introduction to matter matter? does it matter? whatâ€™s the matter?
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Introduction to MatterMatter? Does it Matter? Whats the Matter?
Essential QuestionHow are particles in solids, liquids, and gases arranged and how does that affect their properties?
So, What is Matter ?Matter is defined as anything that has
Takes up space (volume)
Physical PropertyAny quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances identity.Examples: color, solubility, odor, hardness, melting point, and state of matter
Physical States of MatterTheres 4 of them !SOLIDS Have definite (or fixed) shape and volume The particles in a solid are held fairly rigidly in place.
Physical States of MatterTheres 4 of them !LIQUIDS Have a definite volume but no fixed shape. The particles in a liquid are free to flow around each other
Physical States of MatterTheres 4 of them !GASES Have neither definite or fixed shape or volume. The particles in a gas are: widely disbursed, interact weakly, move independently at high speed, and completely fill any container they occupy.
4th Type of MatterPLASMA Gases whose particles are so hot they have acquired an electrical charge.
Changes of State
Physical Changes in Matterchange in a substance that doesnt change the identity of the substance
Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, boilingIncludes all changes of state (physical changes of a substance from one state to another)
Chemical PropertyAbility of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substancesExamples: Rusting, flammability, reactivity, etc.
Chemical Changes in Mattera change in which a substance IS converted into a different substancesame as chemical reactiondoesnt change the amount of matter presentreactants substances that reactproducts substances that form
Signs of Chemical ChangeEnergy is always absorbed or given offChange in color or odorProduction of a gas (bubbling)Irreversibility
Chemical or Physical?Cookies are bakedWater boilsSalt dissolves in waterMilk spoilsA metal chair rustsPaper is tornA tree burns downChemicalPhysicalPhysicalChemicalChemicalPhysicalChemical
Law of Conservation of MassIn any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed; it is conserved.
Law of Conservation of MassTotal mass of substances before reaction = Total mass of substance after reactionFrom the law of conservation of mass:Can you find the amount of oxygen that reacts?0.20 g
Intensive vs. Extensive Properties
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
EQs How is matter classified?
A. Matter FlowchartMATTERCan it be physically separated?Homogeneous Mixture(solution)Heterogeneous Mixture
Pure SubstancesEvery sample has same:characteristic propertiescompositionAre made of: 1 type of atom: elementEx: iron, gold, arsenic2 or more types of atoms: compound (molecules too)Ex: salt, sugar, water, ammonia (NH3)
Which are pure substances?
MixturesBlend (mix) of 2 or more types of matterEach component keeps its own identity and propertiesThe components are only physically mixedCan be separated using physical meansProperties of the mixture are a combination of the componenents properties
Homogeneous MixturesAlso called solutionUniform in compositionNo visible parts
Ex: vinegarclear airsalt waterbrass
Heterogeneous MixturesNot uniform in compositionVisible parts
Ex: soilconcretebloodchocolate chip cookiessand in watericed tea with ice
PracticeDetermine whether each of the following is element, compound, homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture.airzincchlorinegranitealuminumsugar in waterbloodsucrosestainless steelsodium chloridebrasswhole milkappletable saltsoft drinksvinegarconcretesodiumbaking soda (NaHCO3)gravel
Substance or Mixture?A homogeneous mixture looks like a substanceIs the material in question always a single kind of material? For instance, there are different grades of gasoline and different kinds of cough syrupIs the material in question physically separable?
Separation Techniquesof Mixtures
EQsWhat are five physical separation techniques that can be used with mixtures?
Physical Separation TechniquesFiltration- solid part is trapped by filter paper and the liquid part runs through the paperVaporization- where the liquid portion is evaporated off to leave solid
Physical Separation TechniquesDecanting- when liquid is poured off after solid has settled to bottomCentrifuge- machine that spins a sample very quickly so that components with different densities will separate
Physical Separation TechniquesPaper Chromatography- used to separate mixtures because different parts move quicker on paper than other
Classify the following as a substance or a mixtureSilverAlphabet soupSalt waterTable salt (sodium chloride)Motor oil
How do you separate different substances from a mixture?You have just been given the latest creation of your science teacher. The teacher presents you with a mixture of sawdust, iron filings, salt, and sand. He needs to separate the mixture and wants your help. You are to separate the mixture and find the total mass of each of the substances in the mixture!
You are to describe your proposed separation plan. Present your plan to your teacher for approval. You will then conduct the experiment and separate the mixtureUpon completion of the experiment each member of the group will submit a final paper
MaterialOriginal Mass (g)Recovered Mass (g)Percent ErrorSaltSandIron FilingsSawdust
Possible ErrorsToo much water to evaporateWet wood chips when finding the mass after separationUsing a beaker instead of a graduated cylinder when finding the volume of waterForgetting to zero out scale before massingMassing the cup and not subtractingWater did not dry out from sandSubstances lost in the transport from lab table to scale
The Final Paper Must Include the Following:*Introduction: Define the mixture and properties of the ingredients in this mixture*Materials: List of ALL lab equipment used*Procedures: Numbered step by step procedures that you performed to separate the mixture
The Final Paper Must Include the Following:*Results: Mass of each substance before and after separation (data table)*Conclusion: A description of problems you encountered while conducting the lab and percent error calculations for each substance Ideas as to how you could improve your methods to better separate each ingredient and reduce your percent error.
*Answers: b & c*