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Stage 4 Editing Editing and proofreading

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Stage 4 Editing. Editing and proofreading. Editing. The process of reviewing, revising and rewriting a piece of writing where changes are are made to improve all aspects. Formats as well as elements of style are considered. Delete (unnecessary information); - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Stage 4 Editing

Editing and proofreading

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Editing• The process of reviewing, revising and rewriting a

piece of writing where changes are are made to improve all aspects.

• Formats as well as elements of style are considered.• Delete (unnecessary information);• Change and rearrange (to improve clarity; meaning,

style and voice)• Add (for clarification). (Tompkins, Campbell &

Green, 2012)

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• Checking for errors in spelling, grammar and usage, punctuation, capitalisation, etc.

• Concentrates on mechanics rather than reading for meaning.

• Observes writing conventions or the ‘rules’ of literacy to enhance readability.

• When teaching we need to notice what the student does and build on that. Nothing is automatic – even writing from left to right. (Spandel, 2012)

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Why is editing important?• Incorrect grammar use, americanised spelling,

a small ‘i’ or a comma in the wrong place – does it really matter?

• Editing makes life easier for the reader and shows you care.

• Failure to observe writing conventions can, in some instances, have a lasting impact, e.g. job applications or university assignments.

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• ‘Proofreading matters because it’s what writers do when they finish a piece of writing, and we want our writers to engage in all aspects of what writers do when they write.’(Horn & Giacobbe, 2007)

• Gives students an explicit awareness of how certain language features operate, thus places them in a better position to shape language discriminatingly to their own ends.(Derewianka, 1990)

• We do our students a great service by teaching them to be strong editors within the context of what is currently acceptable (which means we need to know what that is!)

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Another view…‘Getting hung up on ‘proper’ English is ridiculous. The rules change, they’re constantly in flux in fact. It pains me to say but In 100 years’ time we will have done away with the apostrophe, definitely will be spelt with an ‘a’ and we won’t use capitals at all, ever. Look at Olde English compared to Middle English… Look at ‘proper’ modern English compared to txt speak. Language is fluid. Deal with it, or limit all conversations to the backwards landed aristocracy.’ Unseen Flirtations (2011, February 15)

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Achieving a balance• Observing literacy ‘rules’ and conventions but

at the same time encourage students to take risks.

• Focus on readability and adventurous borrowing rather than correctness alone.

• We want students to try new things, not only to write within the safe parameters of those conventions of which they sure. (Spandel, 2012)

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Practical classroom activities for editing – Stage 2

Explore what students already know: • Get small groups to list conventions they already

know, can name and use in their own writing. • From this, compile a class list which can serve as

a simple editing checklist, e.g. capitals to begin sentences; punctuation ‘?!.’ at the end of sentences; capital ‘I’, etc. This allows everyone to take pride in the great start they have already made as writers and editors. (Graves, 2004)

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Reading out loud• Reading draft aloud to a partner and asking

them for feedback.• Works as a powerful editing or proofreading

technique because it forces students to engage in close reading, something that they may not be used to.

• Language awareness and sensitivity grow, along with knowledge of sentence boundaries, pauses, rhythm and style. (Sharp, 2011)

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Stage 2 (Year 3) Proofreading checklist

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Other activities

• Use of ICT, for example the Comma Chameleon interactive game at:

• Getting students to look at some common every day signs and spot the errors, some examples at:

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Bringing a text to life by writing a final copy and sharing it with an

appropriate audience.

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Why is publishing important?• Writing is a social act – writers must reach out to an

audience. (Sharp, 2011)• Creates a meaningful context – students are writing for a

purpose.• Encourages children to write with a specific audience in

mind and how texts will vary according to whom they are addressing and how distant the audience is. (Derewianka, 1990)

• Students enjoy having their efforts celebrated.• When students reach out to an audience they are more

likely to fine tune and improve their work.• Not necessary to publish everything!

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Practical ways for students to share their writing– Stage 2

Making booksSimple booklets can be made by folding sheets of paper into quarters, like a greeting card. They can add features that model the way books are put together in publishing houses, e.g.• Title page;• an ‘about the author’ section;• illustrations and other graphics;• funky cover (cover cardboard with contact paper,

wallpaper samples or students’ own pictures).

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Sharing writing

• One of the best ways of sharing writing is to sit in a special chair – an ‘author’s chair’ and read to classmates.

• After the reading, classmates ask questions, offer compliments and celebrate the completion of the writing project.

• Teachers serve as a model for responding to students’ writing without dominating the sharing. (Tompkins, Campbell & Green, 2012)

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Other ideas for sharing writing• Place it in the class or school library.• Send letters to real-life people outside of the

school environment.• Post it on a class website / online magazine such

as e-zine.• Use it as a basis for a stimulus to be used in other

KLAs, e.g. a drama starter, an HSIE discussion.• Submit to a children’s literary magazine, e.g.

Alphabet Soup or Skipping Stones.