Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks

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<ul><li> 1. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks Alex Burns Senior Researcher, Smart Internet Technology CRC</li></ul> <p> 2. Overview </p> <ul><li>History </li></ul> <ul><li>What are Peer-to-Peer (p2p) networks? </li></ul> <ul><li>Social Implications (Spar and Vaidhyanathan) </li></ul> <ul><li>Napster, BitTorrent, and Hyperdistribution </li></ul> <ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul> <p> 3. Part 1: P2P Technology 4. History </p> <ul><li>Internet infrastructure was a precursor to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and distributed computing principles </li></ul> <ul><li>P2P applied in industry applications (e-health and science) </li></ul> <ul><li>Became prominent in late 1990s across college campuses </li></ul> <ul><li>Illegal file-sharing as killer app (Napster, Grokster, Kazaa) </li></ul> <ul><li>Has relationship with multimedia file formats </li></ul> <ul><li>Has coevolved with Digital Culture </li></ul> <p> 5. P2P Networks </p> <ul><li>Replaced the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Gopher </li></ul> <ul><li>Differs from centralised Client-Server architecture </li></ul> <ul><li>With P2P, each computer is both a server for remote users and a client to download files (Jason Whittaker) </li></ul> <ul><li>Allows users to run programs that turn their computers into servers on a distributed network </li></ul> <ul><li>SETI@Home introduced many netizens to pseudo-P2P ideas </li></ul> <ul><li>Taps into Metcalfes Law and Reeds Law (exponential value of more users and the power of distributed groups) </li></ul> <p> 6. Vaidhyanathans P2P Criteria </p> <ul><li>Siva Vaidhyanathan defines distributed P2P systems as: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> End-to-end design: involves a PC or person as end-point </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> Decentralised: Resources spread out, can flow through system </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> Anti-authoritarian: Not subject to command-and-control structures, developed by hackers, mavens, and pioneers </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> Difficult to manage: Removing content and users is impossible </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> Extensible: Open access to many, node structure, work via protocols, comparable to diaspora population </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 7. Part 2: Legal and Social Implications 8. Implications 1: Debora Spar </p> <ul><li>Harvard Business School professor </li></ul> <ul><li>Author ofRiding The Waves(2003) </li></ul> <ul><li>Neo-Marxist model of technological diffusion into society </li></ul> <ul><li>Suggests the Technological Frontier has political battles </li></ul> <ul><li>How commerce and politics cross-impact on innovation </li></ul> <ul><li>Case studies on radio, digital television, the Microsoft antitrust suit, and Internet file-sharing services </li></ul> <ul><li> Why rules get established along the technological frontier, and who plays the greatest role in their creation </li></ul> <p> 9. Phase 1: Innovation </p> <ul><li> The sexiest phase along the technological frontier </li></ul> <ul><li>Tinkerers, inventors, and discoverers </li></ul> <ul><li>Visionaries and Early Adopters (Geoffrey Moore) </li></ul> <ul><li>Small and specialised groups, non-commercial use </li></ul> <ul><li>Research labs and technology consortiums </li></ul> <ul><li> No rules because none is needed </li></ul> <ul><li>Government regulation still possible at early phase </li></ul> <ul><li> In many ways the most peaceful . . . Often ends abruptly </li></ul> <p> 10. Phase 2: Commercialisation </p> <ul><li> The defining moment of the frontier economy </li></ul> <ul><li>Libertarian politics as the norm </li></ul> <ul><li>Pioneers, Pirates, Marshals, Outlaws, Dotcom Entrepreneurs </li></ul> <ul><li>Focus on Venture Capitalists and prototype-to-market </li></ul> <ul><li>Depicted in Jehane Noujaims filmStartup.com(2001) </li></ul> <ul><li>Shift to early mainstream in pursuit of profits (Geoffrey Moore) </li></ul> <ul><li> During these times of technological flux, the rules are just too flimsy </li></ul> <ul><li>Cryptography and hacker debate in arms race with regulators (Kevin Mitnick, Philip Zimmerman, Bruce Schneier) </li></ul> <p> 11. Phase 3: Creative Anarchy </p> <ul><li> Creative anarchy is the most frustrating stage </li></ul> <ul><li>Chaos Rules school emerges as significant barrier </li></ul> <ul><li> Tragedy of the Commons scenario </li></ul> <ul><li>Shift from libertarian politics to laissez-faire markets </li></ul> <ul><li>Standards coordination and hypercompetition as problems </li></ul> <ul><li>Legal battles over Intellectual Property rights and ownership </li></ul> <ul><li>Early pioneers are outwitted by entrepreneurs </li></ul> <ul><li>Technology maturity: diffusion pressure for mainstream </li></ul> <ul><li> Digital Nativescreate enclaves to survive </li></ul> <p> 12. Phase 4: Rules </p> <ul><li> Rules get created because private firms want them </li></ul> <ul><li>Initiative may come from companies, nation-state, groups </li></ul> <ul><li>Embed politics in markets: access, power, social norms </li></ul> <ul><li>Shift from firms to self-regulation or government intervention </li></ul> <ul><li>Government involvement necessary to enforce rules </li></ul> <ul><li>Professional groups for codifying international standards </li></ul> <ul><li>Firms use the state to preserve its own commercial empire </li></ul> <ul><li>U.S. DoJ v Microsoft antitrust suit </li></ul> <ul><li>Napster, Grokster, and Kazaa court rulings </li></ul> <p> 13. </p> <ul><li>Associate Professor at New York University </li></ul> <ul><li>Author ofThe Anarchist In The Library(2004) </li></ul> <ul><li>Influenced by political philosopher Robert Nozick </li></ul> <ul><li>Coevolutionary model of technology and users </li></ul> <ul><li>Interested in the ideology of P2P (Jack M. Balkin) </li></ul> <ul><li>P2P as alternative future to Dotcom-era visions </li></ul> <ul><li>Posits an access versus ownership debate </li></ul> <ul><li>Warns of bleed-through when online debates have serious offline implications (legal precedents, social norms) </li></ul> <p>Implications 2: Siva Vaidhyanathan 14. Vaidhyanathans P2P Critique </p> <ul><li>Tension between hypercapitalism and knowledge creation </li></ul> <ul><li>Challenges artificial scarcity </li></ul> <ul><li>Encourages inconspicuous consumption and conspicuous production </li></ul> <ul><li>Distinction between P2P use and real piracy </li></ul> <ul><li>Transborder networks may harness creativity and global flows </li></ul> <ul><li>P2P like any other technology alters our online environment </li></ul> <ul><li>Is contract law obsolete or misplaced? </li></ul> <ul><li>What do the industry debates reveal about P2P ethics? </li></ul> <p> 15. Napster </p> <ul><li>Created by Shawn Fanning in 1999 </li></ul> <ul><li>Touted as disruptive technology (Clayton M. Christensen) </li></ul> <ul><li> Jukebox in the Sky fears for music industry </li></ul> <ul><li>Counter-attack spearheaded by Metallicas Lars Ulrich </li></ul> <ul><li>26.4 million users in February 2001 </li></ul> <ul><li>Ninth Court Circuit injunction on 5 March 2001 </li></ul> <ul><li>Acquired by Roxio Inc. and used to rebrand PressPlay service as Napster 2.0 subscription service </li></ul> <p> 16. </p> <ul><li> Napsterisation touted as business model by press </li></ul> <ul><li>Scrutiny of music industry standard operating procedures </li></ul> <ul><li>Second generation services: Grokster, Kazaa </li></ul> <ul><li>Led to BitTorrent as a true P2P alternative </li></ul> <ul><li>Established MP3 as a major audio file format (standards) </li></ul> <ul><li>Helped to create market for Apple iPod player </li></ul> <ul><li>Impact on digital and mobile phone cultures </li></ul> <ul><li>WiredMagazine promotes remix cultures (2005) </li></ul> <p>Napster Outcomes 17. BitTorrent </p> <ul><li>Created by programmer Bram Cohen in 2002 </li></ul> <ul><li>A P2P distribution protocol and client application </li></ul> <ul><li> Seeds files into distributed packets over many computers </li></ul> <ul><li>Additional seeds creates more bandwidth </li></ul> <ul><li>Client software such as Azureus </li></ul> <ul><li>Accounts for 20-30% of total broadband traffic (estimates) </li></ul> <ul><li>Attempts to shutdown major Torrent sites </li></ul> <ul><li>Popularisedanimeandmangain West </li></ul> <p> 18. Hyperdistribution </p> <ul><li>Coined by VRML creator Mark Pesce </li></ul> <ul><li>Relevant to Negropontes atoms versus bits </li></ul> <ul><li>BitTorrent-enabled content distribution </li></ul> <ul><li> Disruptive to traditional media distribution practices </li></ul> <ul><li>Battlestar GalacticaandDoctor Whocases </li></ul> <ul><li>Opportunities for indie distribution </li></ul> <ul><li>Avoids institutional bottlenecks and gridlock </li></ul> <ul><li> The Napsterization of Everything (Mary Hodder) </li></ul> <ul><li>Blogs + P2P Democracy (Howard Deans PR maven Joe Trippi) </li></ul> <p> 19. Recent P2P Rulings </p> <ul><li>MGM v Grokster and Streamcast Technologies(27 June 2005) </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Involved 28 entertainment companies as litigants </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Electronic Freedom Foundation defended Grokster and Streamcast </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>P2P software manufacturers liable for infringing users </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Clarification on 1984 Sony Betamax case </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Inducement theory of copyright liability (new precedent) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Risk that manufacturers have to modify technologies for Hollywood </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Universal Music v Sharman Networks(5 September 2005) </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Orders Kazaa to implement software provisions immediately </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kazaa must use filters to prevent searches for illegal software </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Avoided the Trade Practices Act statutes </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kazaa likely to appeal to High Court of Australia </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 20. Michael Geists P2P Myths </p> <ul><li>University of Ottawas Michael Geist offers P2P Myths: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Music industry is suffering financial losses </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>This is directly attributable to illegal file-sharing using P2P </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Losses have impacted on commercial artists and musicians </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Accurate downloading figures are difficult to determine </li></ul> <ul><li>Challenge to over-priced CD format and Wal Mart retail </li></ul> <ul><li>Decline may reflect broader economic concessions </li></ul> <ul><li>Music industry fails to deal with artist contracts and royalties </li></ul> <ul><li>P2P presents an opportunity for independent companies </li></ul> <p> 21. P2P and Internet Futures </p> <ul><li> P2P Civilization meme (Integral theorist Michel Bauwens) </li></ul> <ul><li>Influenced by Catholic theologian Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and his writings on the noosphere:The Phenomenon of Man(1956) andThe Future of Man(1959) </li></ul> <ul><li>Internet Futures: P2P Civilization meme (Michel Bauwens) and the noosphere (Pierre Teilhard de Chardin) </li></ul> <ul><li>Teilhard de Chardin later interpreted by techno-futurists as mystical McLuhan </li></ul> <ul><li>P2P as technological infrastructure forGlobal Brainconsciousness (Peter Russell, Willis Harman, Howard Bloom, Robert Wright) </li></ul> <p> 22. Part 3: Case Studies 23. P2P and Digital Homes </p> <ul><li>Rich Media school of thought </li></ul> <ul><li>Digital Hollywoods preferred vision </li></ul> <ul><li>P2P integrated with new Broadband-enabled entertainment console (Microsoft Xbox 360 and Sony PlayStation 3) </li></ul> <ul><li> Always connected, always personalized, and always in high-definition (Microsoft, GDCA, 2005) </li></ul> <ul><li>Broader gamer demographics than youthful stereotype </li></ul> <p> 24. Digital Television Content </p> <ul><li>SciFi NetworksBattlestar Galacticamini-series (2003) was distributed by U.K. fans on BitTorrent before its U.S. screening </li></ul> <ul><li>SciFi Network developed ancillary content for digital television viewers </li></ul> <ul><li>Visionaries/Early Adopters used viral marketing to promote the program </li></ul> <ul><li>Synergies between P2P use and Digital Culture fandom </li></ul> <ul><li>Producers forced to release first episodes ofBattlestar Galacticaseries online </li></ul> <p> 25. Outfoxed(2004) </p> <ul><li>Robert GreenwaldsOutfoxed(2004) critiques Fox Networks news bias.Outfoxedbook released in 2005 by Alexandra Kitty. </li></ul> <ul><li>Used web communities to tape and analyse one month of Foxs broadcasts (P2P and social networks) </li></ul> <ul><li>DVD and theatrical distribution avoided distribution problems: inspired by P2P strategies </li></ul> <ul><li>Greenwald has released his interview footage under a Creative Commons license for remixing/sampling (Open Source) </li></ul> <ul><li>New documentaryWal Mart: The High Cost Of Low Price(November 2005) leverages P2P during production and post-production </li></ul> <p> 26. P2P Collaborative Research </p> <ul><li>Center For Cooperative Research (www.cooperativeresearch.org) </li></ul> <ul><li> Collaborative investigations at grassroots level </li></ul> <ul><li> Open-content model for public historical record </li></ul> <ul><li>Critiques the9/11 Commission Reportusing official documents + agenda-setting news sources </li></ul> <ul><li>Paul ThompsonsTerror Timeline(2004) </li></ul> <ul><li>New projects: Iraq and Iran Timelines </li></ul> <ul><li>Public collaboration model inspired by P2P Ideology: critique of elite media strategies </li></ul> <ul><li>Impact on information acquisition and production </li></ul> <p> 27. The Power Of Nightmares(2004) </p> <ul><li>Controversial9/11historiography documentary by BBC producer Adam Curtis </li></ul> <ul><li>Refused distribution in United States and other major territories </li></ul> <ul><li>Australian television broadcast by SBS delayed due to London bombings on 7 July 2005 </li></ul> <ul><li>Low-resolution bootleg copy released online by InformationClearinghouse.info </li></ul> <ul><li>BitTorrent and Archive.org distribute copies obtained from BBC digital television broadcasts </li></ul> <ul><li>Grand Prix competition at 2005 Cannes Film Festival </li></ul> <ul><li>Pathe negotiates theatrical release for 2 hour cut </li></ul> <p> 28. Nine Inch Nails: Only (2005) </p> <ul><li>Single (2005) by industrial band Nine Inch Nails </li></ul> <ul><li>Trent Reznor released master multitrack sessions in 4 formats (incl. ProTools, GarageBand, and Acid) programs </li></ul> <ul><li>Enables fans to remix single into different versions: conspicuous production (Vaidhyanathan) </li></ul> <ul><li>Example of using pseudo-P2P for User-led Innovation (Eric von Hippel) </li></ul> <ul><li>Pseudo-P2P used as Sustaining technology to thwart illegal downloads and engage with fans </li></ul>