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Seed science


Roberto L. Benech-Arnold Rodolfo A. Snchez Editors

Handbook of Seed PhysiologyApplications to Agriculture

Pre-publication REVIEWS, COMMENTARIES, EV ALUATIONS . . .very interesting and This is a on seed physiologytimely book as it Several of these topics have not been comprehensively reviewed in recent times, making this an important and valuable addition to the seed literature. There is much to be learned from the chapters, as might be anticipated given the quality and expertise of the authors. The reviews related to seed behavior are particularly interesting since this area has rarely been covered in other books on seeds. Each chapter contains a very complete set of references, which is a useful guide to further reading. Many of the chapters will be extensively quoted for years to come.

applies to agriculture. The range of topics is broad, but they fit neatly under several general headings: (1) the relationship between seeds and the soil in which they are planted, and strategies to improve seed performance in the field; (2) behavior of seeds in the field, emphasizing problems associated with dormancy, and lack of dormancy; (3) problems associated with seeds that can and cannot be stored in the dry state; and (4) the uses of commercially important seeds in an industrial conJ. Derek Bewley, PhD text and the factors that influence their Professor of Botany, quality. University of Guelph, Canada

More pre-publication REVIEWS, COMMENTARIES, EV ALUATIONS . . .are the the title indicates, Handbook of Seeds waysthe beginning andfunc- AsSeed Physiology: Applications to Agend of most agricultural practices. The in which seeds tiontheir physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and geneticsare critically important for agricultural success. But it is not only their use to humankind that makes seeds important objects for study; their biological properties, as agents for transmitting the legacy of one generation to the next, have long stimulated the intellect and investigative zeal of scientists. The editors have judiciously chosen areas that reflect all of seed biology and have compiled an expert, authoritative team of seed scientists to write about them. This text brings together an exciting collection of articles covering virtually all of seed physiology important to agriculture, from seed germination, seed performance, and seedling establishment to dormancy, weed seeds, storage and longevity, and quality of cereals and oilseeds. The information is up to date, complete, and comprehensive. The book should attract and satisfy agriculturalists, seed scientists, and workers and students in related areas of biology. I warmly recommend this absorbing compendium for your study.Michael Black, PhD Emeritus Professor, Kings College, University of London, UK

riculture updates several areas of seed biology and physiology related to the agricultural and industrial use of seeds. The book is divided into four sections that cover germination and crop establishment, the effects of seed dormancy in crop production and quality, seed longevity and conservation, and factors associated with seed quality and industrial uses of seeds. This book covers a significant portion of current research related to the quality of seeds for both propagation and utilization. There is a good mix of physiological, genetic, biochemical, and modeling approaches that are applied to seed development, dormancy, germination, and composition. The integration of various levels of organization to understand how seeds behave in agricultural situations is an overall theme of the book. The coverage in these chapters offers enough detail for the book to be used in graduate courses in these topics, and also allows experts to update their knowledge of the current status of related fields.Kent J. Bradford, PhD Professor, Department of Vegetable Crops, Director, Seed Biotechnology Center, University of California, Davis

More pre-publication REVIEWS, COMMENTARIES, EV ALUATIONS . . .text is comprised of Thisand tillage,such topicsthirteen chapters on as soil physics seedbed preparation, grain quality for (human) food and (animal) feed, crop emergence and establishment, seed improvement, dormancy, and storage. This text is a valuable and worthwhile contribution to the literature on seed physiology. Indeed, the Handbook of Seed Physiology: Applications to Agriculture delivers ones expectations from the title. The books value is in the breadth of topics, authored by respective experts in their fields, directed toward the agricultural applications of this knowledge, and brought together in one volume. This book is an excellent route into what one might term seed agronomy for applied physiologists. It will be particularly valuable for masters courses and other postgraduate teaching.Richard Ellis, BSc, PhD Professor of Crop Physiology, Head of the School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, The University of Reading, Reading, UK

Food Products Press The Haworth Reference Press Imprints of The Haworth Press, Inc. New York London Oxford

NOTES FOR PROFESSIONAL LIBRARIANS AND LIBRARY USERS This is an original book title published by Food Products Press and The Haworth Reference Press, imprints of The Haworth Press, Inc. Unless otherwise noted in specific chapters with attribution, materials in this book have not been previously published elsewhere in any format or language. CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION NOTES All books published by The Haworth Press, Inc. and its imprints are printed on certified pH neutral, acid-free book grade paper. This paper meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Material, ANSI Z39.48-1984.

Handbook of Seed PhysiologyApplications to Agriculture

FOOD PRODUCTS PRESSSeed Biology, Production, and TechnologyAmarjit S. Basra, PhD Senior Editor

Heterosis and Hybrid Seed Production in Agronomic Crops edited by Amarjit S. Basra Seed Storage of Horticultural Crops by S. D. Doijode Handbook of Seed Physiology: Applications to Agriculture edited by Roberto L. Benech-Arnold and Rodolfo A. Snchez New, Recent, and Forthcoming Titles of Related Interest: Wheat: Ecology and Physiology of Yield Determination edited by Emilio H. Satorre and Gustavo A. Slafer Hybrid Seed Production in Vegetables: Rationale and Methods in Selected Crops edited by Amarjit S. Basra Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects by Rolf H. J. Schlegel Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System edited by D. K. Benbi and R. Nieder Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition by Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nichols Molecular Genetics and Breeding of Forest Trees edited by Sandeep Kumar and Matthias Fladung Concise Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology by P. Vidhyasekaran Agrometeorology: Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture by Harpal S. Mavi and Graeme J. Tupper Abiotic Stresses: Plant Resistance Through Breeding and Molecular Approaches edited by Muhammad Ashraf and Philip John Charles Harris

Handbook of Seed PhysiologyApplications to AgricultureRoberto L. Benech-Arnold Rodolfo A. Snchez Editors

Food Products Press The Haworth Reference Press Imprints of The Haworth Press, Inc. New York London Oxford

Published by Food Products Press and The Haworth Reference Press, imprints of The Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. 2004 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilm, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Cover design by Marylouise E. Doyle. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of seed physiology : applications to agriculture / Roberto L. Benech-Arnold, Rodolfo A. Snchez, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-56022-928-4 (Case : alk. paper)ISBN 1-56022-929-2 (Soft : alk. paper) 1. SeedsPhysiology. 2. Seed technology. I. Benech-Arnold, Roberto L. II. Snchez, Rodolfo A. SB117.H27 2004 631.5'21dc22 2003021276

CONTENTSAbout the Editors Contributors Preface SECTION I: GERMINATION IN THE SOIL AND STAND ESTABLISHMENT Chapter 1. Seedbed PreparationThe Soil Physical Environment of Germinating Seeds Amos Hadas Introduction Environmental Requirements of Germinating Seed Soil EnvironmentPhysical Aspects Seedbed Preparation, Characterization of Seedbed Attributes, and Seedbed Environment Conditions and Seed Germination Water Uptake by Seeds and Seedlings Seed-Soil Water Relationships Modeling Seed Germination and Seedbed Physical Attributes Concluding Remarks 3 3 5 9 20 24 27 29 36 xi xiii xv

Chapter 2. The Use of Population-Based Threshold Models to Describe and Predict the Effects of Seedbed Environment on Germination and Seedling Emergence of Crops 51 William E. Finch-Savage Introduction Imbibition Germination Other Germination Models Postgermination Seedling Growth Threshold Models: Prediction of Germination and Emergence Patterns in the Field 51 54 56 72 72 74

Summary and Conclusions Appendix Chapter 3. Seed and Agronomic Factors Associated with Germination Under Temperature and Water Stress Mark A. Bennett Introduction Seed Coats Seed Size Seed Water Uptake Radicle Emergence and Root System Development Genetic Links to Germination Temperature Limits Seed Production and Seed Vigor Sowing Depths and Planter Technology Tillage Systems and Soil Structure Effects Interactions with Seed Treatments and Other Crop Protection Chemicals Screening Protocols for Germination Tolerance to Low Temperature and Water Stress Concluding Remarks Chapter 4. Methods to Improve Seed Performance in the