guidance unit: cliques and friendships for freshmen high ...€¦ · guidance unit: cliques and...

Click here to load reader

Post on 25-Jul-2020




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • RUNNING  HEAD:  Cliques  and  Friendships    




    Guidance Unit: Cliques and Friendships for Freshmen High School Students

    Marie A. DiCarlo

    Seattle University

    COUN 509

    December 1, 2010



  • Cliques  and  Friendships   2  

     Name:  Marie  DiCarlo    Unit  Theme:  Cliques  and  Friendships  for  Freshmen  High  School  Students    Unit  Objective:  Students  will  be  able  to  evaluate  their  meanings  of  friendship  and  understand  how  cliques  affect  their  peers.  Students  will  also  become  more  familiar  with  their  peers,  learn  ways  to  get  to  know  each  other  better,  and  become  more  accepting  and  respectful  of  one  another.      Goals  for  the  Unit:    Essential  Academic  Learning  Requirements  (EALRs):     Writing The student writes clearly and effectively 3.1 Develops ideas and organizes writing. 3.2 Uses appropriate style. 3.3 Knows and applies writing conventions appropriate for the grade level. Reading The student understands and uses different skills and strategies to read. 1.1 Use word recognition and word meaning skills to read and comprehend text.

    1.2 Use vocabulary (word meaning) strategies to comprehend text.

    The student understands the meaning of what is read. 2.1. Demonstrate evidence of reading comprehension. 2.2. Understand and apply knowledge of text components to comprehend text.

    The student reads different materials for a variety of purposes.

    3.1. Read to learn new information. 3.2. Read to perform a task.

    Communication The student uses listening and observation skills and strategies to gain understanding.

    1.1 Uses listening and observation skills and strategies to focus attention and interpret information.

    The student uses communication skills and strategies to interact/work effectively with others.

    2.1. Uses language to interact effectively and responsibly in a multicultural context. 2.2. Uses interpersonal skills and strategies in a multicultural context to work

    The student analyzes and evaluates the effectiveness of communication

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   3  

    4.1 Assesses effectiveness of one’s own and others’ communication. 4.2 Sets goals for improvement.  ASCA  Student  Standards,  Competencies,  and  Indicators:      

    Standard  A:  Students  will  acquire  the  knowledge,  attitudes  and  interpersonal  skills  to  help  them  understand  and  respect  self  and  others.      

    o Competency  A1:  Acquire  Self-‐Knowledge   A1.1:  Develop  positive  attitudes  toward  self  as  a  unique  and  worthy  

    person.   A1.2:  Identify  values,  attitudes  and  beliefs.     A1.4:  Understand  change  is  a  part  of  growth.   A1.5:  Identify  and  express  feelings.     A1.6:  Distinguish  between  appropriate  and  inappropriate  behavior.     A1.9:  Demonstrate  cooperative  behavior  in  groups.    

    o Competency  A2:  Acquire  Interpersonal  Skills   A2.2:  Respect  alternative  points  of  view.     A2.3:  Recognize,  accept,  respect  and  appreciate  individual  differences.     A2.6:    Use  effective  communication  skills.     A2.7:  Know  that  communication  involves  speaking,  listening  and  

    nonverbal  behavior.     A2.8:    Learn  how  to  make  and  keep  friends.    

    Standard  B:  Students  will  make  decisions,  set  goals,  and  take  necessary  action  to  achieve  goals.    

    o Competency  B1:  Self  Knowledge  Application   B1.2:  Understand  consequences  of  decisions  and  choices.     B1.3:  Identify  alternative  solutions  to  a  problem.     B1.4:  Develop  effective  coping  skills  for  dealing  with  problems.     B1.8:  Know  when  peer  pressure  is  influencing  a  decision.    

     Unit  Rationale:         High  school  is  a  time  when  adolescents  are  confronted  with  social  challenges  that  can  affect  self-‐esteem.    As  I  look  back  on  high  school  I  remember  all  the  different  cliques  and  how  it  negatively  affected  my  high  school  experience.    There  were  the  cheerleaders,  the  jocks,  the  nerds,  the  potheads,  and  a  number  of  other  titles  for  different  groups.    According  to  Spaulding  and  Bolin  (1950)  a  clique  is  defined  as  “a  small,  informal,  intimate,  non-‐kin,  face-‐to-‐face  group  usually  demonstrating  a  considerable  degree  of  we-‐feeling,  some  fairly  well-‐defined  customary  rules  of  conduct,  and  a  well-‐developed  internal  structure”  (p.  147).           In  1993  Newcomb,  Bukowski,  &  Pattee  found  in  their  work  that  non-‐aggressive,  sociable  youth  were  seen  as  high-‐status  and  youth  that  were  aggressive  and  unsociable  were  considered  to  be  low-‐status.    Although  more  recent  research  has  shown  that  high  status  is  often  associated  with  aggressive  behavior  (Hawley,  2003;  Rodkin,  Farmer,  Pearl,  &  Van  Acker,  2000).    It  is  noticed  that  a  clique  is  comprised  of  a  couple  leaders  who  control  what  the  rest  of  the  group  does  as  well  as  followers.    According  to  Adler  and  Adler  (1995)  

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   4  

    “cliques  are  observed  to  be  circles  of  power  wherein  leaders  attain  and  wield  influence  over  their  followers  by  building  them  up  and  cutting  them  down,  first  drawing  them  into  the  elite  inner  circle  and  allowing  them  to  bask  in  the  popularity  and  acceptance,  and  then  reducing  them  to  positions  of  dependence  and  subjugation  by  turning  the  group  against  them”  (p.  145).             Not  only  are  members  of  a  clique  negatively  affected  but  more  so  are  the  outsiders  who  are  not  part  of  a  clique.    During  Adler  and  Adler’s  research  (1995)  one  participant  who  was  a  follower  in  a  clique  said,  “One  of  the  main  things  is  to  keep  picking  on  unpopular  kids  because  its  just  fun  to  do”  (p.  153).    Not  only  do  cliques  affect  those  at  the  high  school  level  but  research  was  also  done  in  the  workplace  regarding  cliques  and  bullying.      Hickman  (2006)  found  that  cliques  negatively  affected  people  in  the  workplace  because  outsiders  had  an  increased  depressive  affect,  lower  self-‐esteem,  increased  physical  complaints,  and  greater  alcohol  use.           This  guidance  unit  will  help  to  prevent  cliques  and  improve  friendships  at  an  early  age.    Freshmen  in  high  school  will  have  the  tools  they  need  to  start  healthy,  open,  and  welcoming  relationships  versus  having  to  feel  they  need  to  put  others  down  in  order  to  be  accepted.    Finally,  not  only  will  this  make  the  rest  of  students’  high  school  careers  more  enjoyable  but  they  will  also  form  friendships  that  could  last  a  lifetime  without  the  hostility  and  bullying  that  comes  with  being  on  the  inside  or  outside  of  a  clique.  Overall,  this  guidance  unit  will  prepare  students  for  the  rest  of  their  lives  whether  it  be  college,  the  workplace,  or  socially  in  their  circle  of  friends.          Lesson  Content  Area:  Personal/Social    Lesson  Topic:  Introduction  to  Cliques      Lesson  Sequence  within  Unit:  Lesson  #  __1__    Lesson  Goal:  To  inform  students  about  cliques  and  generate  discussion  about  the  subject.      Lesson  Objective:    

    Learn  what  a  clique  is  and  how  it  can  affect  individuals  emotionally.      Materials  Needed:  Pens,  paper,  “The  Situation”  handout  (p.  8),  and  “The  Situation”  Discussion  Questions  handout  (p.  9).    Lesson  Outline:    

    1. Write  Unit  Pre-‐Evaluation  Questions  (p.  5)  up  on  the  board  and  have  students  write  individual  answers  on  a  sheet  of  paper  and  pass  it  in.    Hold  onto  these  because  after  

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   5  

    the  last  lesson  you  will  pass  these  back  out  and  students  will  answer  the  questions  again  but  on  the  other  side  of  the  paper.    

    2. Have  a  class  discussion  on  the  Unit  Pre-‐Evaluation  Questions.    3. Pass  out  “The  Situation”  handout  (p.  8)  and  have  students  take  turns  reading  it.    4. After  the  handout  is  read  break  students  up  into  groups  of  three  or  four  and  pass  

    out  “The  Situation”  Discussion  Questions  handout  (p.9)  and  give  students  15  minutes  to  discuss  and  answer  them  in  their  small  groups.    

    5. Come  together  as  a  class  and  have  groups  share  their  answers  for  the  discussion  questions.    

     Evaluation/Assessment:       Unit  Pre-Evaluation  Questions  

    1. What  is  a  “clique”?  2. How  do  you  think  cliques  affect  individuals  positively  or  negatively?    3. How  do  you  think  cliques  affect  the  high  school  community  as  a  whole  positively  or  

    negatively?  4. What  can  you  do  when  you  see  someone  being  negatively  affected  by  a  clique?  

      At  the  end  of  Lesson  One  students  will  answer  “The  Situation”  Discussion  Questions  in  

    small  groups  followed  by  a  class  discussion  where  groups  will  share  their  answers  and  thoughts.    

     Reaction  and  Reflection  Paper       After  the  lesson  students  will  be  asked  to  go  home  and  write  a  two  page  double-‐spaced  paper  on  their  reaction  to  Lesson  One,  how  they  are  feeling  about  cliques,  and  anything  else  they  would  like  to  add.  They  will  bring  this  to  the  next  class,  as  it  will  be  discussed  prior  to  Lesson  Two.        Lesson  Content  Area:  Personal/Social    Lesson  Topic:  Coping  with  Cliques  and  Peer  Pressure      Lesson  Sequence  within  Unit:  Lesson  #  __2__    Lesson  Goal:  To  continue  learning  about  cliques  and  examine  the  connection  between  cliques  and  peer  pressure.      Lesson  Objective:    

    Identify  what  peer  pressure  is  and  how  it  can  affect  decision-‐making.     Explore  the  feelings  of  those  who  are  being  left  out  of  a  clique.     Explore  the  different  perspectives  of  different  members  of  a  clique.    


  • Cliques  and  Friendships   6  

    Materials  Needed:  pens,  paper,  “The  Clique”  handout  (p.  10),    “The  Clique”  Discussion  Questions  handout  (p.  11).    Lesson  Outline:    

    1. Students  volunteer  to  share  their  personal  reflection  narratives  on  their  experiences  with  cliques,  which  was  assigned  at  the  end  of  Lesson  One.      

    2. Distribute  “The  Clique”  handout  (p.  10)  and  have  one  student  read  it  aloud  to  the  class.    

    3. After  the  handout  is  read  break  students  up  into  groups  of  three  or  four  and  pass  out  “The  Clique”  Discussion  Questions  handout  (p.  11)  and  give  students  20  minutes  to  discuss  and  answer  them  in  their  small  groups.  

    4. Explore  reactions  of  students  through  the  discussion  questions  by  going  over  them  with  the  entire  class.    


    At  the  beginning  of  Lesson  Two  students  will  volunteer  to  share  their  Reflection  and  Reaction  Paper  this  is  a  great  way  to  see  what  students  have  learned  from  Lesson  One  and  class  discussion.  

    At  the  end  of  Lesson  Two  students  will  answer  “The  Clique”  Discussion  Questions  in  small  groups  followed  by  a  class  discussion  where  groups  will  share  their  answers  and  thoughts.    

    _________________________________________________________________________________________________________      Lesson  Content  Area:  Personal/Social    Lesson  Topic:  Forming  Friendships-‐  Getting  to  Know  Each  Other  and  Learning  How  to  Get  Along    Lesson  Sequence  within  Unit:  Lesson  #  __3__    Lesson  Goal:  To  discuss  expanding  students’  circle  of  friends.      Lesson  Objective:    

    Learn  how  to  form  new  friendships  with  an  open  mind.     Discussion  about  how  to  avoid  excluding  people,  particularly  those  who  may  be  

    different.     Students  will  get  acquainted  with  and  learn  about  another  student  in  the  class  that  

    they  currently  know  very  little  about.      Materials  Needed:  Pens,  paper,  butcher  paper,  “True  Friends”  Discussion  Questions  handout  (p.  12),  “Student  Activity”  questions  (p.  13),  “How  to  be  a  Good  Friend”  handout  (p.  14).    

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   7  

    Lesson  Outline:    

    1. Have  students  break  up  into  groups  of  three  or  four  and  pass  out  the  “True  Friends”  Discussion  Questions  handout  (p.  12)  and  give  students  20  minutes  to  discuss  and  answer  them  in  their  small  groups.    

    2. Do  the  “Student  Activity”  (directions  on  p.  13)  and  brainstorm  ideas  on  butcher  paper  that  can  later  be  hung  up  permanently  in  the  classroom.    Directions  do  not  need  to  be  passed  out  to  students;  these  are  for  the  instructor  only.    

    3. Pass  out  the  “How  to  be  a  Good  Friend”  handout  (p.  14)  and  have  students  take  turns  reading  the  handout.    

    4. Play  “The  Interview  Game”  (directions  on  p.  13).    Directions  do  not  need  to  be  passed  out  to  students;  these  are  for  the  instructor  only.    

    5. Write  the  Pre-‐Evaluation  Questions  (p.  5)  from  Lesson  One  on  the  board.    6. Hand  back  each  student’s  answers  and  have  them  answer  the  same  questions  again  

    on  the  opposite  side  of  the  paper.  Have  a  class  discussion  on  how  their  perspectives  on  cliques  have  changed.    

    7. Hand  out  the  “Student  Evaluation”  Form  (p.  15)  and  give  students  20  minutes  to  complete  and  hand  in.    


    A  good  assessment  of  the  unit  is  to  compare  the  students’  answers  to  the  Pre-‐Evaluation  Questions  before  and  after  the  unit.    

    Below  is  a  Student  Evaluation  Form  (p.  15)  to  be  distributed  to  the  students  as  a  way  of  assessing  the  classroom  guidance  series  on  cliques  and  friendships.    



  • Cliques  and  Friendships   8  

     Lesson  One  

     “The  Situation”  


      Julia  was  in  9th  grade  and  had  just  started  high  school  a  few  months  ago.  Her  two  best  friends  were  Wendy  and  Erin.  Erin  was  the  most  popular  girl  in  the  freshman  class  and  all  the  girls  saw  her  as  the  leader.  One  morning  Julia  arrived  at  school  and  Erin  was  acting  weird.  When  Julia  said  hi  to  her,  she  didn’t  respond.  She  just  looked  away  and  smiled  at  a  group  of  girls  that  were  all  huddled  by  some  lockers.  It  didn’t  take  long  for  Julia  to  figure  out  that  Erin  had  turned  most  of  the  girls  against  her  but  she  didn’t  know  why!  She  went  to  Wendy  and  asked  her  why  Erin  was  mad  at  her.  Wendy  acted  nervous  and  said  that  all  she  knew  was  that  Erin  told  her  that  if  she  hung  out  with  Julia,  none  of  the  rest  of  the  girls  would  talk  to  her  anymore.  The  rest  of  that  day  lasted  forever.  Whenever  any  teachers  were  looking  everyone  was  nice  to  Julia  but  when  her  back  was  to  the  class,  Erin  or  another  girl  would  throw  pieces  of  paper  toward  Julia  or  whisper  to  each  other  and  look  in  her  direction.  Julia  thought  Wendy  would  help  her  but  Wendy  just  pretended  nothing  was  happening.      

    That  night  Julia  talked  to  her  parents  and  they  told  her  to  wait  and  see  if  tomorrow  was  better.  If  not,  they  said,  perhaps  they  could  help  Julia  talk  to  Erin  and  work  through  the  problem.  Julia  felt  like  that  would  make  her  look  stupid  if  everyone  found  out  that  her  mom  and  dad  had  to  get  involved.  She  knew  that  sometimes  at  school  everyone  would  pick  on  someone,  but  she  never  thought  her  friends  would  turn  against  her  and  do  the  same  thing  to  her.  She  felt  like  she  didn’t  have  any  friends  and  nobody  liked  her.    

     The  next  day  Julia  had  a  good  attitude.  She  even  put  on  her  favorite  sweater  in  hopes  

    that  it  would  make  her  feel  better.  Unfortunately,  things  got  much  worse.  No  one  talked  to  her  all  day  or  sat  with  her  at  lunch.  At  then  end  of  lunch  she  went  into  the  girls’  bathroom  and  cried.  While  she  was  there,  a  girl  from  her  class  came  in  and  said  that  Erin  had  sent  her  in  to  tell  Julia  that  she  had  to  give  her  the  sweater  she  was  wearing  and  send  it  back  to  Erin  or  no  one  would  talk  to  her  tomorrow  either.  Julia  was  only  wearing  a  tank  top  under  her,  it  was  January,  and  she  would  be  freezing  the  rest  of  the  day.  Julia  was  confused,  hurt,  and  scared.  She  gave  the  girl  her  sweater  and  then  sat  in  the  bathroom  crying.  When  she  arrived  at  class  she  was  late  and  her  teacher  noticed  she  was  only  wearing  a  tank  top,  looked  upset,  and  freezing  cold.  Before  she  could  get  to  her  chair,  the  teacher  asked  why  she  wasn’t’  wearing  a  coat  or  sweater  and  why  she  was  so  upset.  Here  was  her  dilemma.  What  should  she  do  now?  Everyone  was  watching  her.  If  she  told  the  teacher  about  Erin  and  the  girls  ganging  up  on  her  she  would  look  like  a  tattletale,  and  who  knows  what  the  kids  would  do  to  her  after  that.  But,  if  she  didn’t  say  anything  or  lied  to  the  teacher,  she  would  get  into  trouble.    


  • Cliques  and  Friendships   9  

    Lesson  One  -  “The  Situation”  Discussion  Questions    

    Group  Members:    1. What  do  you  think  Julia  should  do  now?  


    2. Why  do  you  think  Wendy  didn’t  stick  up  for  Julia?    


    3. Has  this  sort  of  thing  ever  happened  to  your  or  to  someone  you  know?  What  happened?  


    4. Have  you  ever  been  in  Wendy’s  position?  Or  Erin’s?          

    5. How  do  you  think  this  situation  would  be  different  if  the  case  involved  boys  instead  of  girls?  


    6. Why  do  you  think  people  pick  on  others,  and  why  do  others  join  in?          

    7. What  do  you  do  when  you  see  or  hear  someone  in  your  class  making  fun  of  someone?  Do  you  join  in?  Speak  up  for  the  person?  Say  nothing?  Why  do  you  think  you  react  that  way?  


    8. Have  you  ever  felt  that  a  good  friend  turned  his  or  her  back  on  you?  What  happened  and  what  did  it  feel  like?  

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   10  


    Lesson  Two    

    “The  Clique”    

      Joyce  has  just  moved  to  the  city  and  feels  lucky  that  she  has  found  a  friend  named  Saundra.  They  like  to  do  the  same  things  and  have  fun  together,  but  each  allows  the  other  freedom  to  go  her  own  way.  Joyce  also  meets  Wanda,  the  leader  of  a  group  of  young  women  who  seem  to  have  a  lot  of  fun.  Joyce  is  accepted  into  the  group  and  is  swept  along  with  Wanda  and  the  camaraderie.           Eventually,  the  group  asks  Joyce  to  give  up  her  friendship  with  Saundra  and  do  some  things  Joyce  thinks  are  wrong.  The  group  has  planned  to  visit  a  shopping  mall  on  Saturday  and  “take”  a  few  things.  When  Joyce  tells  the  others  that  she  plans  to  stay  home  Wanda  tells  her  that  she  must  go  if  she  wants  to  stay  in  the  group.  What  would  you  do  if  you  were  Joyce?    


  • Cliques  and  Friendships   11  

    Lesson  Two  -  “The  Clique”  Discussion  Questions    

    Group  Members:      

    1. From  whose  point  of  view  is  the  story  written?      

    2. How  might  the  perspective  of  an  outsider  change  the  story?          

    3. What  are  the  problems  in  the  story?        

    4. Why  does  Joyce  feel  pressured  by  Wanda  in  her  group?          

    5. Why  did  Joyce  enjoy  her  friendship  with  Saundra  at  first?          

    6. Is  it  ok  to  want  to  be  alone  sometimes?          

    7. What  is  peer  pressure?        

    8. Have  you  ever  been  in  a  similar  situation?  How  did  you  handle  it?        

    9. If  Wanda  were  telling  the  story,  what  would  she  emphasize?      


  • Cliques  and  Friendships   12  

    Lesson  Three  –  “True  Friends”  Discussion  Questions    

    Group  Members:      

    1. How  do  you  tell  the  difference  between  true  friends  and  false  friends?        

    2. Is  there  a  difference  between  popularity  and  friendship?  Can  you  be  popular  and  not  be  a  good  friend?  What  is  more  important,  being  popular  or  being  a  good  friend?  


    3. Do  you  think  there’s  something  wrong  with  you  if  you  aren’t  part  of  the  popular  group?  


    4. Describe  the  groups  or  cliques  that  people  you  know  associate  with.  Are  the  relationships  within  these  groups  real  friendships?  What’s  the  difference  between  friendship  and  group  membership?  


    5. What  do  you  do  if  you  want  a  person  you  have  just  met  to  become  part  of  your  group,  but  the  others  don’t  want  to  have  anything  to  do  with  this  new  person?  


    6. Have  you  ever  been  excluded  from  a  group?  What  happened?  How  did  you  feel?  What  should  we  learn  from  that?  


    7. Are  there  kids  here  at  school  that  get  constantly  excluded?  How  do  you  think  that  makes  them  feel?  Is  there  anything  you  could  do  about  it?  


    8. What  are  the  benefits  of  having  friends  who  are  different  from  us?      

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   13  

    Lesson  Three    

    Student  Activity  Directions    

      Have  students  raise  their  hands  giving  answers  to  the  questions  below  and  

    individually  writing  them  on  a  piece  of  butcher  paper  at  the  front  of  the  class.    1. When  you  see  someone  you  think  you’d  like  to  become  friends  with,  what  are  some  

    good  ways  to  initiate  things?  Brainstorm  and  make  this  list.    2. Brainstorm  ways  to  be  a  good  friend.    This  does  not  need  to  be  written  on  the  

    butcher  paper  because  after  this  discussion  students  will  receive  the  “How  To  Be  A  Good  Friend”  Handout  which  they  will  be  encouraged  to  hang  somewhere  so  they  can  see  it  daily  (locker,  bathroom,  bedroom,  etc…).    


    “The  Interview  Game”  Directions      

    1. Break  the  class  into  two-‐person  teams.  Have  them  pick  a  partner  they  know  very  little  about.  If  you  see  two  students  choose  each  other  who  you  know  are  already  good  friends  direct  them  to  find  different  partners.    

    2. Student  pairs  will  interview  each  other  for  about  15  minutes  each.  They  need  to  learn  about  their  job,  past  jobs,  family  life,  hobbies,  favorite  sport,  etc…  

    3. After  the  interviews  reassemble  the  class  and  have  each  team  introduce  their  partner  to  the  rest  of  the  group.      



  • Cliques  and  Friendships   14  

    How  To  Be  A  Good  Friend    

    Good  friends  listen  to  each  other.     Good  friends  don’t  put  each  other  down  or  hurt  each  other’s  feelings.    

      Good  friends  try  to  understand  each  other’s  feelings  and  moods.  

      Good  friends  help  each  other  solve  problems.    

      Good  friends  give  each  other  compliments.    

      Good  friends  can  disagree  without  hurting  each  other.    

      Good  friends  are  dependable.    

      Good  friends  respect  each  other.    

      Good  friends  are  trustworthy.  

      Good  friends  give  each  other  room  to  change.  

      Good  friends  care  about  each  other.    


    “  A  friend  is  one  that  knows  you  and  loves  you  just  the  same.”    Elbert  Hubbard  

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   15  

     Student  Evaluation  Form  

    Cliques  and  Friendships  Guidance  Unit    

    -‐ Thank  you  for  taking  the  time  to  answer  the  following  questions.  Your  honest  responses  to  all  questions  will  assist  in  the  review  of  classroom  guidance  lessons.  All  responses  will  be  kept  confidential.    

       Name  ____________________________________________      How  much  did  the  classroom  guidance  lesson  on  cliques  and  friendships  help  you  understand  and  manage  certain  aspects  of  your  personal/social  life  better?  Circle  one.     1     2     3     4     5    Not  helpful       Somewhat  helpful     Very  helpful    Please  explain.        ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ What  did  you  like  most  about  the  guidance  lesson  on  cliques  and  friendships?   ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   16  

    What  did  you  think  could  have  been  improved  in  the  guidance  lesson  on  cliques  and  friendships?   ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ What  is  at  least  ONE  thing  you  learned  about  friendships  and  cliques  that  you  will  remember  as  a  result  of  this  guidance  lesson?   ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ How  likely  are  you  to  apply  what  you  learned  in  Cliques  and  Friendships  for  Freshman  High  School  Students  to  your  real  life?  Circle  one.      1     2     3     4     5        Unlikely       Possibly       Very  likely    Please  explain.    ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________  

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   17  

    Do  you  have  any  additional  comments?   ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Do  you  have  any  suggestions  for  additional  classroom  guidance  lessons?   ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Thank  you  again  for  taking  the  time  to  complete  this  evaluation.          


  • Cliques  and  Friendships   18  


    Adler, P., & Adler, P. (1995). Dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in preadolescent cliques.

    Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(3), 145-162. doi:10.2307/2787039.

    Crothers, L., Lipinski, J., & Minutolo, M. (2009). Cliques, rumors, and gossip by the water

    cooler: Female bullying in the workplace. Psychologist-Manager Journal, 12(2), 97-

    100. doi:10.1080/10887150902886423.

    Hawley, P. H. (2003). Prosocial and coercive configurations of resource control in early

    adolescence: A case for the well adapted Machiavellian. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly,

    49(3), 279–309.

    Hickman, S. E. (2006). Examining relational aggression and victimization in the workplace.

    Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 66, 5731.

    Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Pattee, L. (1993). Children’s peer relations: A meta-

    analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric

    status. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 99–128.

    Rodkin, P. C., Farmer, T. W., Pearl, R., & Van Acker, R. (2000). Heterogeneity of popular boys:

    Antisocial and prosocial configurations. Developmental Psychology, 36, 14–24.

    Spaulding, C., & Bolin, R. (1950). The clique as a device for social adjustment among freshman

    high school girls. Journal of Educational Sociology, 24(3), 147-153. Retrieved from

    Educational Research Complete database.

    The School Counseling Guide for School Counselors, by School Counselors. (n.d.). Three

    guidance lessons on cliques and friendships for 9th graders. Retrieved from

  • Cliques  and  Friendships   19