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Definitiona collaborative form offine artthat uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place.the performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance.The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from theAncient Greek thatron, which means "a place for viewing.Theatre refers to:the acting, the buildingPlays themselvesAdministratorsSceneryCostumesMake-UpLights
The difference between theatre and drama
Theatre can refer to a whole theatrical production whereas drama refers to the plays themselves.The study of plays is referred to as dramaturgy.Theatre can mean a building, whereas drama cannot.
Theatre is a Collaborative ArtTheatre is a Collaborative ArtProducer=finances, hiring, promoting, etcDirector=Supervises rehearsals; controls and develops his/her vision of the play.Actors=Perform the roles/characters.Designer=creates the visual aspects of production: scenery, costumes, props, make-up, lighting, sound, etc.Builders=tech crew; build and paint the set; make the costumes, etc.
More collaborators:Crews=Execute changes in scenery, light and sound cues, placement and return of propertiesStage Manager= Runs the live productionHouse Manager= Admits and seats audienceThe Playwright : His work is generally done away from the theatre building itself.History of Theatre ArtsClassical and Hellenistic GreeceThecity-stateofAthensis where western theatre originatedIt was part of a broader culture of theatricality and performance inclassical Greecethat includedfestivals, religious rituals,politics,law, athletics and gymnastics,music,poetry, weddings, funerals, andsymposiaParticipation in the city-state's many festivalsand attendance at theCity Dionysia as an audience member (or even as a participant in the theatrical productions) in particularwas an important part ofcitizenship.The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism, acting as a career, and theatre architectureThetheatre of ancient Greececonsisted of three types of drama:tragedy,comedy, and thesatyr play.Origins of Theatre in Ancient Greeceaccording to Aristotle (384322 BCE), the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10,00020,000 people. The stage consisted of a dancing floor (orchestra), dressing room and scene-building area (skene).Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics and clear delivery were paramount. The actors (always men) wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts.Athenian Tragedythe oldest surviving form of tragedyis a type ofdance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state
Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events fromGreek mythology, thoughThe Persianswhich stages thePersian response to news of their military defeat at theBattle of Salamisin 480 BCEis the notable exception in the surviving dramaAthenian Comedyconventionally divided into three periods, "Old Comedy", "Middle Comedy", and "New Comedy".Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the eleven surviving plays ofAristophanes, while Middle Comedy is largely lost (preserved only in relatively short fragments in authors such asAthenaeus of Naucratis). New Comedy is known primarily from the substantial papyrus fragments ofMenander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of laughable people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster.
Roman TheatreWestern theatre developed and expanded considerably under theRomans. The Roman historianLivywrote that the Romans first experienced theatre in the 4th century BCE, with a performance byEtruscanactors.Beacham argues that they had been familiar with "pre-theatrical practices" for some time before that recorded contact.Thetheatre of ancient Romewas a thriving and diverse art form, ranging fromfestivalperformances ofstreet theatre, nude dancing, andacrobatics, to the staging ofPlautus's broadly appealing situationcomedies, to thehigh-style, verbally elaboratetragedies ofSeneca. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, theHellenizationofRoman culturein the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energizing effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development ofLatin literatureof the highest quality for the stage.
The only surviving Roman tragedies, indeed the only plays of any kind from the Roman Empire, are ten dramas- nine of them pallilara- attributed to Lucuis Annaeus Seneca (4 b.c.-65 a.d.), the Corduba-born Stoic philosopher and tutor of Nero
A well preserved Roman theater inBosra(Syria)