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1. LOSS PREVENTIONBy Chris Hall,Lawyer, Skuld Hong KongFreak wavesA vessel is lost at sea every week. Two hundred of those lost in the past 20 years have been over200 meters long. Unlike heavily investigated airplane crashes, there is often little information onthe losses. Although human error and poor maintenance are frequently blamed, freak waves mayhave sunk many.What are they? wave was just like a mountain, a wall ofFreak, or rogue, waves are exceptionally water coming against us.tall and abnormally shaped waves. Theyare steep mountains of water up to 30On New Years Day 1995, the Draupner oilmeters high the height of a 12-storeyrig was in the middle of a storm in thebuilding. Although many freak wavesNorth Sea. Its radar sensors were regularlyoccur in bad weather or near the coast,recording waves with heights of 12they can also appear in mid-ocean withoutmeters, when it was suddenly hit bywarning in good weather. Freak waves are a freak wave 26 meters high.not tsunamis, which are caused by violentunderwater disturbances and causeDo they really exist?mainly coastal damage, as we have so Since ships first sailed the oceans, marinerstragically seen recently.have spoken of holes in the sea and monstrous waves. Such tales have largelyExamples been dismissed as folklore. The DraupnerIn February 1995, the Queen Elizabeth II,wave attracted serious attention, however,encountered a 29-meter high freak wave as it had been measured by the oil rigsProof is in the data evidence of an extreme wave induring bad weather in the North Atlantic.sensors. A wave of 26 meters in a August 1996The Master said it came out of thebackground sea state of 12 meters wasdarkness and looked like the White simply not supposed to happen.Cliffs of Dover. Until recently, scientists thought that all The European Union started a freak waveIn February and March 2001, the Bremen waves conformed to the Linear Model,project called MaxWave in 2000. It isand Caledonian Star were each rocked bywhich sets out a bell-shaped graph of significant because it analyses satellite30-meter freak waves in the Souththe probabilities of certain wave heights.data covering the worlds oceans,Atlantic. The Bremen was left withoutAccording to this theory, a 30-meterincluding raw imagettes with anavigation or propulsion for two hours.wave should occur in a 12-meter sea resolution of ten meters. MaxWaveThe First Officer of the Caledonian Star,state once in every 10,000 years. The analysed satellite data for a three-weekwhich was blinded when all of itsDraupner wave therefore called into period in 2001 and identified more thaninstrumentation was lost, noted that the question the validity of the Linear Model.ten individual freak waves around the BEACON 13 2. Photo: Scanpix/CorbisDanger offshore as opposed to a normal 12-meter wave with a force of 6MT/m2, a breaking freak wave reaches a force of around 100MT/m2world that were greater than 25 metersappear to occur randomly, there may bein height. This was a shocking revelation.a deeper mechanism at work that couldIT IS GENERALLY ACCEPTED THATIt showed that freak waves are real and give a method of predicting their occurrenceSOME EXCEPTIONAL CURRENTSmuch more common than expected. or indicate which regions are most atCREATE FREAK WAVES. WHEN WAVESrisk. MaxWave also hopes to apply newHEAD DIRECTLY AGAINST A STRONGWhat causes freak waves?knowledge to improve ship design.CURRENT, THE CURRENT CAN DRIVENobody knows yet. There may be multipleTHE WAVES UP UNUSUALLY HIGH ANDcauses. It is generally accepted that What can mariners do now?STEEPsome exceptional currents create freakCurrent research may be of little comfortwaves. When waves head directly against to crewmembers in danger of encounteringa strong current, the current can drive freak waves now. Fortunately, there arethe waves up unusually high and steep.unpredictable freak waves. It may be that some things that mariners can doThe most famous of these is the Agulhas some waves steal energy from neigh- immediately.Current off the East Coast of South Africa, boring waves to grow into large, unstablewhich produces waves 20 meters high.waves, characterized by holes in the seaFirst, they should be aware of those areasSince 1990, these waves have destroyedand steep breaking waves. Instead ofthat are already known to have a highertwenty ships. Fortunately, freak waves of breaking on sand, however, rogue wavesrisk of freak waves.the Agulhas Current are often predictable at sea can break on a vessel that has justand local authorities even provide wave fallen into the waves hole, or trough. Second, mariners should be aware thatwarnings. As a result, mariners can takethe following sea conditions may createappropriate action. How strong are they?freak waves (by themselves or together):The force of a breaking freak wave is (1) low pressure systems, (2) windThere are other areas in the world that tremendous. A 12-meter wave in theblowing in one direction for more thanhave a particular tendency to be exposedLinear Model has the force of about 12 hours, (3) waves traveling at the sameto freak waves, including the seas off6 MT/m2. A rogue wave, however, has a speed as a moving weather system,Norway, the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio force of about 100 MT/m2. Modern day(4) waves going against a strong current,current, the Nantucket Shoals and vessels are designed to withstand only(5) fast waves catching a set of slowerCape Horn.15 MT/m2. It is therefore understandablemoving waves and merging into a singlewhy some ships do not survive freak rogue wave.Unfortunately, satellite research shows waves.that freak waves also occur in high seasFreak waves caused by the above are atin areas that are not affected by known Further researchleast somewhat predictable. The mostcurrents or geographical formations.MaxWave has embarked on an ambitiousdangerous freak waves are those thatSuch random freak waves are moreprogram to learn more about freak cannot be predicted and do not emergeproblematic because they are unpredictable. waves, including assessing the risk of aout of a known set of factors likely tovessel encountering a freak wave, how tocreate large waves. Here, an alert watchWave mathematicians are looking to therecognize freak waves and how toby the crew could save the vessel. Innon-linear realm of quantum mechanics determine their regional probability of many of the cases in which a vessel hasfor a new theory to understand such occurrence. Although many freak waves survived a rogue wave encounter, the14 BEACON 3. Photo: ScanpixThe most dangerous freak waves do not follow any known modelwave was spotted just in time for the trained to handle a vessel in distress.See the MaxWave website atvessel to take at least some action toFinally, owners and crewmembershttp://www3g.gkss.de/projects/maxwave.limit the waves destructive effect.should monitor the on-going researchon rogue waves. MaxWave hopes to Acknowledgements: Marva Jo Wyatt ofFurther, vessels should be well-equippedeventually publish a wave atlas of rogue Wyatt Law Office in Long Beach, California,with safety equipment, such as life rafts,wave events and analyses, which couldthe MaxWave and BBC News websites.life vests and cold weather gear, ifbe invaluable to mariners.appropriate. Crews should be well BEACON 15