Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention || Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and Bread

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  • APTER 27

    Turkey2 culty of Engine

    Herbs and spices 294

    Omega-3 fatty acids 295

    Commercial Examples 296

    Germinated grains 299

    Summary Points 299References 299

    MTO Microencapsulated tuna oil

    293PGBR Pregerminated brown rice

    PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acidsTC Total cholesterol

    TG TriglycerideMDF Mango dietary fiberLIST OF ABBREVIATIONSALA a-Linolenic acid

    DHA Docosahexaenoic acidEPA Eicosapentaenoic acid

    GSE Grape seed extract

    GTE Green tea extractLC Long chain

    LDL Low-density lipoproteinPhenolics 296Fl

    CPhytochemical Fortification ofBread 294

    Dietary fibers 299

    Inulin 299Department of Food Engineering, Fa

    CHAPTER OUTLINE

    List of Abbreviations 293Introduction 294Functional Bread 294our and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention. DOI: 10.101

    opyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.ering, Hitit University, Corum, Turkey

    Lignans 298

    Phytosterols 298

    Fructooligosaccharides 298Mehmet Hayta1, Gamze Ozugur21 Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri,CH

    PhytochemicalFortification of Flourand Bread6/B978-0-12-380886-8.10027-3

  • acceptable quality can be produced with the addition of phytochemical-based ingredients.

    balanced gut flora composition and colonic function by selectively stimulating the growth

    294

    SECTION 2Fortification of Flour and Breads and their Metabolic Effectsof Bifidobacterium.

    These health benefits have been approved by the European Food Safety Authority (2006).

    PHYTOCHEMICAL FORTIFICATION OF BREADHerbs and spices

    Bread samples flavored with garlic in proportion of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% and with sweet basil inproportion of 5, 10, and 15% have been prepared and analyzed for antioxidant activity. The

    antioxidant capacity was 0.053e0.197 mM Fe2/100 g for bread flavored with garlic and2This chapter reviews the use of health-beneficial phytochemicals in the bread making

    process.

    FUNCTIONAL BREADIn many countries, bread is a staple food product, and depending on the regional tradi-

    tions, bread products and their production techniques vary widely. The basic ingredientsare flour, water, yeast or other leavening agent, and salt (Sluimer, 2005). During bread

    making, the availability and levels of bioactive compounds in cereal grains can either

    decrease or increase. The interactions of ingredients are also important and affect thenutritional value of bread. Various ingredients can be used to improve processing ability of

    dough and the quality and nutritional value of the final product. Breads formulated with

    functional ingredients are becoming more important in the bakery industry, and functionalbreads are already available (Menrad, 2003). In August 2000, the Fazer Company in

    Finland made a request for plant sterol-enriched bakery products. The European Union

    Scientific Committee on Food confirmed with regard to the application of Fazer that theaddition of phytosterols to a wide range of bakery products was safe. In January 2006, the

    request was granted for rye bread 50% whole grain rye flour,

  • rebiotic andntioxidative Bread

    .0

    .0

    .80.08.15.0.3.0.0.0.0.5.7.5.0

    .274 0.033

    .185 0.041

    damage and its modulation by

    sion of Taylor & Francis Group

    CHAPTER 27Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and BreadTABLE 27.1 Selected Properties of the Breads Used for an Intervention Studya

    Control Bread Prebiotic-Only BreadPA

    Composition (%)Apple fiber 2.0 2.0 2Sourdough 3.0 3.0 3Malt flour 0.8 0.8 0Sunflower seeds 10.0 10.0 1Wheat flour 66.9 50.9 4Rye bran 15.0 15.0 1Salt 2.3 2.3 2Soya d 6.0 6Inulin d 4.0 4Linseed d 4.0 4Wheat gluten d 2.0 4Green tea d d 0Spices d d 0Tomato d d 0

    Wheat (Se rich) d d 1Antioxidant activity ((mmol l1)/100 g)TEAC (hydrophile) 0.441 0.015 0.758 0.002 1TEAC (lipophile) 0.036 0.002 0.068 0.026 2

    TEAC, Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity.

    Source:Glei, M., Habermann, N., Osswald, K., Seidel, C., Persn, C., Jahreis, G., and Pool-Zobel, B. L. (2005). Assessment of DNA

    dietary and genetic factors in smokers using the Comet assay: A biomarker model. Biomarkers 10, 203e217. Reprinted by permis

    (http://www.informaworld.com).gallic acid/100 g for bread flavored with garlic and 0.194e0.278 mM gallic acid/100 g for bread

    flavored with basil. The polyphenol content for the standard sample was 0.177 mM gallic acid/100 g (Raba et al., 2007).

    In a study investigating DNA damage and its modulation by dietary and genetic factors insmokers, control bread consisted of the basic mixture with wheat flour, coarsely ground rye

    grain, malt flour, sourdough, apple fiber, salt, and wheat gluten (Table 27.1). Prebiotic breads

    were supplemented with inulin, linseed, and soy flours, whereas the antioxidant bread wasadditionally supplemented with the antioxidative ingredients selenium-rich wheat, tomato

    extract, as well as green tea and spice extract (Glei et al., 2005).

    Omega-3 fatty acids

    Yazawa et al. (2001) studied docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-supplemented breads, one of whichcontained 1 g DHA and 0.3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (Table 27.2). Serum total

    cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) were significantly decreased 4 weeks following

    consumption (TC before and after ingestion, 232 and 222 mg/dl, respectively; TG before andafter ingestion, 204 and 147mg/dl, respectively) with a concurrent increase in serumDHA and

    EPA, suggesting that DHA-supplemented bread can be consumed every day and is clinically

    effective for lipid reduction.

    The effects of low doses of LC n-3 PUFA (

  • which is made with a mixture of heart-healthy cereals such as oat, wheat, and barley. The

    SECTION 2Fortification of Flour and Breads and their Metabolic Effects

    296firm claims that hydroxytyrosol is a valuable antioxidant extracted from olives that can help

    prevent aging. Krogers Active Lifestyle Honey Oat and Whole Grain bread and 100% Whole

    Wheat Bread contain Cargills CoroWise Naturally Sourced Cholesterol Reducer brand ofplant sterols.In subjects with hyperlipidemia, intake of bread containing a small amount of fish oil (1.3 g)

    resulted in a significant increase in n-3 fatty acids, an increase in high-density lipoproteincholesterol, and a decrease in triglycerides, which may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease

    (Liu et al., 2001).

    COMMERCIAL EXAMPLESOmega-3 bread, which is formulated to improve heart health, was launched in the United

    States by George Weston Bakeries. Grains & More Double Omega bread claimed to contain

    25 mg of n-3 EPA/DHA per slice. Other examples include Cali-Wraps, which are n-3-enriched tortilla wraps, and whole grain flax bread in Canada. In Australia, Up Omega-3

    bread, under George Westons TipTop brand, contains encapsulated fish oil. Westons Arnold

    brand (Horsham, PA) formulates its Smart & Healthy Omega-3 DHA/EPA bread with fishoil. Bread containing a concentrated hydroxytyrosol, Hytolive 2, is made by Spanish

    company Genosa R&D. The ingredient has been added to Puratos Nostrum brand bread,

    TABLE 27.2 Effect of Ingestion of DHA-Supplemented Bread for 4 Weeks on the SerumTotal Cholesterol, Tryglyceride, HDL-C, and LDL-C of Volunteers withHyperlipidemiaa

    Lipid Class Before (mg/dl)b After (mg/dl)b

    Total cholesterol 232.4 (28.6) 221.9 (29.9)**Triglyceride 203.8 (119.6) 146.7 (75.7)*HDL-C 51.2 (17.3) 53.3 (18.0)LDL-C 142.2 (33.1) 136.2 (26.2)

    DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Source: Reprinted with permission from Yazawa, K., Terano, T., and Matsui, T. (2001). Serum lipid lowering effect of DHA

    supplemented bread. J. Oleo Sci. 50, 673e675.aBread contains 1 g DHA and 0.3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid.bMean (SD), n 19.*p < 0.05.**p < 0.01.Phenolics

    Phenolic glucosidesdsecoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside, and ferulic

    acid glucosidedhave been analyzed in commercial breads containing flaxseed (Table 27.3).The total phenolic glucoside content ranges from 15 to 157mg/100 g dry bread (Strandas et al.,

    2008).

    Common buckwheat has been used to substitute 15% of wheat flour to make buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads. Buckwheat-enhanced wheat bread has good antioxidant activity,

    reducing power, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, with unhusked

    buckwheat-enhanced wheat bread being the most effective. Overall, buckwheat-enhancedwheat bread has been suggested as a food with more effective antioxidant properties than

    unenhanced ones (Lin et al., 2009).

    A green tea extract (GTE) has been incorporated (50, 100, and 150 mg/100 g of flour) into

    bread as a source of tea catechins (Table 27.4). One piece of bread (53 g) containing 150mg of

    GTE/100 g of flour provides 28 mg of tea catechins, which is 35% of those infused from onegreen tea bag (2 g) (Wang and Zhou, 2004).

  • f the Phenolicn Breadsa

    CHAPTER 27Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and BreadTABLE 27.3 Flaxseed Content (mg/100 g Dry Bread) and the Relative Composition (%) oGlucosides SDG, p-Coumaric Acid Glucoside, and Ferulic Acid Glucoside iThe supplementation of bread with green coffee has been shown to improve the chemo-protective property of normal bread under in vitro cell culture conditions. Supplementation

    also increases chlorogenic acid content and antioxidative capacity. The treatment of the cells

    with supplemented bread increases resistance of colon and liver cells to H2O2, a source ofoxidative stress (Glei et al., 2006).

    Phenolic Glucoside Content

    BreadFlaxseed content(g/100 g Fresh Weight)b

    p-CoumaricAcid Glucoside

    Ferulic AcidGlucoside

    SDG SoftBreadc Total

    1 6.5 33 (21%) 18 (12%) 105 (67%) 1572 n.g.d 21 (18%) 13 (11%) 81 (70%) 1143 9 27 (23%) 15 (13%) 74 (64%) 1164 3 21 (22%) 17 (18%) 56 (60%) 935 3.9 11 (16%) 12 (18%) 44 (65%) 676 n.g. 12 (21%) 8.3 (15%) 35 (64%) 557 2.5 7.2 (16%) 3.7 (8%) 35 (76%) 468 3 11 (25%) 7.7 (18%) 24 (56%) 429 n.g. 4.7 (18%) 4.4 (16%) 17 (66%) 2710 2 3.9 (15%) 4.6 (18%) 17 (67%) 2611 1.5 3.5 (15%) 5.3 (22%) 15 (63%) 2412 n.g. 3.8 (26%) 3.3 (22%) 7.6 (52%) 15Crisp breade

    13 2.5 8.2 (15%) 5.4 (10%) 42 (75%) 5514 2.2 8.2 (21%) 5.2 (14%) 25 (65%) 3815 3 4.1 (17%) 5.2 (22%) 15 (62%) 2416 5 9.4 (29%) 7.7 (25%) 14 (46%) 3117 4 3.3 (18%) 7.2 (39%) 7.9 (43%) 18

    SDG, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.

    Source: Reprinted from Food Chem., 110, Strandas, C., Kamal-Eldin, A., Andersson, R., and Aman, P., Phenolic glucosides in bread containing flaxseed,

    pp. 997e999, Copyright 2008, with permission from Elsevier.aPhenolic compounds have been analyzed in commercial breads containing flaxseed.bThe flaxseed content in the bread was obtained from the product label.cThe soft breads had dry weight content ranging from 57 to 69%.dFlaxseed content was not given (n.g.) on the product label.eThe crisp breads had dry weight content ranging from 90 to 94%.

    TABLE 27.4 Relative Retention Rate of Green Tea Catechins and Caffeine in Breada

    ComponentBread with 50 mg ofGTE/100 g of Flour (%)

    Bread with 100 mg ofGTE/100 g of Flour (%)

    Bread with 150 mg ofGTE/100 g of Flour (%)

    (-)-EGCG 80.6 3.0 86.2 4.9 82.6 2.5(-)-ECG 93.3 2.9 90.9 4.1 90.1 4.4(-)-EGC 66.8 7.1 67.8 5.2 62.8 7.3(-)-EC 93.6 3.4 95.9 2.4 97.1 3.9(-)-GCG 83.2 5.4 84.8 4.2 85.9 4.0(-)-CG 94.3 2.8 94.9 3.1 99.6 4.3Caffeine 95.0 4.6 95.7 5.1 96.5 5.5Total catechins 83.7 3.8 85.8 4.2 83.7 3.2(-)-CG, catechin gallate; (-)-EC, epicatechin; (-)-ECG, epicatechin gallate; (-)-EGC, epigallocatechin; (-)-EGCG, epigallocatechin gallate; (-)-GCG, gallocatechin

    gallate; GTE, green tea extract.

    Source: Reprinted with permission from Wang, R., and Zhou, W. (2004). Stability of tea catechins in the breadmaking process. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52,

    8224e8229. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society.aGreen tea extract was incorporated into bread as a source of tea catechins. Data are expressed as mean standard deviation of 12 samples.

    297

  • Grape seed extract (GSE), a well-known nutraceutical product, is an abundant source ofcatechins and proanthocyanidins with a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging

    activity. Moreover, it shows other biological effects, such as inhibition of platelet aggregation

    and anti-inflammation and anti-ulcer activity. The change in antioxidant activity of breadswith added GSE has been investigated. Bread with added GSE had stronger antioxidant

    activity than bread without GSE, and increasing the level of GSE further enhanced theantioxidant capacity of the bread. However, thermal processing caused the antioxidant

    activity of the GSE added to bread to decrease by approximately 30e40%. The findings

    indicate that GSE-fortified bread is promising as a functional food with high antioxidantactivity (Peng et al., 2010).

    0.50% lemon flavonoid, but larger amounts gave the bread a bitter taste. Lemon flavonoid

    a chemoprotective effect against cancer. Flaxseed can be used in baked goods because it has

    sitosterol increased by 23% and campesterol by 52% with phytosterol-enriched bread, indi-

    SECTION 2Fortification of Flour and Breads and their Metabolic Effects

    298cating that such products still delivered and released phytosterols to the gut (Clifton et al.,2004).

    Fructooligosaccharides

    Mujoo and Ng (2003) studied bread baked from flour blended with immature wheat meal richin fructooligosaccharides and found that the overall quality of bread appeared to be accept-

    able, and the added fructooligosaccharides were retained after baking.

    TABLE 27.5 Plasma Lathosterol, Campesterol, and Sitosterol after Ingestion of ControlFoods and Sterol-Enriched Foodsa

    Control (n[ 58) Bread (n[ 36) Milk (n [ 40)

    Campesterol (mg/ml) 3.72a (1.61) 5.36b (2.22) 5.68b (2.19)Sitosterol (mg/ml) 3.54a (1.84) 4.66b (2.74) 4.51b (2.12)

    Source: Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Clifton, P. M., Noakes, M., Sullivan, D., Erichsen, N., Ross, D.,

    Annison, G., Fassoulakis, A., Cehun, M., and Netsel, P. (2004). Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk,

    yoghurt, bread and cereal. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 58, 503e509, copyright 2004.a minimal loss of ALA. However, ALA is susceptible to oxidation and the development of off-

    aromas and off-flavors in food. Conforti et al. (2009) determined the effectiveness of both

    synthetic and natural antioxidants incorporated into yeast bread that contained 15% flaxseedas a partial replacement for bread flour.

    Phytosterols

    The relative effects of phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods such as bread on serum lipids,plasma phytosterols, and carotenoids have been investigated. Table 27.5 shows that plasmathus seems to be a useful food material for enhancing the functions of bread (Kanae et al.,

    2008).

    Lignans

    Flaxseed has been identified as a potential functional food because of its high content of the

    phytochemicals a-linolenic acid (ALA) and lignans. Lignan has been shown to haveLemon flavonoid prepared from lemon peel contains 30% eriocitrin, a potent antioxidant

    and a functional food material. Sixty-five percent of eriocitrin was retained in the bread, and78% of the antioxidative activity remained after baking bread with added lemon flavonoid.

    Sensory tests showed...

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