Publication Sighisoara

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The old and beautiful medieval city of Sighisoara made me understand important parts of my country's history, a fact which also described me a more accurate image of my culture with it's customs and traditions.

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<ul><li> 1. Sighisoara - Transylvania revolutionary HungarianThe House with Antlers army led by Josef Bem washas been brought into the defeated by the Russian army possession oftheMesserschmitt led by Luders on 31 July Foundation with the help 1849. A monument was of the Romanian constructed in 1852 to the Government and the town Russian general Skariatin, council of Sighisoara in who died in the battle. TheApril 2000, defrauding Hungarian poet Sandor Petofi the legitimate heirs, thedescendents is generally believed to haveLeicht-Bacon(with been killed in the battle, and a English roots), who are monument was constructed inmentioned in the cadaster his honor at Albesti in 1897.of Sighisoara as owners After World War 1 Sighisoara before the communist passed with Transylvania dispossession of 1950.urban economy, as well asfrom Austria-Hungary to the uring the 12th century,building the fortifications Kingdom of Romania. Central In 2001-2003 the D German craftsmen and merchants known asprotecting it. It is estimatedthat during the 16th and theSighisoara has preserved in anexemplary way the features ofconstruction of a Draculatheme park in the Breite the Transylvanian Saxons 17th centuries Sighisoara a small medieval fortified city,nature preserve near were invited to Transylvania had as many as 15 guildsit has been listed by the Sighisoara was considered by the King of Hungary toand 20 handicraft branches. UNESCO as a World Heritagebut ultimately rejected, due settle and defend the frontierThe Baroque sculptor Elia Site. Each year, a Medieval to the strong opposition of of his realm. The chronicler Nicolai lived in the city. TheFestival takes place in the old local civil society groups Krauss lists a Saxon Wallachian prince Vladcitadel in July.The housesand national and settlement in the actual Dracul(father of Vlad the inside Sighisoara Citadel showinternational media as well Sighisoara by 1191. By Impaler (Dracula), whothe main features of aas politically influential 1280 it was known by the lived in exile in the town, let craftsmens town. However,persons, as the theme park Latin name of Castrum Sex, minted coins in the citythere are some houses which would have detracted from and by 1298 by the Saxon (otherwise coinage was thebelonged to the formerthe medieval style of the name of Schespurch resp. monopoly of the Hungarian patriciate, like the Venetian city and would have Schaesbrich. By 1337 kings in the Kingdom of House and the House withdestroyed the nature Sighisoara had become aHungary) and issued the Antlers.preserve.g royal center for the kings,first document listing the who awarded the settlement citys Romanian name, urban status in 1367 as theSighisoara. The city was the Civitas de Segusvar.Thesetting for George I city played an important Rackoczis election as strategic and commercial Prince of Transylvania and role at the edges of Central King of Hungary in 1631. Europe for several centuries.Sighisoara suffered military Sighisoara became one of occupation,fires,and the most important cities of plagues during the 17th and Transylvania, with artisans18th centuries. from throughout the Holy RomanEmpire.TheThe nearby plain of Germanartisansand Albesti was the site of the craftsmen dominated the Battle of Segesvar, where the </li></ul><p> 2. Sighisoara - TransylvaniaVlad III the Impaler dragon and derives from the his native country was Latin word Draco, also Wallachia to the south, the meaning dragon. family lived in exile in Transylvania as his fatherThepeople of Wallachia gave Vlad II the surname Dracul. His son Vlad III would later use the surnameDrculea in several documents. Through variousadaptations (Draculea,Drakulya) Vlad III eventually came to be referred to as Dracula. His post-mortemhad been ousted by moniker of Tepes pro-Ottoman boyars. In the (Impaler) originated in hissame year as his birth, his preferredmethodfor father was living in executing his opponents, Nuremberg, where he was continuation...known for the exceedinglyimpalement, as popularized byvested into the Order of thecruel punishmenthe medievalTransylvanianDragon. At the age of five,imposed as ruler ofpamphlets. In Turkish, he wasyoung Vlad was also lad III, Prince of V Wallachia, commonly known asmoreWallachia; however, thepeople of Romania refer toVlad as a savior to their known as Kazkl Voyvoda whichmeansImpaler Prince. Vlad was referred toinitiated into the Order ofthe Dragon. Vlads fatherwas under considerable Vlad the Impaler (inas Dracula in a number ofpolitical pressure from the Romanian Vlad Tepes , or nation and continue to justify documents of his times,Ottoman sultan. Threatenedhis method of torture as not mainly the Transylvaniawith invasion, he gave a simply Dracula (c.1431 uncommon for that period in December, 1476), was aSaxon pamphlets and The promise to be the vassal ofhistory. Annals of Jan Dlugosz. Vlad the sultan and gave up his Wallachian (present-day southern Romania) voivde. was very likely born in thetwo younger sons as His first reign as crown Inthecitadel of Sighisoara ,hostages so that he wouldEnglish-speaking world, Vlad Transylvania in 1431. He was keep his promise. Vlad prince took place at age 17,the second son of Vlad Draculdeveloped a well-knownIII is perhaps most commonly during the same year of hisknown for inspiring the name andPrincess Cheajna, hatred for Radu and for releasefrom Turkishof the vampirein Bramdaughter of Alexander theMehmed, who would later captivity, in 1448. His main Stockers 1897 novel Dracula.Good of Moldavia. Although become the sultan .g reign took place in 1456 and As prince, Vlad maintained an ended in 1462. His final independent policy in relation reign was accomplished withto the Ottoman Empire and the aid of the Hungarian was a defender of Wallachia throne in 1476 and he ruledagainstOttoman untilhis assassination Expansionism. His Romanian months later within the same surname Drculea means year. Vlad the Impaler isSon of the dragon and isderived from his fathers title,Vlad the Dragon (see Vlad IIDracul); the latter was amember of the Order of TheDragon, created in Serbia priorto the battle of Kosovo (1389),and re-instituted by EmperorSigismund in 1408. The wordDracul means the Devil inmodern Romanian but inVlads day also meant 3. Sighisoara - Transylvania Vlad III the Impalerwar had led to rampant crime,transgressinghisfalling agricultural production, authority impaled.Vladand the virtual disappearance of III was constantly ontrade. Vlad used severeguard againstthemethods to restore order, as headherents of the Dnestineeded an economically stableclan, and some of his raidscountry if he was to have anyinto Transylvania maychance against his externalhave been efforts toenemies. capturetheclans would-be princes. SeveralThe early part ofmembers of the clan diedVlads reign was dominated atVlads hands.by the idea of eliminating all Vladislav II of Wallachiapossible threats to his power, was murdered soon aftermainly the rival nobilityVlad came to power ingroups, i.e. the boyars. This1456. Another Dnestiwas done mainly by physicalprince, suspected to haveelimination, but also by taken part in burying hisreducing the economic role brother Mircea alive, was the new sultan Mehmed II,of the nobility: the key captured during one of continuation... Hunyadi pardoned him and positions in the PrincesVladsforaysinto took him in as an advisor. Council, traditionally Transylvania. Rumors ccording to McNally and A Florescu,healso distrusted his own father Eventually Hunyadi picked Vlad as the Kingdom of Hungarys candidate for thebelonging to the countrysgreatest boyars, were handedto obscure individuals, some (spread by his enemies) say thousands of citizens of the town that had for trading him to the Turksthrone of Wallachia. of them of foreign origin, but sheltered his rival were and betraying the Order of the who manifested loyalty impaled by Vlad. The Dragons oath to fight them.In 1453, the Ottomans, towards Vlad. For the less captured prince wasVladsfather was under Mehmed II, tookimportant functions, Vladforced to read his own assassinated in the marshes nearConstantinopleaftera also ignored the old boyars, eulogy while kneeling Blteni in December 1447 by prolonged siege, thus puttingpreferring to knight and before an open grave rebellious boyars allegedly under an end to the final majorappoint men from the freebefore his execution. the orders of Hungarian regentChristian presence in thepeasantry. A key element ofFollowingfamily John Hunyadi. Vlads oldereastern Mediterranean. the power of the Wallachiantraditions and due to his brother Mircea was also dead at Ottoman influence began to nobility was their old hatred towards the this point, blinded with hot iron spread from this base throughconnections in the Ottomans, Vlad decided stakes and buried alive by histhe Carpathians, and began toSaxon-populatedto sidewiththe political enemies at Trgoviste.threaten mainland Europe.autonomoustowns of Hungarians. To the end of To protect their political power inTransylvania, so Vlad actedthe 1450s there was once the region, the Ottomans invadedIn 1456, Hungary against these cities byagain talk about a war Wallachia and the Sultan putinvaded Serbia to drive outeliminating their tradeagainst the Turks, in the Ottomans, and Vlad III Vlad III on the throne as a puppet privileges in relation withwhich the king of simultaneously ruler. His rule at this time wouldinvadedWallachia and by organizingHungary Matthias be brief; Hunyadi himself Wallachia with his own raids against them. In 1459, Corvinus would play the invaded Wallachia and oustedcontingent. Both campaigns he had several of the German main role. Knowing this, him the same year. Vlad fled to were successful, althoughsettlers(Saxons)andVlad stopped paying Moldavia until October 1451 and Hunyadi died suddenly of officialsofthe tribute to the Ottomans in was put under the protection of the plague. Nevertheless,Transylvaniancity of 1459 and around 1460 his uncle, Bogdan II. Vlad was now prince of his Kronstadt who were made a new alliance with native land.VladIIIs Corvinus. This angered Bogdan was actions after 1456 are the Turks, who attempted assassinated in 1451 by Petru well-documented.to remove him. They Aron, and Vlad, taking afailed, however; later in gamble, fled to Hungary.the winter of 1461 to 1462 After the death of hisVlad crossed south of the Impressed by Vlads vast grandfather (Mircea the Elder) knowledge of the mindset and in 1418, Wallachia had fallenDanube and devastated inner workings of the Ottoman into a somewhat chaotic the area between Serbia Empire as well as his hatred of situation. A constant state ofand the Black Sea. g 4. Sighisoara - Transylvania Vlad III the Impalerthe Bishop of Oradea. Vlad IVDracula was a claimant to the continuation...Wallachian throne, but neverruled. The Hungarian branchn response to this, Sultan IMehmed II, the recentconquerorofof his descendants marriedinto nobility off and on, butnone would ever rule Constantinople, raised an army of around 60,000 troops andWallachia. The Romanian 30,000 irregulars and in the branch of his descendants spring of 1462 headed towardswould continue to rule off and Wallachia. Other estimates for on until 1627, when the last the army include 150,000 bydescendant,Alexandru Michael Doukas, 250,000 by Laonicus Chalcond. MehmedCoconul, would fail to was greeted by the sight of aproduce an heir.Vlad Dracula veritable forest of stakes onwas killed in battle against the which Vlad the Impaler had Turks near the capital city of impaled 20,000 Turkishthrough the window into VladsDiplomaticcorrespondence Bucharest in 1476. It is said prisoners. With his army of main quarters, with a message from Buda during the period in that he was decapitated by the 20,00040,000 men Vlad waswarning him that Radus armyquestion also seems to support unable to stop the Turks fromTurks and his head sent to was approaching. McNally andthe claim that Vlads actual entering Wallachia andFlorescu explain that the archer Istanbul where the Sultan had period of confinement was occupying the capital was one of Vlads formerrelatively short. The openly it displayed on a stake as proof Trgoviste (4 June 1462), so he servants who sent the warning pro-Turkish policy of Radu that the Impaler was finally resorted to guerrilla warfare,out of loyalty, despite having(who was prince of Wallachia dead. He was reportedly constantly organizing small converted to Islam to escapeduring most of Vladsburied at Snagov, an island attacks and ambushes on the enslavement by the Turks. captivity), was a probable Turks. The most important of monastery located near Upon reading the message, factor in Vlads rehabilitation. these attacks, The NightVlads wife threw herself from Bucharest. However, it should During his captivity, Vlad also Attack, took place on the nightsthe tower into a tributary of the converted to Catholicism, in be noted that it is unclear who of June 1617, when Vlad andArges River flowing below the contrast to his brother whoactually killed Vlad Dracula. some of his men allegedly castle. According to legend, sheconverted to Islam. In the When he came to power, Vlad entered the main Turkish camp remarked that she wouldyears before his final release inimmediately had all the (wearing Ottoman disguises) rather have her body rot and be 1474, when he began and attempted to assassinate assembled nobles arrested. eaten by the fish of the Argespreparations for the reconquest Mehmed. Unable to subduethan be led into captivity by theThe older boyars and their of Wallachia, Vlad resided Vlad, the Turks left the country, Turks. Today, the tributary is with his new wife in a house infamilies were immediately leaving Vlads half-brother,called Rul Doamnei (thethe Hungarian capital. impaled. The younger and Radu the Handsome, to Ladys River, also called thehealthier nobles and their continue fighting. Despite Vlad Princesss River). families were marched north achieving military victories, he Vlad and his first wife had alienated himself from thehad at least one child, a son, from Trgoviste to the ruins of nobility, which sided withMihnea cel Ru, who would rule Poienari Castle in the The exact length of Radu. By August 1462 Radu Vlads period of captivity is Wallachia 1508 to 1510. After hismountains above the Arges had struck a deal with theopen to some debate, though first wifes death, Vlad III would River.g Hungarian Crown.indications are that it was from Consequently,Vladwasnot marry again until after his 1462 until 1474. He was able to imprisonment in Hungary in the imprisonedbyMatthiasgradually win his way back into Corvinus. the graces of Hungarys 1460s. His second wife, Countess monarch, and eventually marry Ilona Szilgyi (the cousin of King His first wife, whose a member of the royal family. Matthias of Hungary) bore him name is not recorded, diedHis second wife, Countess Ilona two sons, Vlad IV Dracula and during the siege of...</p>