 3D printed accessories including shoes, head-pieces, hats and bags have all made their way on to global catwalks. And some even more visionary fashion designers have demonstrated the capabilities of the tech for haute couture dresses, capes, full-length gowns an evensome under wear have debuted at different fashion venues around the world.
Fig(x) Application of 3d printer FoodInitial forays into 3D printing food were with chocolate and sugar, and these developments have continued apace with specific 3D printers hitting the market. Some other early experiments with food including the 3D printing of meat at the cellular protein level. More recently pasta is another food group that is being researched for 3D printing food.
Fig(xi) 3d printer printing eadable burgerLooking to the future 3D printing is also being considered as a complete food preparation method and a way of balancing nutrients in a comprehensive and healthy way. Consumers
The holy grail for 3D printing vendors is consumer 3D printing. There is a widespread debate as to whether this is a feasible future. Currently, consumer uptake is low due to the accessibility issues that exist with entry level (consumer machines). There is headway being made in this direction by the larger 3D printing companies such as 3D Systems and Makerbot, as a subsidiary of Stratasys as they try to make the 3D printing process and the ancillary components (software, digital content etc) more accessible and user-friendly. There are currently three main ways that the person on the street can interact with 3D printing tech for consumer products: design + print choose + print choose + 3D printing service fulfilment
ADVANTAGES Create anything with great geometrical complexity. Ability to personalize every product with individual customer needs. Produce products which involve great level of complexity that simply could not be produced physically in any other way. Additive manufacturing can eliminate the need for tool production and therefore reduce the costs, lead time and labour associated with it. 3D printing is an energy efficient technology. Additive Manufacturing use up to 90% of standard materials and therefore creating less waste. Lighter and stronger products can be printed.Increased operating life for the products. Production has been brought closer to the end user or consumer. Spare parts can be printed on site which will eliminate shipping cost. 3D printing can create new industries and completely new professions. Printing 3D organs can revolutionarise the medical industry. Rapid prototyping causes faster product development.
Since the technology is new, limited materials are available for printing. Consumes more time for less complicated pats. Size of printable object is limited by the movement of extruder. In additive manufacturing previous layer has to harden before creating next layer. Curved geometry will not be much accurate while printing.
3DP3D Printing AMAdditive Manufacturing CAD / CAMComputer-aided design / Computer-aided manufacturing CAEComputer-aided engineering DMDDirect Metal Deposition DMLSDirect Metal Laser Sintering FDMFused Deposition Modelling (Trademark of Stratasys) FFFFreeform Fabrication LSLaser Sintering RMRapid Manufacturing RPRapid Prototyping SLStereolithography SLAStereolithography Apparatus (Registered Trademark of 3D Systems) SLMSelective Laser Melting SLSSelective Laser Sintering (Registered Trademark of 3D Systems) MJP Multijet Printing WPC Wood/Polymer Composite DMLS Direct Metal Laser Sintering PLA Polylectic Acid
INTRODUCTION : http://3dprinting.com/what-is-3d-printing/ HISTORY : http://www.capture-all.co.uk/a-brief-history-of-3d-printing-1980-to-2015/CHOOSING 3D PRINTER INK : http://3dprintingforbeginners.com/filamentprimer/3D PRINTING MATERIALS : https://3dprintingindustry.com/3d-printing-basics-free-beginners-guide/materials/GENERAL PRINCIPLES & APPLICATION : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_printingADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES : https://3dprintingindustry.com/3d-printing-basics-free-beginners-guide/global-effects-manufacturing-economy/