Exploratory Latin art Architecture

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    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use16

    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    ELE Syllabus Entry

    Doric

    Ionic

    Corinthian

    Pantheon

    temple (templum)

    dome

    arch

    aqueduct

    fresco

    mosaic

    SECTION CONTENTS

    Columns (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    Arch of Septimius Severus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Aqua, Aqua Undique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    The Dome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    The Pantheon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    Templa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Mosaics and Frescoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    Design a Mosaic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Answer Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use17

    Columns

    Since ancient times columns have been used as supports and as decoration. There were three

    types of columns used frequently in the ancient world: the Doric style, the Ionic style, and the

    Corinthian style. Look at the illustrations below:

    DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN

    Look at the illustration below and count the number of columns of each type. Record your count

    in the spaces provided.

    __________ Doric __________ Ionic __________ Corinthian

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use18

    Arch of Septimius Severus

    Information for the Teacher

    Roman people honored their generals returning from a successful campaign by building a

    triumphal arch through which they could parade when they entered the city. The Arch of

    Septimius Severus was erected to commemorate his victories over the Parthians in 203 A.D. Atop

    this arch was a four-horse chariot with Severus and his two sons, Caracalla and Geta.

    Class Activities

    1. Figure out how long this arch has been standing.

    2. The arch stands 23 meters high and is 12 meters wide. How tall and wide is this arch in feet?

    3. Measure the height of your classroom. How many classrooms would you have to stack on topof one another to equal the height of this arch?

    4. Decorate the arch below to represent your own accomplishments. Be sure to put your name

    on the arch.

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use19

    Aqua, Aqua Undique

    Romans loved water! They drank it; they bathed in it; they used it for decorative fountains. In fact,

    ancient Romans loved water so much that their daily consumption was twice that of current

    Americans. At first glance, the availability of good water in ancient Rome would not appear to

    be a problem. After all, Rome was located on the Tiber River, and it was not so very far inland

    from the Mediterranean Sea. However, by the fourth century BC, Rome needed to go to distant

    mountains to get clean water.

    Getting this water to Rome was a challenge. But, in 312 BC Appius Claudius built the first

    aqueduct. Just as its name (aqua=water + ductum=lead) suggests, aqueducts were a method

    of transferring water from one location to another. In some places aqueducts were located

    underground, much like our modern water systems. In other places, they were placed atop huge

    archways that crossed the countryside.

    Why Arches?

    There are at least two reasons why the Romans used arches rather than solid walls to support their

    aqueducts. Brainstorm with your friends to see if you can figure out these reasons.

    1.

    2.

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use20

    The Dome

    What is a dome? A dome is a circular roof,

    basically half of a sphere. Many buildings in the

    United States, including the Capitol in Washington

    (pictured to the right), have domes on top. The

    most famous dome in ancient Rome was that of

    the Pantheon. Can you find any domes on

    buildings in your city?

    The Pantheon(In Greek,pan mean all and theon means of the gods.)

    In 27 B.C., Agrippa began work on the Pantheon, literally a temple for all the Roman gods. This

    temple was a typical Roman temple, rectangular in shape with a colonnade on all sides

    supporting the roof.

    When the emperor Hadrian rebuilt it, the Pantheon became a concrete circular building with

    Corinthian columns on the front porch and a huge dome. He envisioned a building that

    reproduced the likeness of the terrestrial globe and of the stellar sphere. The interior of this

    building is illuminated only by the light that comes through the oculus, the opening at the center

    of the dome.

    This building exists in Rome today almost entirely as Hadrian designed it.

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use21

    TemplaTemple of Saturn/Temple of Castor and Pollux

    The general components of a Roman temple included a nine to ten-foot base, a deep

    colonnaded porch, columns attached along the sides and the back, a central staircase, and

    a triple shrine inside.

    The Temple of Saturn is the oldest structure in the Roman Forum. It was first erected in 496 B.C.,

    but it has been rebuilt and restored a number of times. Saturn was a Roman god of agriculture.

    The Temple of Castor and Pollux was dedicated in 484 B.C. after the Battle of Lake Regillus. The

    historian Livy tells us that two men on white horses led the Romans to victory during this battle with

    the Tarquins. These same two men were seen with their horses at a spring in the Forum. The

    Romans believed these men to be the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, and built a temple on the spot

    where they were sighted in the Forum. Tiberius rebuilt this temple in 6 A.D.

    Class Activities

    1) Saturn was an ancient god associated with agriculture. The planet Saturn is named after him.

    Why might the rings around Saturn be associated with agriculture?

    2) In a mythology book, read the story of Castor and Pollux and find out

    a) who their parents were

    (b who their sisters were

    c) in what sports Castor and Pollux excelled

    d) the name of the constellation that honors them

    e) their connection with Jason

    f) how they shared immortality and death

    3) Restoring the Temple of Castor is only one of many things that Tiberius did to gain favor in

    Rome. For a designated time, keep track of a famous personality in the newspaper. Note

    any positive reports, and write a short article delineating all the good deeds and image-

    enhancing acts this person performed.

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use22

    Mosaics and Frescoes

    Mosaics were ancient art forms that were created by arranging pieces of tile

    or small stones (tesserae) into a pattern or picture. They were used as

    decorations in Roman houses, quite often as floor designs.

    Modern mosaics can be made from a variety of materials: egg shells,

    construction paper, colored art foam, beans, or even candy such as

    m&ms.

    Frescoes were paintings, often of mythological subject matter, that decoraterd the walls of

    Roman houses. The technique involved painting on moist plaster. The restored houses of Pompeii

    contain a large number of these ancient works.

    Color a Mosaic

    Use colored pencils or crayons to fill in colors in the mosaic pattern below.

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use23

    Design a Mosaic

    Use the grid below to design your own mosaic pattern. After you complete it, you may wish to

    make a true mosaic, using pieces of construction paper glued to a flat surface.

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    ART / ARCHITECTURE

    Copyright 2004 American Classical League

    May be reproduced for classroom use24

    ART / ARCHITECTURE ANSWER KEYS

    p. 17 Column count: 10 Doric 9 Ionic 10 Corinthian

    p. 18 Arch of Septimius Severus

    1) Figure out how long this arch has been standing. In 2004, it had been standing 180 1 years

    2) The arch stands 23 meters high and is 12 meters wide. How tall and wide is this arch in feet?

    75 feet high, 39 feet wide

    3) Measure the height of your classroom. How many classrooms would you have to stack on

    top of one another to equa l the height of this arch? various answers

    p. 19 Aqueducts

    1) Because of the open spaces in the arches, wind could pass through more easily,

    thus making the aqueducts more stable than walls. They are also structurally

    sounder than walls.

    2) Because of the open spaces, people and animals could pass through the

    aqueducts as they conducted their lives, and repairmen could reach problem

    areas more easily.

    p. 21 Tem pla

    1) Saturn was an ancient god associated with agriculture. The planet Saturn is named after

    him. Why might the rings around Saturn be associated with agriculture? The rings look like

    forrows in a plowed field.

    2) In a mythology book, read the story of Castor and Pollux and find out

    a) who their parents were Zeus (Jupiter) and Leda

    b) who their sisters were Helen and Clytemnestra

    c) in what sports Castor and Pollux excelled Castor - tamer of horses; Pollux - boxer

    d) the name of the constellation that honors them Gemini

    e) their connection with Jason crew members who drove off the Harpies

    f) how they shared immortality and death by traveling between Olympus and the

    Underworld

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