Unit 1: Scientific Method Review (Scientific Processes) ??2015-05-051 Unit 1: Scientific Method Review (Scientific Processes) Matching: Match the term to its definition: 1. F Experiment 2. E Hypothesis 3. A Independent variable 4. G Dependent variable 5. B Scientific Method 6. D Constants 7. C

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>Unit 1: Scientific Method Review (Scientific Processes) </p><p>Matching: Match the term to its definition: 1. F Experiment 2. E Hypothesis 3. A Independent variable 4. G Dependent variable </p><p>5. B Scientific Method 6. D Constants 7. C International System of Units </p><p>A. Factor in experiment that is manipulated by experimenter (what youre testing) B. Step-by-step procedure that serves to answer a question or test a hypothesis C. International units used in math, science, commerce, etc. D. Aspects of experiment that are kept same for entire experiment/ all groups E. Possible explanation to a scientific observation (an educated guess) F. Step in scientific method that serves to test the hypothesis G. Factor in experiment that responds to the changes in Independent variable (the data you </p><p>observe/measure) 8. The metric unit (base unit) for the measure of volume is the liter . The symbol for this is L . 9. The metric unit (base unit) for the measure of mass is the gram . The symbol for this is g . 10. The metric unit (base unit) for the measure of length is the meter . The symbol for this is m . </p><p>11. Fill in the blanks. Prefix Symbol Multiplication Factor </p><p> a. kilo k ______103_______ </p><p> b. hecto h 102 </p><p>c. deka da ______101_______ </p><p>d. deci d 10-1</p><p>e. centi c 10-2</p><p> f. milli m ______10-3</p><p>_______ </p><p>12. What is the mnemonic device to remember the metric scale? </p><p>King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk </p><p>13. Complete the following conversions: </p><p>a. 250 mL = 0.250 L </p><p>b. 150 g = .150 kg </p><p>c. 125 m = 12.5 dam </p><p>d. 0.26 cg = 2.6 mg </p><p>e. 32,300 mm = 0.0323 km </p><p>f. 0.072 kg = 7.2 dag </p><p>14. On a graph, the independent variable always goes which of the following: </p><p>a. X-axis b. Y-axis c. It depends on how the IV was measured </p><p>15. A triple-beam balance is used to measure which of the following: </p><p> a. length b. volume c. mass d. temperature </p><p>16. Which of the following is used to measure volume: </p><p>a. ruler b. thermometer c. graduated cylinder d. scale </p><p>17. On a graph, the dependent variable always goes on which of the following: </p><p>a. X-axis b. Y-axis c. It depends on how the DV was measured </p><p>18. Which of the following is used to measure length: </p><p>a. ruler b. thermometer c. graduated cylinder d. scale </p><p>19. The standard for comparison in an experiment. </p><p>a. control b. constants c. independent variable d. dependent variable </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>Unit 2: Introduction to Environmental Science Review Matching: Match the term to its definition: </p><p>1. ______E_____ Pollution </p><p>2. _______I____ Renewable resources </p><p>3. ______F_____ Environment </p><p>4.______B_____ Biodiversity </p><p>5. ______C_____ Sustainability </p><p>6. _____H______ Agriculture </p><p>7. ______D_____ Biology </p><p>8. _______G____ Developing country </p><p>9. ________A___ Ecology </p><p>A. The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment </p><p>B. The species, genetic, or ecological diversity of organisms in a given area </p><p>C. Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own </p><p>needs </p><p>D. The study of life or living organisms </p><p>E. Any physical, chemical, or biological change that adversely affects the health, survival, or activities of living </p><p>organisms or that alters the environment in an undesirable way </p><p>F. The circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms </p><p>G. Country with high population growth, low economic diversity, and low ecological footprints </p><p>H. The practice of growing, breeding, &amp; caring for plants &amp; animals used for food, clothing, etc. </p><p>I. Resources normally replaced or replenished by natural processes </p><p>10. Using scientific information from chemistry and biology to devise a plan to clean up a lake and make it healthy </p><p>again describes: </p><p>a. Ecology b. Environmental Science c. Earth Science d. Social Science </p><p>11. An ecological footprint is the </p><p>a. mark a persons shoe makes in soft earth. </p><p>b. number of animals a person has killed. </p><p>c. amount of land and ocean area needed to support one person. </p><p>d. number of trees people cut down. </p><p>12. Name two developed nations: United States &amp; Canada </p><p>13. Name two renewable resources: sun, wind, trees </p><p>14. Name two nonrenewable resources: coal &amp; oil </p><p>15. During the agricultural revolution: </p><p>a. Plants and animals were domesticated c. Fossil fuel use increased </p><p>b. Forests &amp; wetlands were destroyed for farmland d. Both (a) and (b) </p><p>16. You are visiting a developing country. Compared to a developed country, you would expect to find a: a. higher percentage of the population with safe drinking water b. higher percentage of the population under the age of 15 c. higher average life expectancy </p><p>17. Compared to developing nations, developed nations have </p><p>a. lower health standards. c. greater personal wealth. </p><p>b. faster-growing populations. d. no social support systems. </p><p>18. The current issue of rapid global climate change is mainly caused by excess CO2 in the atmosphere from </p><p>burning fossil fuels. </p><p>Turn Over </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>19. A resident of which country is likely to have a large ecological footprint? </p><p>a. Indonesia b. India c. United States d. Panama </p><p>20. Biodiversity is important to us because of which following reasons: </p><p> a. We depend on healthy ecosystems for balanced nutrient &amp; energy cycles. </p><p> b. We use organisms for food, clothing, shelter, &amp; medicine. </p><p> c. Its morally right to save species. </p><p> d. all of the above. </p><p>21. A sustainable world would be characterized by the: </p><p>a. Moving rare animals from their natural habitats to laboratories. </p><p>b. Invention of bigger storage facilities for increased amounts of toxic wastes. </p><p>c. Maximum exploitation of natural resources using more advanced technologies. </p><p>d. Indefinite existence of human populations in a healthy and prosperous condition. </p><p>22. Wind, water, fisheries, &amp; forests are examples of renewable resources. </p><p>23. All of the following have contributed to loss of biodiversity except: a. Habitat destruction b. Recycling </p><p>c. Overharvesting d. Invasive species </p><p>24. Which of the following is not made from nonrenewable resources? a. Aluminum can b. Plastic bottle </p><p> c. Diamond necklace d. Paper towels </p><p>25. Organic agriculture, changes to what &amp; where we eat, moderate use of renewable resources, lower waste, and using renewable energy sources are all examples of: </p><p>a. Sustainability b. Developing countries </p><p>c. Resource use d. Biodiversity loss </p><p>26. According to the law of supply and demand, what would occur if the supply of oil declined and the demand remained the same? </p><p>a. Oil prices would drop b. Oil prices would increase </p><p>c. Oil usage would drop d. Oil usage would increase </p><p>27. Biodiversity is important to us because of which following reasons: a. We depend on healthy ecosystems for balanced nutrient &amp; energy cycles. b. We use organisms for food, clothing, shelter, &amp; medicine. c. Its morally right to save species. d. All of the above. </p><p>28. Which of the following is does NOT help to prevent the further loss of biodiversity? a. Endangered Species Act b. Captive breeding at zoos and aquariums c. Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species d. Poaching and overharvesting </p><p>29. The Tragedy of the Commons idea addresses the conflicts associated with what environmental challenge? </p><p>a. preventing pollution c. curbing overpopulation b. preserving biodiversity d. protecting shared resources </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>Unit 3: THE BIOSPHERE: Earth Science &amp; Ecology Review </p><p>Matching: Match the term to its definition: </p><p>1. _____A______ Niche </p><p>2. ______G_____ Competition </p><p>3. _______E____ Commensalism </p><p>4. ________H___ Producer </p><p>5. _______F____ Indicator species </p><p>6. ________B___ Herbivore </p><p>7. _________D__ Condensation </p><p>8. __________C_ Parasitism </p><p>J. The unique role a species plays in its environment </p><p>K. Organism that obtains energy from eating producers </p><p>L. Symbiotic relationship in which one organism is harmed and the other is benefited </p><p>M. Process by which water vapor turns to liquid </p><p>N. Symbiotic relationship in which one organism is benefitted and the other is neither helped nor </p><p>harmed </p><p>O. Species that provide early warning of damage to the environment </p><p>P. Relationship in which individuals or populations attempt to use the same limited resource </p><p>Q. Organism that can produce its own energy, usually through photosynthesis </p><p> 9. What is always the first source of energy in most ecosystems? sun 10. What do herbivores eat? plants 11. What do omnivores eat? meat &amp; plants 12. What do carnivores eat? meat </p><p>13. The reason that energy transfer among trophic levels is depicted as a pyramid is because only </p><p>_______% of energy consumed is available to the next trophic level: </p><p> a. 90 b. 20 c. 10 d. 3 </p><p>14. Plants perform photosynthesis, where they make sugar from the suns energy. 15. Plants/ producers are eaten by primary consumers, which are eaten by secondary consumers, which are eaten by tertiary consumers. 16. Which organisms obtain their energy from dead organisms and return nutrients back to the soil? </p><p> decomposers (bacteria) </p><p>17. A butterfly pollinating a flower is an example of which type of symbiotic relationship? mutualism </p><p>18. A female dogs niche includes all of the following except (choose the least best answer): </p><p>a. fleas that infest the dog b. the neighbors enclosed yard </p><p>c. how the dog protects its owner d. the number of puppies the dog has </p><p>19. A lynx chasing and eating an arctic hare (rabbit) is an example of what type of relationship? </p><p> a. predator/prey b. competition c. genetic d. symbiotic e. friendly </p><p>20. With respect to matter, Earth is an closed system; hence matter cycles (cycles or flows?) </p><p> 21. Carbon is used by plants during photosynthesis and then is released by plants &amp; animals during cellular respiration. </p><p>TURN OVER </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p> 22. What human activities are adding more CO2 to the atmosphere? Burning fossil fuels 23. Which of the following is not a way to reduce your carbon impact? a. carpool b. eat locally-grown food c. throw away plastic containers d. reuse glass bottles 24. Producers release oxygen during photosynthesis and all organisms use oxygen to make energy (ATP) during cellular respiration. </p><p>25. What organisms perform the function of converting nitrogen into usable forms? bacteria that live in the roots of legumes 26. Which form of nitrogen do plants use? a. nitrogen gas (N2) b. nitrates (NO3) c. ammonium (NH4) 27. Too much nitrogen and phosphorus from agriculture (fertilizer) can cause too much algal growth in water, resulting in fish kills. </p><p>28. Life of individual organisms is maintained by the: </p><p> a. cycling of energy and flow of matter </p><p> b. flow of energy and cycling of matter </p><p> c. cycling of energy and matter </p><p> d. flow of energy and matter </p><p>29. These are good indicator species because they provide early warning of water pollution. </p><p> a. Cockroaches b. Catfish c. Rats d. Frogs </p><p>30. Which form of nitrogen is used by plants (and then transferred to animals through the food chain)? </p><p> a. N2 gas b. Nitric acid (HNO3) </p><p> c. Nitrate (NO3) D. Nitrogen oxide (NO) </p><p>32. Organisms that eat large pieces of dead animals, such as vultures and coyotes, are known as? </p><p> a. Carnivores b. Decomposers c. Omnivores d. Scavengers </p><p>32. Mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism are different types of what kind of relationship? </p><p>symbiosis </p><p>33. The spheres of earth interact to support life. Which of the following correctly describes the spheres? </p><p>a. the atmosphere is made up of mostly oxygen </p><p>b. the hydrosphere is mostly made of freshwater </p><p>c. the biosphere only contains nonliving things </p><p>d. the lithosphere consists of soil, nutrients, and minerals </p><p>34. Acorn Squirrel Snake Hawk. In this food chain, the snake is the tertiary consumer. </p><p>Unit 4: THE HYDROSPHERE Part 1: Aquatic Life Zones Review </p><p>1. The 2 broad categories of aquatic life zones are fresh water and salt water. </p><p>Matching: For Questions 2-7 </p><p>A. Nekton B. Phytoplankton </p><p>Please fix the subscripts! </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>C. Benthos D. Plankton E. Zooplankton </p><p>2. D Free-floating aquatic organisms 3. B The producers (perform photosynthesis) in aquatic system 4. E Animal-plankton, which are consumers, that include larval fish, mollusks and echnioderms, as well as </p><p>large organisms such as jellyfish. </p><p>5. A Are strong swimmers, such as turtles, whales, sharks and other fish. 6. C Are bottom dwellers, like oysters, sea stars, sponges, worms, coral, etc. </p><p>7. The abiotic limiting factors that affect aquatic life include: o Temperature: decreases (increases or decreases) with depth o Light for photosynthesis: decreases (increases or decreases) with depth o Dissolved oxygen: decreases (increases or decreases) with depth o Nutrients: increases (increases or decreases) with depth o Turbidity, which is the degree of cloudiness in water increases </p><p>8. Label the zones in their appropriate boxes: intertidal, neritic (coastal), oceanic, euphotic, bathyal, abyssal, and benthic. </p><p>9. Estuaries are where rivers meet the sea. </p><p>10. Which ocean zone contains 90% of all marine species, including the coral reef? neritic </p><p>11. Coral have a mutualistic relationship with zooxanthellae algae, because the coral provide the algae with a home, and the algae provide coral with sugars, which they make from photosynthesis. </p><p>bathyal </p><p>oceanic </p><p>intertidal </p><p>euphotic </p><p>oceanic </p><p>abyssal bethic </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>12. Coral bleaching is when the zooxanthellae algae are expelled from the coral, which ultimately kills the coral and leads to the collapse of the entire ecosystem. </p><p>Matching: For Questions 13-15 </p><p>A. Abyssal B. Bathyal C. Euphotic </p><p>13. C Oceanic zone with high oxygen levels, lots of light, and have fast, predatory fish. </p><p>14. B Oceanic zone that is dimly lit, has no producers, and has larger, but slower nekton. </p><p>15. A Oceanic zone that is completely dark, very cold, has high pressure, and has organisms adapted to eat whatever they come across. </p><p>16. Name two threats to the ocean: </p><p> acidity due to excess CO2 in the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels </p><p> overfishing ( also climate change, habitat destruction, dead zones, development, invasives) </p><p>Word Bank: For Questions 17-18 </p><p> Algae Bacteria Carbon dioxide Carbonic Fertilizer Oxygen </p><p>17. Dead zones are caused by runoff of fertilizer from rivers that enter the ocean. This causes algae to overgrow. This blocks sunlight and kills plants underneath. Eventually the dead algae &amp; plants cause decomposing bacteria to bloom, which uses up </p><p>the oxygen in the water. </p><p>18. Ocean Acidification is caused by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. When this enters the ocean, it reacts with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). </p><p>19. The pH of todays ocean is around 8.1. But models estimate that by the end of this century, it could be down to a pH of 7.7! </p><p>20. Effects of ocean acidification include: </p><p> impedes calcification so limit...</p></li></ul>