Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention || Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and Bread

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APTER 27Turkey2 culty of EngineHerbs and spices 294Omega-3 fatty acids 295Commercial Examples 296Germinated grains 299Summary Points 299References 299MTO Microencapsulated tuna oil293PGBR Pregerminated brown ricePUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acidsTC Total cholesterolTG TriglycerideMDF Mango dietary fiberLIST OF ABBREVIATIONSALA a-Linolenic acidDHA Docosahexaenoic acidEPA Eicosapentaenoic acidGSE Grape seed extractGTE Green tea extractLC Long chainLDL Low-density lipoproteinPhenolics 296FlCPhytochemical Fortification ofBread 294Dietary fibers 299Inulin 299Department of Food Engineering, FaCHAPTER OUTLINEList of Abbreviations 293Introduction 294Functional Bread 294our and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention. DOI: 10.101opyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.ering, Hitit University, Corum, TurkeyLignans 298Phytosterols 298Fructooligosaccharides 298Mehmet Hayta1, Gamze Ozugur21 Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri,CHPhytochemicalFortification of Flourand Bread6/B978-0-12-380886-8.10027-3acceptable quality can be produced with the addition of phytochemical-based ingredients.balanced gut flora composition and colonic function by selectively stimulating the growth294SECTION 2Fortification of Flour and Breads and their Metabolic Effectsof Bifidobacterium.These health benefits have been approved by the European Food Safety Authority (2006).PHYTOCHEMICAL FORTIFICATION OF BREADHerbs and spicesBread samples flavored with garlic in proportion of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% and with sweet basil inproportion of 5, 10, and 15% have been prepared and analyzed for antioxidant activity. Theantioxidant capacity was 0.053e0.197 mM Fe2/100 g for bread flavored with garlic and2This chapter reviews the use of health-beneficial phytochemicals in the bread makingprocess.FUNCTIONAL BREADIn many countries, bread is a staple food product, and depending on the regional tradi-tions, bread products and their production techniques vary widely. The basic ingredientsare flour, water, yeast or other leavening agent, and salt (Sluimer, 2005). During breadmaking, the availability and levels of bioactive compounds in cereal grains can eitherdecrease or increase. The interactions of ingredients are also important and affect thenutritional value of bread. Various ingredients can be used to improve processing ability ofdough and the quality and nutritional value of the final product. Breads formulated withfunctional ingredients are becoming more important in the bakery industry, and functionalbreads are already available (Menrad, 2003). In August 2000, the Fazer Company inFinland made a request for plant sterol-enriched bakery products. The European UnionScientific Committee on Food confirmed with regard to the application of Fazer that theaddition of phytosterols to a wide range of bakery products was safe. In January 2006, therequest was granted for rye bread 50% whole grain rye flour, rebiotic andntioxidative Bread. 0.033.185 0.041damage and its modulation bysion of Taylor & Francis GroupCHAPTER 27Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and BreadTABLE 27.1 Selected Properties of the Breads Used for an Intervention StudyaControl Bread Prebiotic-Only BreadPAComposition (%)Apple fiber 2.0 2.0 2Sourdough 3.0 3.0 3Malt flour 0.8 0.8 0Sunflower seeds 10.0 10.0 1Wheat flour 66.9 50.9 4Rye bran 15.0 15.0 1Salt 2.3 2.3 2Soya d 6.0 6Inulin d 4.0 4Linseed d 4.0 4Wheat gluten d 2.0 4Green tea d d 0Spices d d 0Tomato d d 0Wheat (Se rich) d d 1Antioxidant activity ((mmol l1)/100 g)TEAC (hydrophile) 0.441 0.015 0.758 0.002 1TEAC (lipophile) 0.036 0.002 0.068 0.026 2TEAC, Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity.Source:Glei, M., Habermann, N., Osswald, K., Seidel, C., Persn, C., Jahreis, G., and Pool-Zobel, B. L. (2005). Assessment of DNAdietary and genetic factors in smokers using the Comet assay: A biomarker model. Biomarkers 10, 203e217. Reprinted by permis(http://www.informaworld.com).gallic acid/100 g for bread flavored with garlic and 0.194e0.278 mM gallic acid/100 g for breadflavored with basil. The polyphenol content for the standard sample was 0.177 mM gallic acid/100 g (Raba et al., 2007).In a study investigating DNA damage and its modulation by dietary and genetic factors insmokers, control bread consisted of the basic mixture with wheat flour, coarsely ground ryegrain, malt flour, sourdough, apple fiber, salt, and wheat gluten (Table 27.1). Prebiotic breadswere supplemented with inulin, linseed, and soy flours, whereas the antioxidant bread wasadditionally supplemented with the antioxidative ingredients selenium-rich wheat, tomatoextract, as well as green tea and spice extract (Glei et al., 2005).Omega-3 fatty acidsYazawa et al. (2001) studied docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-supplemented breads, one of whichcontained 1 g DHA and 0.3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (Table 27.2). Serum totalcholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) were significantly decreased 4 weeks followingconsumption (TC before and after ingestion, 232 and 222 mg/dl, respectively; TG before andafter ingestion, 204 and 147mg/dl, respectively) with a concurrent increase in serumDHA andEPA, suggesting that DHA-supplemented bread can be consumed every day and is clinicallyeffective for lipid reduction.The effects of low doses of LC n-3 PUFA (which is made with a mixture of heart-healthy cereals such as oat, wheat, and barley. TheSECTION 2Fortification of Flour and Breads and their Metabolic Effects296firm claims that hydroxytyrosol is a valuable antioxidant extracted from olives that can helpprevent aging. Krogers Active Lifestyle Honey Oat and Whole Grain bread and 100% WholeWheat Bread contain Cargills CoroWise Naturally Sourced Cholesterol Reducer brand ofplant sterols.In subjects with hyperlipidemia, intake of bread containing a small amount of fish oil (1.3 g)resulted in a significant increase in n-3 fatty acids, an increase in high-density lipoproteincholesterol, and a decrease in triglycerides, which may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease(Liu et al., 2001).COMMERCIAL EXAMPLESOmega-3 bread, which is formulated to improve heart health, was launched in the UnitedStates by George Weston Bakeries. Grains & More Double Omega bread claimed to contain25 mg of n-3 EPA/DHA per slice. Other examples include Cali-Wraps, which are n-3-enriched tortilla wraps, and whole grain flax bread in Canada. In Australia, Up Omega-3bread, under George Westons TipTop brand, contains encapsulated fish oil. Westons Arnoldbrand (Horsham, PA) formulates its Smart & Healthy Omega-3 DHA/EPA bread with fishoil. Bread containing a concentrated hydroxytyrosol, Hytolive 2, is made by Spanishcompany Genosa R&D. The ingredient has been added to Puratos Nostrum brand bread,TABLE 27.2 Effect of Ingestion of DHA-Supplemented Bread for 4 Weeks on the SerumTotal Cholesterol, Tryglyceride, HDL-C, and LDL-C of Volunteers withHyperlipidemiaaLipid Class Before (mg/dl)b After (mg/dl)bTotal cholesterol 232.4 (28.6) 221.9 (29.9)**Triglyceride 203.8 (119.6) 146.7 (75.7)*HDL-C 51.2 (17.3) 53.3 (18.0)LDL-C 142.2 (33.1) 136.2 (26.2)DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.Source: Reprinted with permission from Yazawa, K., Terano, T., and Matsui, T. (2001). Serum lipid lowering effect of DHAsupplemented bread. J. Oleo Sci. 50, 673e675.aBread contains 1 g DHA and 0.3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid.bMean (SD), n 19.*p < 0.05.**p < 0.01.PhenolicsPhenolic glucosidesdsecoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside, and ferulicacid glucosidedhave been analyzed in commercial breads containing flaxseed (Table 27.3).The total phenolic glucoside content ranges from 15 to 157mg/100 g dry bread (Strandas et al.,2008).Common buckwheat has been used to substitute 15% of wheat flour to make buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads. Buckwheat-enhanced wheat bread has good antioxidant activity,reducing power, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, with unhuskedbuckwheat-enhanced wheat bread being the most effective. Overall, buckwheat-enhancedwheat bread has been suggested as a food with more effective antioxidant properties thanunenhanced ones (Lin et al., 2009).A green tea extract (GTE) has been incorporated (50, 100, and 150 mg/100 g of flour) intobread as a source of tea catechins (Table 27.4). One piece of bread (53 g) containing 150mg ofGTE/100 g of flour provides 28 mg of tea catechins, which is 35% of those infused from onegreen tea bag (2 g) (Wang and Zhou, 2004).f the Phenolicn BreadsaCHAPTER 27Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and BreadTABLE 27.3 Flaxseed Content (mg/100 g Dry Bread) and the Relative Composition (%) oGlucosides SDG, p-Coumaric Acid Glucoside, and Ferulic Acid Glucoside iThe supplementation of bread with green coffee has been shown to improve the chemo-protective property of normal bread under in vitro cell culture conditions. Supplementationalso increases chlorogenic acid content and antioxidative capacity. The treatment of the cellswith supplemented bread increases resistance of colon and liver cells to H2O2, a source ofoxidative stress (Glei et al., 2006).Phenolic Glucoside ContentBreadFlaxseed content(g/100 g Fresh Weight)bp-CoumaricAcid GlucosideFerulic AcidGlucosideSDG SoftBreadc Total1 6.5 33 (21%) 18 (12%) 105 (67%) 1572 n.g.d 21 (18%) 13 (11%) 81 (70%) 1143 9 27 (23%) 15 (13%) 74 (64%) 1164 3 21 (22%) 17 (18%) 56 (60%) 935 3.9 11 (16%) 12 (18%) 44 (65%) 676 n.g. 12 (21%) 8.3 (15%) 35 (64%) 557 2.5 7.2 (16%) 3.7 (8%) 35 (76%) 468 3 11 (25%) 7.7 (18%) 24 (56%) 429 n.g. 4.7 (18%) 4.4 (16%) 17 (66%) 2710 2 3.9 (15%) 4.6 (18%) 17 (67%) 2611 1.5 3.5 (15%) 5.3 (22%) 15 (63%) 2412 n.g. 3.8 (26%) 3.3 (22%) 7.6 (52%) 15Crisp breade13 2.5 8.2 (15%) 5.4 (10%) 42 (75%) 5514 2.2 8.2 (21%) 5.2 (14%) 25 (65%) 3815 3 4.1 (17%) 5.2 (22%) 15 (62%) 2416 5 9.4 (29%) 7.7 (25%) 14 (46%) 3117 4 3.3 (18%) 7.2 (39%) 7.9 (43%) 18SDG, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.Source: Reprinted from Food Chem., 110, Strandas, C., Kamal-Eldin, A., Andersson, R., and Aman, P., Phenolic glucosides in bread containing flaxseed,pp. 997e999, Copyright 2008, with permission from Elsevier.aPhenolic compounds have been analyzed in commercial breads containing flaxseed.bThe flaxseed content in the bread was obtained from the product label.cThe soft breads had dry weight content ranging from 57 to 69%.dFlaxseed content was not given (n.g.) on the product label.eThe crisp breads had dry weight content ranging from 90 to 94%.TABLE 27.4 Relative Retention Rate of Green Tea Catechins and Caffeine in BreadaComponentBread with 50 mg ofGTE/100 g of Flour (%)Bread with 100 mg ofGTE/100 g of Flour (%)Bread with 150 mg ofGTE/100 g of Flour (%)(-)-EGCG 80.6 3.0 86.2 4.9 82.6 2.5(-)-ECG 93.3 2.9 90.9 4.1 90.1 4.4(-)-EGC 66.8 7.1 67.8 5.2 62.8 7.3(-)-EC 93.6 3.4 95.9 2.4 97.1 3.9(-)-GCG 83.2 5.4 84.8 4.2 85.9 4.0(-)-CG 94.3 2.8 94.9 3.1 99.6 4.3Caffeine 95.0 4.6 95.7 5.1 96.5 5.5Total catechins 83.7 3.8 85.8 4.2 83.7 3.2(-)-CG, catechin gallate; (-)-EC, epicatechin; (-)-ECG, epicatechin gallate; (-)-EGC, epigallocatechin; (-)-EGCG, epigallocatechin gallate; (-)-GCG, gallocatechingallate; GTE, green tea extract.Source: Reprinted with permission from Wang, R., and Zhou, W. (2004). Stability of tea catechins in the breadmaking process. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52,8224e8229. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society.aGreen tea extract was incorporated into bread as a source of tea catechins. Data are expressed as mean standard deviation of 12 samples.297Grape seed extract (GSE), a well-known nutraceutical product, is an abundant source ofcatechins and proanthocyanidins with a strong antioxidant and free radical scavengingactivity. Moreover, it shows other biological effects, such as inhibition of platelet aggregationand anti-inflammation and anti-ulcer activity. The change in antioxidant activity of breadswith added GSE has been investigated. Bread with added GSE had stronger antioxidantactivity than bread without GSE, and increasing the level of GSE further enhanced theantioxidant capacity of the bread. However, thermal processing caused the antioxidantactivity of the GSE added to bread to decrease by approximately 30e40%. The findingsindicate that GSE-fortified bread is promising as a functional food with high antioxidantactivity (Peng et al., 2010).0.50% lemon flavonoid, but larger amounts gave the bread a bitter taste. Lemon flavonoida chemoprotective effect against cancer. Flaxseed can be used in baked goods because it hassitosterol increased by 23% and campesterol by 52% with phytosterol-enriched bread, indi-SECTION 2Fortification of Flour and Breads and their Metabolic Effects298cating that such products still delivered and released phytosterols to the gut (Clifton et al.,2004).FructooligosaccharidesMujoo and Ng (2003) studied bread baked from flour blended with immature wheat meal richin fructooligosaccharides and found that the overall quality of bread appeared to be accept-able, and the added fructooligosaccharides were retained after baking.TABLE 27.5 Plasma Lathosterol, Campesterol, and Sitosterol after Ingestion of ControlFoods and Sterol-Enriched FoodsaControl (n[ 58) Bread (n[ 36) Milk (n [ 40)Campesterol (mg/ml) 3.72a (1.61) 5.36b (2.22) 5.68b (2.19)Sitosterol (mg/ml) 3.54a (1.84) 4.66b (2.74) 4.51b (2.12)Source: Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Clifton, P. M., Noakes, M., Sullivan, D., Erichsen, N., Ross, D.,Annison, G., Fassoulakis, A., Cehun, M., and Netsel, P. (2004). Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk,yoghurt, bread and cereal. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 58, 503e509, copyright 2004.a minimal loss of ALA. However, ALA is susceptible to oxidation and the development of off-aromas and off-flavors in food. Conforti et al. (2009) determined the effectiveness of bothsynthetic and natural antioxidants incorporated into yeast bread that contained 15% flaxseedas a partial replacement for bread flour.PhytosterolsThe relative effects of phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods such as bread on serum lipids,plasma phytosterols, and carotenoids have been investigated. Table 27.5 shows that plasmathus seems to be a useful food material for enhancing the functions of bread (Kanae et al.,2008).LignansFlaxseed has been identified as a potential functional food because of its high content of thephytochemicals a-linolenic acid (ALA) and lignans. Lignan has been shown to haveLemon flavonoid prepared from lemon peel contains 30% eriocitrin, a potent antioxidantand a functional food material. Sixty-five percent of eriocitrin was retained in the bread, and78% of the antioxidative activity remained after baking bread with added lemon flavonoid.Sensory tests showed that a desirable taste could be retained with the addition of up toaThe relative effects of phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods such as bread and milk on plasma phytosterols have beeninvestigated. Values (SD) with different superscripts are significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other.Contrary to whole bread, which is relatively high in fiber content (7 or 8%, dry matter basis),such as an antioxidative effect, protecting against cardiovascular disease and preventingCHAPTER 27Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and Bread299platelet aggregation. However, it suppresses the absorption of metallic ions into the body.PGBR with germ length of 0.5e1.0 mm is produced as a healthy food by immersing the brownrice in water to provide PGBR bread with high functional properties (Morita et al., 2007).A wheat bread fortified with germinated wheat seedlings (30%, w/w) was reported to posi-tively affect glucose-regulating factors compared to a control wheat bread in healthy volunteers(Andersen et al., 2008).SUMMARY POINTSl An increased consumer desire for a healthy lifestyle has resulted in demands from thebakery industry for breads containing functional compounds.l There is an immediate requirement for the food industry to prepare healthy bakeryproducts to satisfy consumers needs. New plant-derived natural ingredients or processingsteps are needed to develop breads with similar qualities as those of white ones.l As the number of available phytochemicals increases, the incorporation of these functionalingredients into bakery foods will become easier.l Many phytochemicals exist for bakery applications, and producers have started formulatingbreads with soy isoflavones, b-glucans, conjugated linoleic acid, and n-3 fatty acids.l Research is needed to evaluate the effects of the phytochemical ingredients on thefunctional and nutritional properties of bread.ReferencesDevelopment of high-fiber white bread containing added inulin (approximately 3e5%) hasalso been described, as well as bread containing inulin plus other functional ingredients (Ca(as calcium lactate) or linseeds Ca). Results showed it was possible to produce fiber-enriched white bread with good sensory, nutritional, and physicochemical properties. Breadcontaining inulin, Ca, and linseeds had a Ca content of 250 mg/100 g and contents ofdietary fiber and essential fatty acids of 2.5 and 3.9 g/100 g, respectively (Draganov et al.,2004).Germinated grainsPregerminated brown rice (PGBR) contains phytic acid, which has excellent health benefitswhite bread contains only 2 or 3% fiber on a dry matter basis. Fibers, particularly soluble onessuch as inulin and oligofructose, might help to prevent diseases such as intestinal infections,colorectal cancer, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetes. Therefore, to improvethe nutritional quality of white bread, new formulae enriched with fibers such as inulin shouldbe developed (Poinot et al., 2010).Mango dietary fiber (MDF) concentrate showed low lipid and high starch contents andbalanced soluble DF/insoluble DF levels, which is important for the functionality of fiber inthe human diet. In vitro starch digestibility tests of MDF bakery products indicated a lowpredicted glycemic index. MDF might be an alternative for use in the development of productswith balanced DF components and low glycemic response for people with special carbohy-drate/energy requirements (Vergara Valencia et al., 2007).InulinDietary fibersAndersen, G., Koehler, P., & Somoza, V. (2008). Postprandial glucose and free fatty acid response is improved bywheat bread fortified with germinated wheat seedlings. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, 6, 15e21.Anonymous. (2006). Authorising the placing on the market of rye bread with added phytosterols/phytostanols asnovel foods or novel food ingredients under Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 of the European Parliament and ofthe Council. Official Journal of European Union L31, 49, 18e24.Clifton, P. M., Noakes, M., Sullivan, D., Erichsen, N., Ross, D., Annison, G., et al. (2004). Cholesterol-loweringSECTION 2Fortification of Flour and Breads and their Metabolic Effects300effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58,503e509.Conforti, F. D., & Cachaper, K. F. (2009). Effects of selected antioxidants on physical and sensory characteristics ofyeast bread containing flaxseed meal. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, 89e93.Draganov, L., Atanasova, E., & Gadzheva, M. (2004). Bread production adding inulin. Khranitelnovkusova Promis-hlenost, 6, 24e26.European Food Safety Authority. (2006). Summary Report: Conference on Nutrition and Health Claims, 8e10 November,Bologna, Italy. Parma, Italy: European Food Safety Authority.Glei, M., Habermann, N., Osswald, K., Seidel, C., Persn, C., Jahreis, G., & Pool-Zobel, B. L. (2005). Assessment ofDNA damage and its modulation by dietary and genetic factors in smokers using the Comet assay: A biomarkermodel. Biomarkers, 10, 203e217.Glei, M., Kirmse, A., Habermann, N., Persin, C., & Pool-Zobel, B. L. (2006). Bread enriched with green coffee extracthas chemoprotective and antigenotoxic activities in human cells. Nutrition and Cancer, 56, 182e192.Kanae, O., Tomoko, K., & Yoshiaki, M. (2008). Effect of lemon flavonoid on the properties of bread. Japan Society ofCookery Science, 41, 297e303.Lin, L. Y., Liu, H. M., Yu, Y. W., Lin, S. D., & Leun, J. (2009). Quality and antioxidant property of buckwheatenhanced wheat bread. Food Chemistry, 112, 987e991.Liu, M., Wallin, R., & Saldeen, T. (2001). Effect of bread containing stable fish oil on plasma phospholipid fattyacids, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and malondialdehyde in subjects with hyperlipidemia. Nutrition Research,21, 1403e1410.Menrad, K. (2003). Market and marketing of functional food in Europe. Journal of Food Engineering, 56, 181e188.Morita, N., Maeda, T., Michiyo, W., & Yano, S. (2007). Pre-germinated brown rice substituted bread: Doughcharacteristics and bread structure. International Journal of Food Properties, 10, 779e789.Mujoo, R., & Ng, P. K. W. (2003). Physicochemical properties of bread baked from flour blended with immaturewheat meal rich in fructooligosaccharides. Journal of Food Science, 68, 2448e2452.Peng, X., Ma, J., Cheng, K.-W., Jiang, Y., Chen, F., & Wang, M. (2010). The effects of grape seed extract fortification onthe antioxidant activity and quality attributes of bread. Food Chemistry, 119, 49e53.Poinot, P., Arvisenet, G., Grua-Priol, J., Fillonneau, C., Le-Bail, A., & Prost, C. (2010). Influence of inulin on bread:Kinetics and physico-chemical indicators of the formation of volatile compounds during baking. Food Chemistry,119, 1474e1484.Raba, D. N., Moigradean, D., Poiana, M. A., Popa, M., & Jianu, I. (2007). Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolscontent for garlic and basil flavored bread. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 13, 163e168.Schmitz, K., & Marquart, L. (2009). Labelling and regulatory issues related to functional cereal products. InB. R. Hamaker (Ed.), Technology of Functional Cereal Products. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead.Sluimer, P. (2005). Functionality of raw materials and process steps. In Principles of Breadmaking. St. Paul, MN:American Association of Cereal Chemists.Strandas, C., Kamal-Eldin, A., Andersson, R., & Aman, P. (2008). Phenolic glucosides in bread containing flaxseed.Food Chemistry, 110, 997e999.Vergara Valencia, N., Granados Perez, E., Agama Acevedo, E., Tovar, J., Ruales, J., & Bello Perez, L. A. (2007). Fiberconcentrate from mango fruit: Characterization, associated antioxidant capacity and application as a bakeryproduct ingredient. LWT e Food Science and Technology, 40, 722e729.Wang, R., & Zhou, W. (2004). Stability of tea catechins in the breadmaking process. Journal of Agricultural and FoodChemistry, 52, 8224e8229.Yazawa, K., Terano, T., & Matsui, T. (2001). Serum lipid lowering effect of DHA supplemented bread. Journal of OleoScience, 50, 673e675.Yep, Y. L., Li, D., Mann, N. J., Bode, O., & Sinclair, A. (2002). Bread enriched with microencapsulated tuna oilincreases plasma docosahexanaenoic acid and total omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Asia Pacific Journal of ClinicalNutrition, 11, 285e291.Chapter 27 - Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and BreadList of AbbreviationsIntroductionFunctional BreadPhytochemical Fortification of BreadHerbs and spicesOmega-3 fatty acidsCommercial ExamplesPhenolicsLignansPhytosterolsFructooligosaccharidesDietary fibersInulinGerminated grainsSummary PointsReferences