The Middle Ages. Major Eras of European History Periodization of the Middle Ages Early Middle Ages: 500 CE – 1000 CE High Middle Ages: 1000 CE – 1250.
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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Middle Ages </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Major Eras of European History </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Periodization of the Middle Ages Early Middle Ages: 500 CE 1000 CE High Middle Ages: 1000 CE 1250 CE Late Middle Ages: 1250 CE - 1500 CE </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Timeline Take 5 minutes to read over your Brief Timeline of the Catholic Church in Western Europe during the Middle Ages Is there anything thats jumps out at you? </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Fall of the Roman Empire Rome was the most powerful empire the world had ever seen. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Roman Legacy 1)Art & Architecture I.Arches, Domes, Vaults II.Aqueducts III.Roads 2)Tech & Science I.New building materials </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Roman Legacy contd 3) Literature/Language I.Romance = Roman II.Romantic languages 4) Law I.Roman Republic influence USA I.Senators II.Equality III.Democracy </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> A Disclaimer! Religion is a large part of the place and time we are studying. For many people it is a large part of their lives in this place and time. What are some strategies to ensure that you can voice your opinions and be sensitive to others? If you ever feel uncomfortable or offended by something someone has saidPlease let me know. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Things you need to know: Diocletian (51 st Emperor 284 to 305 CE) split the Roman empire in two. He thought the empire was too big and it needed a second ruler Historical significance = Byzantium Empire (East) Byzantium Empire would last about 1000 years longer than the Western Roman Empire Constantine (Emperor from 306 to 337 CE) Unified the Roman Empire under Christianity Built a new imperial residence at Byzantium (it was named Constantinople in his honor after his death and is the capital for the Eastern Roman Empire for a thousand years) Edict of Milan: 313 CE Legalizes Christianity in the Roman Empire, reversing Diocletians policy of persecution. This has lasting impacts on Europe. Wherefore, for this our indulgence, they ought to pray to their God for our safety, for that of the republic, and for their own, that the commonwealth may continue uninjured on every side, and that they may be able to live securely in their homes Why did Christianity spread so easily? </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Europe in the 6 th Century </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Medieval Catholic Church Filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. Monasticism: a religious way of life that involves renouncing worldly pursuits to fully devote one's self to spiritual work St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts monks and missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface] </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Role of Church in Middle Ages Never was there a time when the Church was so powerful in Western Civilization. The Church was led by popes. Priests and nuns converted, gave care to people </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Role of Church Monks were spiritual leaders (obviously) They lived in monasteries that acted like trade schools and YMCAs </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Role of Church They spent years transcribing the Bible since the printing press wasnt used in Europe yet. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Role of Church Since there were no strong empires or kingdoms the Church was one organization that had respect and power. Popes were more powerful than kings! </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Illuminated Manuscripts Text is supplemented with decoration (initials, borders, decorations) This actually aided with the preservation of literature from Greece and Rome It was a way of aggrandizing ancient documents thus aiding their preservation in an era when new ruling classes were no longer literate </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Sacraments Efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us 7 Sacraments: Baptism (Christening) Confirmation (Chrismation) Holy Eucharist Penance (Confession) Anointing of the Sick (Last Rites) Holy Orders Matrimony (Marriage) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Theoretically speaking it makes little difference as to which language is used in the Mass. God understands all languages. In practice, however it does make a difference The people hearing the words in their own language without any explanation, become self interpreters; this is nothing more than Protestantism </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> A Medieval Monks Day </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> The Power of the Medieval Church Bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. The church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. Tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. Curb heresies Crusades Inquisition Tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence: 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants]. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> A Medieval Castle </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Feudalism Feudalism: A decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Feudalism </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Feudalism (political system) The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $. Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, $. Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them. Serfs got food and shelter. Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Manoralism (economic system) For safety and for defense, people in the Middle Ages formed small communities around a central lord or master. Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle, the church, the village, and the surrounding farm land. These manors were isolated, with occasional visits from peddlers, pilgrims on their way to the Crusades, or soldiers from other fiefdoms. Why do you think everyone chose to be isolated? </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> The Medieval Manor </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Chivalry- Code of Honor </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> The System Fief: A parcel of land with peasants. Serf: A worker on a fief who was not free. They worked the land in exchange for protection and the right to work the fields. Vassal: One who enters into mutual obligations with a lord or monarch. Lord: A high ranking aristocrat </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Magna Carta Signed in 1215 Example of Rule of Law English King John was a bad king so his nobles forced him to sign it. Limited powers of king. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Why Feudalism Feudalism/ Manoralism came from peoples need for protection. Each member had rights and responsibilities. Cultures interact through wars, such as the Crusades, and trade ideas such as democratic ideas or religious ideas </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Why was Constantinople so Important Geographically? </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> The Crusades Thousands of knights and barbarian soldiers united under Christianity attacked Muslims and Jews in Turkey and Jerusalem to gain the land for Christians. </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Setting Out on Crusade </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Romanesque Archtectural Style Rounded Arches Darker, simplistic interiors Barrel Vaults Thick Walls Small windows </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Gothic Architectural Style Pointed arches High, narrow vaults Thinner walls Elaborate, airier interiors Stained-glass windows Flying buttresses </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Churches and Cathedrals during the Middle Ages </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Medieval Guilds Guild Hall Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmiths Shop </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Crest of a Coopers Guild </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Oxford University </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Late Medieval Town Dwellings </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Important Middle Ages Technologies Water Wheel Eyeglasses Mechanical Clock Printing Gunpowder </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Eyeglasses Invented in Pisa 13 th century By 15 th century Italy making thousands spectacles Eyeglasses encouraged invention of fine instruments Gauges Micrometers Fine wheel cutters Precision tools </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Mechanical Clock Undermined Church authority equal hours for day and night a new concept Resisted by the church for a century Every town wanted one Public clocks installed in towers Conquerors seized as spoils of war Allowed individual autonomy Work now measured by time increased productivity Bern, Switzerland </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Gunpowder Europeans improved gunpowder to siege castles Europeans focused on range and weight of projectiles: siege warfare With improved metal casting, made worlds best cannon </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Economic and Cultural Revival in the Late Middle Ages Economic Expansion </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Agriculture Newer heavier plows Greater food production leads to greater settlement Yoke replaces collar harness Oxen are replaced by horses, for faster pulling, allowing farmers to plant and grow more crops </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Expansion of Trade Revival of towns causes the expansion of trade Sea lanes and roads to new markets Western Europe is connected Roman road system is rebuilt Venice, Genoa, and Pisa becomes centers of trade in Mediterranean (skills and spices) </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Banking A money economy replaces a barter system Banking sector is created Money changers exchange currencies from different traders from different lands Funds are transferred from one place to another Deposits Loans The feudalism declines Kings, clergy and nobles become dependent on money and loans To pay the loans they sell their feudal holdings They demand money in replacement for traditional feudal services (obligations) Serfs can buy freedom </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Towns Grow 1000-1100 CE sees enormous growth in towns Generally located on transportation routes Walls develop for protection Almost no sanitation Garbage and sewer stench everywhere Causes the rapid spread of disease (epidemic) Bubonic plague (1348-1350) 1/3 of population dead (Black Death) </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Guilds 1100s CE merchants and artisans form these business organizations Primary function of merchant guild was to maintain a monopoly of the local market This leads to trade restrictions Uniform pricing Craft guilds regulated the work of artisans (carpenters, blacksmiths, ect) strict rules on prices, wages, and employment Controlled by masters Apprentice Journeyman Master </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Rise of the Middle Class Medieval towns (burgs) saw a new class of people Merchants, bankers, artisans no longer had to rely on the land to make a living The merchant class gave rise to organized municipalities As the middle class grew, kings even began to rely on them for loans, as well as for tax dollars These merchants eventually became advisors to nobility and kings </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Education During the Early Middle Ages most people are illiterate and education is controlled by the clergy Students in monasteries learned grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music The growth of towns later necessitates educated officials, lawyers (as courts and a legal system evolves) Universities begin around 1150 BCE Students studied Latin classics and Roman Law Aristotle and the Greeks Islamic scholarship and the sciences This leads to the rise of western science </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Medieval Literature and Art The influence of universities and the revival of the classic Greek ideas advance literature and the arts Middle Age songs and epics are put into writing Most literature is written in the vernacular (the language of everyday speech) instead of using Latin as a Common Language English, German,French, Italian, Spanish give each kingdom a separate identity and make literature accessible to the average person </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> Gothic Architecture Emerges New construction methods allow for high ceilings, large internal spaces, thin walls, stain glass windows, and commonly designed cathedrals </li> </ul>
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