What Is Ecology? What is Landscape? What is Landscape Ecology? A road to Landscape Ecological Planning.
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What Is Ecology?What is Landscape?What is Landscape Ecology?
A road to Landscape Ecological Planning
word ECOLOGY from Ernst Haeckel, Germany, 1869. derived from the Greek oikos, meaning "home," or "place to live" and logos, "the study of.
"...investigation of the total relationships of the animal both to its inorganic and its organic environment..
An illustration by Haeckel Discomedusae
"...the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of animals." (Andrewartha 1961)
"...the study of the structure and function of nature (Odum 1971)
"...the study of the adaptations of organisms to their environment" (Emlen 1973)
"...the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their environments" (McNaughton and Wolfe 1979)
"...the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms." (Krebs 1985)
"...the study of the principles which govern temporal and spatial patterns for assemblages of organisms" (Fenchel 1987)
"...the study of the relationships between organisms and the totality of the physical and biological factors affecting them or influenced by them" (Pianka 1988)
- Experimental papers submitted to the journal Ecologybetween 1980-86>50% of studies used experimental plots 95% used plots
WHAT IS LANDSCAPE ?Any definition of landscape has to be broad. Landscape is the changing human and natural habitat; it is also the topographical form and visual appearance of land. Landscapes are perceived through the way these components combine in a way that is distinctive to particular localities and the way they are informed the cultural and historical associations of place.publication Parliament UK , 1998
The study of larger areasLandscape is a heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interactive ecosystems(Forman 1986)
How large is a landscape? No hard and fast rules. a kilometers-wide mosaic over which local ecosystems recur (Forman 1995)
A more general definition that does not require an absolute scale: ..an area that is spatially heterogeneous in at least one factor of interest (Turner et al. 2001; p. 7)
Small scale? Large scale?Coarse-scale or coarse-grainedFine-scale or fine-grained
What is Landscape Ecology?..focuses on (1) spatial relationships among landscape elements, (2) flows of energy, mineral nutrients, and species among the elements, and (3) ecological dynamics of the landscape mosaic through time (Forman 1983)
.focuses explicitly upon spatial patterns. Specifically, landscape ecology considers the development and dynamics of spatial heterogeneity, spatial and temporal interactions and exchanges across heterogeneous landscapes, influence of spatial heterogeneity on biotic and abiotic processes, and management of spatial heterogeneity (Risser et al. 1984)
.is motivated by a need to understand the development and dynamics of pattern in ecological phenomena, role of disturbance in ecosystems, and characteristic spatial and temporal scales of ecological events (Urban et al. 1987)
.emphasizes broad spatial scales and the ecological effects of the spatial patterning of ecosystems (Turner 1989)
Landscape ecology does not define, a priori, specific scales to apply; aims to identify scales that best describe spatial heterogeneity and the process of interest.
Examples of issues needing large scale populations of native plants and animals over large areas as land use or climate changeseffects of habitat fragmentation or losshuman settlement and natural disturbance regimeeffects of nonpoint source pollution in aquatic ecosystems
The importance of scale was not recognized until the 1980's. Different problems require different scales of study, and most problems require multiple scales of study.
European schoolGerman biogeographer, Carl Troll coined the term landscape ecology in 1939
Focus on typology, classification, nomenclature and the built (human) environment
In the U.S., this perspective is found in Landscape Architecture, Planning or Design schools
American schoolmore focused on natural or semi-natural systemsmore emphasis on theory and modelsmost used in biology, environmental science, ecology, natural resources, geography programsnatural resource management agencies
Landscape Ecology is Interdisciplinary
Ecology Conservation biology Geography & GISMapping & remote sensingLandscape architecture Planning////------------
Landscape Ecology & Planning
The main objective of physical planning is the optimization of the distribution of land uses.
Promoting sustainability can be considered the ultimate goal of landscape planning Planning for conservation, protection and appropriate use of land.
Landscape Ecology & Planning (cont.)explicit attention to the spatial dimension of ecological processesdemanded a stronger interaction between ecologists and planners. The connection of parts (topology) was integrated with horizontal relationships (chorology)human activities included as part of the system. Now landscape ecology is recognized as the scientific basis for landscape planning, management, conservation and reclamation.
Landscape Design & PlanningLandscape design expressed in a plan must:
incorporate the necessary patterns and derived functions critical for the ecological sustainability include current and proposed future landscapes.take a proactive attitude toward landscape through compatible placing and design in planning process in order to anticipate consequences on ecological systems.