PeriodizationPeriodization Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 (Dark Age) High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages: 1250 – 1500 (Renaissance)
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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>The Middle Ages1PeriodizationEarly Middle Ages: 500 1000(Dark Age)</p> <p>High Middle Ages: 1000 1250</p> <p>Late Middle Ages: 1250 1500 (Renaissance)</p> <p>2Fragmentation of Western Europe: Dark AgesPoliticalfamily based Germanic kingdoms, diverse in nature, replace centralized governmentSocialdependence upon strong people, nobles with castles, to protect weak, peasants from insecurities becomes the hallmark of Western EuropeReligiousdisagreements over doctrines with Eastern Church (schism 1054) RCC the unifying force of the Middle AgesLanguageLatin used in church business but local areas fall to dialects (vernacular)Romance languagesGermanic/ScandinavianSlavicEconomicurban centers unsafetrade all but stops, cut off from Eastern EuropeBarter returnsRural economymanorialismself-sufficiency pjh3Why do we consider Friday 13th unlucky?</p> <p>Europe in the 6c</p> <p>5The FranksClovisUnifies the FranksConverts to ChristianityTo please his Christian wifeTo form a strong alliance with the Church and Pope</p> <p>Charles MartelThe HammerDefeated the Moors (Muslims) Battle of Tours in 732Saved Europe for ChristianityStrengthened the power of the KingStarts the Carolingian Dynasty</p> <p>pjh6The FranksPepin the ShortDefeats the Lombards to protect the PopeMakes a donation to the Church from the lands he gainedHomage to the PopePapal States Charlemagne Defended the Church against the Saxons, Magyars, Vikings, and MuslimsCrowned Holy Roman Emperor Dec. 25, 800Stressed religion, justice and educationDivided empire into counties administered by counts(Missi Dominici)</p> <p>pjh7Charlemagne: 742 to 814</p> <p>8Charlemagnes Empire</p> <p>9Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800</p> <p>10 After the death of Charlemagne</p> <p>Louis the Pious (the Fair)Son on CharlemagneFights many civil warsMore devoted to the ChurchLeaves throne to be shared by three sonsTreaty of Verdun (843)Empire divided Charles the Bald (W. France--HRE)Louis the German (E. France)Lothair (M. France)Frequent invasions from Vikings and Magyars leads to feudalism</p> <p>pjh</p> <p>11Charlemagnes Empire Collapses:Treaty of Verdun, 843</p> <p>Becomes the Holy Roman EmpireBecomes FrancePapal States12Carolingian Miniscule</p> <p>13The Carolingian Renaissance</p> <p>14FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.</p> <p>15Feudalism</p> <p>Obligations of the Lord to his VassalTo protect the vassal in his fiefTo right wrongs done to his vassalObligations of the Vassal to his LordTo give an oath of fealty (act of homage)Judicial: To attend the lords court, to advise his, and to give judgment in cases concerning other lordsFinancial: to make payments upon the knighting of the lords son, the marriage of his daughter and to pay ransom if the lord is capturedTo pay a tax upon inheriting a fiefTo give the lord lodging when he travelsMilitary:To serve the lord as a knight for a certain number of days each year (sometimes forty days)To provide the lord with other mounted menpjh16Parts of a Medieval Castle</p> <p>17</p> <p>The Road to KnighthoodKNIGHT</p> <p>SQUIRE</p> <p>PAGE </p> <p>Make gentlemen out of warriorsLoyal to lord, lady, GodProtect the weakRules of warfarepjhWeaponsStirrupsChain mail armor</p> <p>18Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior</p> <p>19Obligations of the peasants/serfs to the lordWork the lords land a certain number of days (usually 3)Work for the lord in the kitchen, smiths, etc.Feudal duespay certain amount from harvest as rent, use of toolsObligations of the lord to the peasants/serfsProvide protection in time of war or invasionProvide small plot of land they can farm for themselvesSettle disputes as they arise</p> <p>pjh20The Medieval Manor</p> <p>21Life on the Medieval Manor</p> <p>Serfs at work22Role of Women Arranged marriagesPolitical in natureAlliances formedCould inherit land but husband controlled itWife ran estates when husbands were absentArtisansTapestries (Bayeux Tapestry)Embroidery Eleanor of AquitaineMost powerful womanSecond CrusadeWife to two kings, mother to two kings</p> <p>pjh23</p> <p>Eleanor of Aquitainepjh24The Medieval Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. Western Europe becomes known as Christendom monasticism: (includes monks and nuns) St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]25The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. simony buying positions primogeniture first born inherits all the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. Truce of God curb heresies Inquisition; excommunication tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Canon law Church authority over all clergy & church property tried to extend to secular realm</p> <p>26Church Controversies Investiture ControversyRCC vs. HRESecular kings wanted to appoint bishops (simony)1073-Pope Gregory VII issued a Papal BullHenry IV, HRE ignoredGregory excommunicatesPenance/contritionCanossa3 days snowConcordat of Worms, 1122Compromise Kings appointPopes approvePhilip IV, FrKidnaps the Pope in 1305Babylonian CaptivityPopes govern Church from Avignon for 70 yearsFriday the 13th, 1307 destroys Knights TemplarThe GREAT SchismItalian cardinals want Italian pope (1378)French cardinals appt own pope1414 3rd pope appt1417 4th pope apptothers step downWeakens RCC</p> <p>pjh27Henry IV waits in the snow</p> <p>A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium</p> <p>Preserved Greco-Roman knowledge29Illuminated Manuscripts</p> <p>30Romanesque Architectural Style 8th-10th centuries Rounded Arches. Barrel vaults. Thick walls. Darker, simplistic interiors. Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.</p> <p>31Gothic Architectural Style 11th -14th centuries Pointed arches. High, narrow vaults. Thinner walls. Flying buttresses. Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors. Stained-glass windows. Gargoyles Read exterior sculptures like a story</p> <p>Flying Buttresses32</p> <p>ChartresThe Rise of European Monarchies: England</p> <p>Alfred the Great unifies the Saxons against the VikingsFollows the similar pattern of rule established by Charlemagne by emphasizing education, religion and justice.Some historians think he may be the real Arthur 36William the Conqueror:Battle of Hastings, 1066(Bayeux Tapestry)</p> <p>37Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. set up a court system. Exchequer dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury. challenges RCC authoritymurders Thomas ABecket at CanterburyWife: Eleanor of AquitaineSons: Richard I (Lionheart) John38Magna Carta, 1215</p> <p> King John I Runnymeade Great Charter monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily.39The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. (Edward I) eventually called Parliament. by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords nobles & clergy. House of Commons knights and burgesses.40The Rise of European Monarchies: France</p> <p>Frequent conflict with EnglandPhilip Augustus (II) reclaims some land from Prince JohnSolidifies powerCreates bailiffs (judges)Common lawPhilip IV creates Estates General (1307)Never develops into a legislatureAdvisory onlyHundred Years War (1337-1453)Fr able to reclaim all lands except Calais </p> <p>pjh41Spain ruled by Moorsal AndalusSpanish Crusade: The ReconquistaGradually lands won by ChristiansCompleted by Ferdinand & Isabella in 1492 The Rise of European Monarchies: Spain</p> <p>pjh42Pope Urban II: Preaching a CrusadeCalled upon by Byzantine EmperorUrban II sees opportunity toFree the Holy LandReunite the Christian ChurchStop knights from fighting at homeUrban II promisesFreedom from debtsSalvation if die in the CrusadeUrban falsifies what Muslims didmakes it seem worse than it waspjh43Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade</p> <p>44Setting Out on Crusade</p> <p>45</p> <p>109620,000 peasantsPeter the HermitWalter the PennilessKilled Jews in BelgradeSlaughtered by Muslims in Anatolia1094-109750,000 to 60,000 knights trained in Fr & GerGained Crusader states (Outreamer), introduced feudalism, gathered learning & luxury goodsLasted 50 years1147-1149Led by Louis VII of Fr & Conrad III, HREEleanor of Aquitaine (Amazons)Finally defeated1187-Saladin captured Jerusalem3 kings-Richard I-Eng, Philip II-Fr, & Frederick I-HRE (1189-1191)Frederick drowns, Richard & Phillip arguePhil returns to Fr regains lands from JohnRichard fights, Saladin offers truce, Richard says noloseskidnapped on way home1202-1204Innocent III calls knights who make a deal with Venetian merchantsWhen finished-excommunicated, goes after Constantinople1204-pillages for 3 days-Latin Empire1212-Stephen led 30,000 children from ages 6-16-sold into slavery-many drowned or lost in the mountainspjh46Christian Crusades: East and West</p> <p>47Effects of the CrusadesPoliticalEconomicReligiousEducationalPower of kings increaseFeudalism declinesSerfdom declinesNational identities develop </p> <p>*Towns developdemand for luxury items increases *Middle class developsguilds *Banks develop *Bubonic plague spreadsChurch weakens (corrupt, too secular)Popes authority questioned Babylonian CapitivityGreat Schism</p> <p>G/R knowledge reintroducedUniversities developliteracy increasesWriting in the vernacular (Chaucer, Dante)New Ideas challenge RCCpjh48Medieval Universities</p> <p>49Oxford University</p> <p>50Late Medieval Town Dwellings</p> <p>51Medieval Trade</p> <p>52Revival of TradeWarfare lessened, roads saferItaly & Flanders saw urban revivalGuilds Increased manufacturing attracts freed serfsItaly (Venice, Genoa, Pisa)Spices, textiles, banking (Florence)Revive Mediterranean Maritime SystemFlanders (Ghent, Bruges, Ypres)Fishing, wood trade, textiles (wool)Revival of coin usage, barter drops, banks developHanseatic Leaguetrade in the Balticpjh53Medieval Guilds</p> <p>Guild Hall Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices in some cases54Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmiths Shop</p> <p>55Crest of a Coopers Guild</p> <p>56Century of TurmoilGreat Schism ( 1304-1417)Babylonian CaptivityDestruction of the Knights Templar (Friday the 13th)Too many popesBlack Death (1347-1350)Hundreds Years War (1337-1453)England vs. FranceClaim to the throne of FranceDispute over landJoan of ArcIntroduction of longbow, gun powder saw end of effectiveness of mounted knights</p> <p>57</p> <p>Fleas & rats carried the bacteria and would infect humans and food supplyMongoliaE. Asia/China ConstantinopleWar & tradegrain caravans, catapults across walls of KaffaBoils, swelling, turned ashy color, died w/n 5 days1/3-1/2 pop of EuropeBurn victims, ashesBurn clothes, bodiedmass graves1347-13501. Questioned power of the RCC 2. killed Jews scapegoat 3. Feudalism declines, peasants revolt58Technological Advances</p> <p>Water wheelIron productionMinesDeforestationAgricultureIron horseshoesHorse collar3-Field systemImproved plowMilitaryLongbowTrebuchetGun powder</p> <p>pjh59Urban to rural following fall of RomeBlack Death 1/3 to population lostWould take 100+ years to recoverRural to urban following Crusades and Black Death Demographic Changes</p> <p>pjh60Environmental ChangesTemperatures increase (Little Ice Age ends) More land cultivatedDrained swampsCut forestsMining increased tore up landIron-working deforestationCharcoal for firesIron furnace could consume 5/8 of a mile within 40 daysDams & canals changed course of riversPollutionUrban tanneries dumped waste in waterwaysMixed with human wasteBurning smut in airFirst anti-pollution law 1388 in Englandpjh61</p> <p> VernacularSecularRole of ind. stressedhumanisticPetrarchCastiglioneBoccaccioMachiavelliRenewed interest in learningWealthy patrons support artists, authorsLorenzo de MediciRCCRealisticPerspectiveHumanisticClassicalSculpturePainting: Frescoes, oils</p> <p>DonatelloBotticelliBrunelleschiLeonardoMichelangeloRaphaelNew views of the worldRole of ind increasedQuestioning of authorityCuriosity about the world (exploration, sci rev)VernacularCall for reformssatiresErasmusSir Thomas MoreShakespeareCervantesPhotographicAttention to detailsSecular mostlyRich deep huesVan EyckHolbeinBruegalIdeas spread through use of the printing press GutenbergCentered in Florence then to Rome62</p>
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