Generation of a Digital Elevation Model using high resolution satellite images By Mr. Yottanut Paluang FoS: RS&GIS.

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Generation of a Digital Elevation Model using high resolution satellite images By Mr. Yottanut PaluangFoS: RS&GIS Presentation Outline IntroductionMethodologyResult of this studyConclusionIntroductionDigital elevation models (DEMs) are increasingly used for visual and mathematical analysis of topography, landscapes and landforms as well as modeling of surface processes. This study attempts to find out the quality assessment of DEM products using different satellite images including ASTER and ALOS PRISM stereo image, comparing existing DEM. Three techniques are used to validate the result of DEM productsObjectives 1. To fuse DEM from ASTER and ALOS PRISM satellite imagery. 2. To evaluate the derived DEM for the suitability in term of terrain surface application. 3. To verify the result of DEM for several terrain surface in term of application suitability.Study AreaMap of the Study areaIntroductionMethodologyResult of this studyConclusion Presentation Outline Available data Ground Truth The form of Ground truth for collecting data. Ground Truth ContdGround truth for collecting data. MethodologyResult Locational Error Profile Curvature Check Points Mountain Area Flat Area Water AreaMethodology ContdObjective 1: To fuse DEM from ASTER & ALOS PRISM satellite imagesASTER DEMALOS PRISM DEMGCPs SelectionTie Points SelectionTriangulationDEM GenerationASTER ImagesGround Truth DataALOS PRISM ImagesData processingUSGS DEMElevation rangeLow: 30 mHigh : 1931 mASTER DEMElevation rangeLow: 58 mHigh : 1086 mALOS PRISM DEMElevation rangeLow: 135 mHigh : 1625mFused DEMElevation rangeLow: 58 mHigh : 1086 mMethodology ContdObjective 2: To evaluate the derived DEM for suitability of terrain surface application 1. comparison of the drainage network from these DEMDEM VerificationIncrement of GCPsIncrement of Tie PointsSink fill, cloud and Shadow and Removing2. DEM EvaluationDrainage networksLocational ErrorFirst step: line buffering. Perform a buffer operation on the line data sets X , using a buffer size, , which should be significantly larger than the geometric accuracy measure found for the data set X. Second step - overlay. Perform an overlay of the two line-polygon overlays: Overlay X with Q, resulting in the new mixed data sets as XQ.Third step: statistics. Statistics is run to determine completenessMethodology ContdObjective 2: To evaluate the derived DEM for suitability of terrain surface application 1. comparison of the drainage network from these DEM2. comparison of the terrain relief and Profile CurvatureDEM VerificationIncrement of GCPsIncrement of Tie PointsSink fill, cloud and Shadow and Removing2. DEM EvaluationTerrain relief & Profile Curvature- Linear error represents the accuracy of the vertical and the horizontal position. - Differences of profile curvature between DEMs are displayed as linear features Methodology ContdObjective 2: To evaluate the derived DEM for suitability of terrain surface application 1. comparison of the drainage network from these DEM2. comparison of the terrain relief and Profile Curvature 3. comparison of the elevation of the derived DEM with the check pointsDEM VerificationIncrement of GCPsIncrement of Tie PointsSink fill, cloud and Shadow and Removing2. DEM EvaluationComparison of the elevation of the derived DEM with the check pointsDefined from the GCPs, Tie points, and user defineAn algorithm of accuracy evaluation called Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)Where mz is RMSE of elevation Zi is the elevation differences between the derived DEM and the check points n is the number of check points The lower the RMSE, the better the solutionThe number of Check Points Methodology Contd.Objective 3: To verify the result of DEM for several terrain surfaces in term of application suitability.ComparisonReferenced DEM ASTER DEM ALOS PRISM DEM Fused DEM Mountain Area Flat Area Water Area Locational Error Profile Curvature Check PointsResultIntroductionMethodologyResult of this studyConclusion Presentation Outline Comparison of the drainage network from these DEMDrainage networks a : 1st Mountain area b : 2nd Mountain area d : 1st Flat area e : 2nd Flat area c : Water areaLocational Error Chart143.159072169312.392053146740.869206498734.131248336174.737835237921.465123300964.231850785557.715371455385.835042337529.353389752273.005485276269.857309923590.90847225639.578744466377.715890144879.301395213698.659643011949.208406116680.363311815484.779843631110059.973454161881.805984674990.482915718915068.186060585882.346324147595.363660835717576.590408784990.941223168210020083.989250671210025094.368326289230099.4029642525350100usgsasterfusedalosEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within buffermountain Area 1flat1uagsbuffer widthlengthaccumulatationpercentagewithinomissionaccumalate2018794.1456.718.79-18.794028661.989867.8486.428.66-28.669.876031608.622946.6495.331.61-31.612.958032849.091240.4799.132.85-32.851.2410033157.12308.03100.033.16-33.160.31asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207770.8220.64015446.967676.1440.96021345.405898.4456.58025484.804139.4067.510027815.512330.7173.712530366.892551.3880.415032456.182089.2985.917534039.711583.5390.120034882.38842.6792.425036376.071493.6996.330037598.421222.3599.635037763.35164.93100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207770.8220.64015446.967676.1440.96021345.405898.4456.58025484.804139.4067.510027815.512330.7173.712530366.892551.3880.415032456.182089.2985.917534039.711583.5390.120034882.38842.6792.425036376.071493.6996.330037598.421222.3599.635037763.35164.93100.0alos is not covers the flat area, so fused data has displayed aster dataflat100000000000000000000000000000asterusgsfusedEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within bufferFlat Area1flat 205.433038974612.392053146711.411786136517.6140048248010.410507617321.465123300920.83408938234.3627597209017.051469720629.353389752228.0495221346.8534781847024.067061483739.578744466332.81330182558.5262055459032.46977481449.208406116637.140073601369.2980970014045.442287514859.973454161844.609255169281.4869020907058.376594177268.186060585852.133403834991.0968181759069.920016073376.590408784958.811640408295.403167233076.711856947483.989250671263.826510939699.1405864958090.209718621194.368326289276.1749350034100098.406923010799.402964252589.2602229587300010010096.026527383635040040040099.3357167766400450450450100450Flat1flat2Mountain1Mountain2WaterEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferASTERmountain105.433038974640.869206498751.3199173817.6140048248010.410507617364.231850785584.179308911934.3627597209017.051469720673.005485276295.665354825846.8534781847024.067061483777.715890144898.973264692958.5262055459032.46977481480.363311815410069.2980970014045.442287514881.805984674910081.4869020907058.376594177282.3463241475091.0968181759069.920016073390.9412231682095.403167233076.7118569474100099.1405864958090.209718621100100098.40692301070000100000Fused_f1Fused_f2Fused_m1Fused-m2Fused_wEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFused datasetmountain2067.4063630496096.8071277596099.9451280339010000usgs_f1usgs_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferusgs draiange network at flat areawateruagsbuffer widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2017345.4367.44024911.027565.5996.86025718.51807.4999.98025732.6314.12100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage201703.605.4403264.351560.7510.4605346.712082.3617.1807546.542199.8324.110010181.322634.7832.512514249.024067.7045.415018304.744055.7258.417521924.333619.5969.920024054.002129.6776.725028286.434232.4390.230030856.772570.3498.435031356.30499.53100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage201703.605.4403264.351560.7510.4605346.712082.3617.1807546.542199.8324.110010181.322634.7832.512514249.024067.7045.415018304.744055.7258.417521924.333619.5969.920024054.002129.6776.725028286.434232.4390.230030856.772570.3498.435031356.30499.53100.0water20.5776765038040.9046337256056.5241166369067.4855382269073.6574218124080.4136550385085.9462415278090.1395400567092.3709893322096.3263852386099.563259085901000aster_f1aster_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFlat AreaB5020.5776765038040.9046337256056.5241166369067.4855382269073.6574218124080.4136550385085.9462415278090.1395400567092.3709893322096.3263852386099.56325908590100Fused_f2Fused_f1Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFlat areaB6usgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage206532.356532.3543.24011311.964779.6174.76012991.581679.6285.88013759.47767.8990.910014932.651173.1898.712515135.52202.87100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203784.0212.4406554.562770.5421.5608963.312408.7529.48012085.713122.4039.610015026.212940.5049.212518313.413287.2060.015020821.202507.7968.217523387.542566.3476.620025646.842259.3084.025028816.183169.3494.430030353.551537.3799.435030535.86182.31100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2010481.6640.94016473.445991.7864.26018723.602250.1673.08019931.671208.0777.710020610.65678.9880.412520980.65370.0081.815021119.23138.5882.317523323.552204.3290.920025646.842323.29100.0alosepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2011525.3034.14019489.097963.7957.76023589.134100.0469.98026778.173189.0479.310028628.111849.9484.812530553.901925.7990.515032202.011648.1195.417533767.591565.58100.0B6usgsasterfusedalosEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within buffermountain Area 12011.41178613654020.8340893826028.049522138032.81330182510037.140073601312544.609255169215052.133403834917558.811640408220063.826510939625076.174935003430089.260222958735096.026527383640099.3357167766450100ASTER_m1ASTER_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain Area66.896574048879.591641055289.845421517296.3783082436100ALOS_m1ALOS_m2Epsilon band (m)% of draiange network within bufferMountain Area66.896574048836.567770417879.591641055266.003706352889.845421517288.477594120196.378308243697.671919926810099.36617259100Mountain1Mountain2WaterEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferALOS PRISM draiange network51.3199173884.179308911995.665354825898.9732646929100100Fused_m1Fused_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain Area42.882675339575.533813947992.083441289297.498638566399.7203599981100usgs_m1usgs_m2Epsilon band (m)% of draiange network within bufferUSGSusgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage209914.0542.94017462.677548.6275.56021288.783826.1192.18022540.721251.9497.510023054.36513.6499.712523119.0164.65100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203220.0511.4405878.732658.6820.8607914.702035.9728.0809258.891344.1932.810010479.771220.8837.112512587.342107.5744.615014710.422123.0852.117516594.811884.3958.820018009.851415.0463.825021494.193484.3476.230025186.453692.2689.335027095.691909.2496.040028029.44933.7599.345028216.88187.44100.0228.68alosepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2032651.8966.94038848.296196.4079.66043853.115004.8289.88047041.783188.6796.410048809.511767.73100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2015017.0751.34024632.289615.2184.26027993.293361.0195.78028961.24967.9599.010029261.68300.44100.012529307.5645.88100.015017.0715.0224632.2824.6327993.2927.9928961.2428.9629261.6829.2629307.5629.31000000000000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfusedEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within bufferMountain Area 234.1312483361057.7153714553069.8573099235079.3013952136084.7798436311090.482915718912595.3636608357150100175ALOS_m1ALOS_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain areausgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207742.7737.14014507.766764.9969.66018516.314008.5588.88020093.491577.1896.310020813.32719.8399.812520858.4045.08100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage204345.8417.6408478.204132.3634.46011559.993081.7946.98014439.962879.9758.510017097.672657.7169.312520104.973007.3081.515022475.992371.0291.117523538.481062.4995.420024460.60922.1299.125024672.64212.04100.011748.7211.7521206.0821.21alos28426.6328.4331380.6431.38epsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage31924.9831.922011748.7236.632128.6232.134021206.089457.3666.06028426.637220.5588.58031380.642954.0197.710031924.98544.3499.412532128.62203.64100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage204345.8417.6408478.204132.3634.46011559.993081.7946.98014439.962879.9758.510017097.672657.7169.312520104.973007.3081.515022475.992371.0291.117523538.481062.4995.420024460.60922.1299.125024672.64212.04100.04345.844.358478.208.4811559.9911.5614439.9614.4417097.6717.1020104.9720.1022475.9922.4823538.4823.5424460.6024.4615017.0715.0224672.6424.6724632.2824.6327993.2927.9928961.2428.9629261.6829.2629307.5629.3143.159072169342.882675339556.682064063567.406363049674.737835237975.533813947986.44291180996.807127759685.835042337592.083441289295.329811515699.945128033990.90847225697.498638566399.070998928710098.659643011999.7203599981100100100usgs_wusgs_m1usgs_m2usgs_f1usgs_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferAll of usgs draianage networksASTER_wEpsilon band% of draiange network within bufferWater area000000ALOS_WEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferALOS PRISM drainage network at Water area0000000000Fused-wEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFused- Water areausgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2011568.0647.14019450.577882.5179.36022783.193332.6292.98024128.971345.7898.310024430.87301.9099.612524535.05104.18100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203220.0511.4405878.732658.6820.8607914.702035.9728.0809258.891344.1932.810010479.771220.8837.112512587.342107.5744.615014710.422123.0852.117516594.811884.3958.820018009.851415.0463.825021494.193484.3476.230025186.453692.2689.32658.682.6635027095.691909.2496.02035.972.0440028029.44933.7599.31344.191.3445028216.88187.44100.01220.881.222107.572.112123.082.12alos1884.391.881415.041.42epsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage3484.343.482011748.7236.83692.263.694021206.089457.3666.41909.241.916028426.637220.5589.0933.750.938031380.642954.0198.3187.440.1910031924.98544.34100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2014155.2232.74027094.7812939.5662.56034478.697383.9179.68037873.733395.0487.410039330.121456.3990.812540846.811516.6994.315041901.681054.8796.717542674.06772.3898.520043135.07461.0199.625043329.14194.07100.00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfuseEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferTested Siteusgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2012149.9957.14018658.786508.7987.76020154.221495.4494.88020697.14542.9297.310020987.03289.8998.712521255.37268.34100.015021264.909.53100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2015761.3460.84022831.207069.8688.06024300.861469.6693.78024832.16531.3095.710025028.25196.0996.512525392.74364.4997.915025505.99113.2598.317525605.99100.0098.720025692.2986.3099.025025836.20143.9199.630025919.2683.0699.935025941.4422.18100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage202243.908.0404847.712603.8117.3608065.423217.7128.88011001.352935.9339.210013663.002661.6548.712516553.252890.2559.015019369.292816.0469.117521778.302409.0177.720023717.391939.0984.625026870.593153.2095.830027866.19995.6099.435028037.92171.73100.00036.801025403900066.424724463400089.041966510200098.294940200400010000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfuseEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferTested SiteLocational Error contdChart542.882675339511.411786136566.896574048851.3199173875.533813947920.83408938279.591641055284.179308911992.083441289228.0495221389.845421517295.665354825897.498638566332.81330182596.378308243698.973264692999.720359998137.140073601310010010044.609255169210015052.133403834917558.811640408220063.826510939625076.174935003430089.260222958735096.026527383640099.3357167766450100usgsasteralosfusedEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within bufferMountain Area 2flat1uagsbuffer widthlengthaccumulatationpercentagewithinomissionaccumalate2018794.1456.718.79-18.794028661.989867.8486.428.66-28.669.876031608.622946.6495.331.61-31.612.958032849.091240.4799.132.85-32.851.2410033157.12308.03100.033.16-33.160.31asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207770.8220.64015446.967676.1440.96021345.405898.4456.58025484.804139.4067.510027815.512330.7173.712530366.892551.3880.415032456.182089.2985.917534039.711583.5390.120034882.38842.6792.425036376.071493.6996.330037598.421222.3599.635037763.35164.93100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207770.8220.64015446.967676.1440.96021345.405898.4456.58025484.804139.4067.510027815.512330.7173.712530366.892551.3880.415032456.182089.2985.917534039.711583.5390.120034882.38842.6792.425036376.071493.6996.330037598.421222.3599.635037763.35164.93100.0alos is not covers the flat area, so fused data has displayed aster dataflat1asterusgsEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within bufferFlat Area1flat 2205.433038974612.392053146711.411786136517.61400482484010.410507617321.465123300920.83408938234.36275972096017.051469720629.353389752228.0495221346.85347818478024.067061483739.578744466332.81330182558.526205545910032.46977481449.208406116637.140073601369.298097001412545.442287514859.973454161844.609255169281.486902090715058.376594177268.186060585852.133403834991.096818175917569.920016073376.590408784958.811640408295.40316723320076.711856947483.989250671263.826510939699.140586495825090.209718621194.368326289276.174935003410030098.406923010799.402964252589.260222958730035010010096.026527383635040040040099.3357167766400450450450100450Flat1flat2Mountain1Mountain2WaterEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferASTERmountain15.433038974640.869206498751.3199173817.614004824810.410507617364.231850785584.179308911934.362759720917.051469720673.005485276295.665354825846.853478184724.067061483777.715890144898.973264692958.526205545932.46977481480.363311815410069.298097001445.442287514881.805984674910081.486902090758.376594177282.346324147591.096818175969.920016073390.941223168295.40316723376.711856947410099.140586495890.209718621110098.4069230107100Fused_f1Fused_f2Fused_m1Fused-m2Fused_wEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFused datasetmountain267.406363049696.807127759699.9451280339100usgs_f1usgs_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferusgs draiange network at flat areawateruagsbuffer widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2017345.4367.44024911.027565.5996.86025718.51807.4999.98025732.6314.12100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage201703.605.4403264.351560.7510.4605346.712082.3617.1807546.542199.8324.110010181.322634.7832.512514249.024067.7045.415018304.744055.7258.417521924.333619.5969.920024054.002129.6776.725028286.434232.4390.230030856.772570.3498.435031356.30499.53100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage201703.605.4403264.351560.7510.4605346.712082.3617.1807546.542199.8324.110010181.322634.7832.512514249.024067.7045.415018304.744055.7258.417521924.333619.5969.920024054.002129.6776.725028286.434232.4390.230030856.772570.3498.435031356.30499.53100.0water20.5776765038040.9046337256056.5241166369067.4855382269073.6574218124080.4136550385085.9462415278090.1395400567092.3709893322096.3263852386099.563259085901000aster_f1aster_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFlat AreaB52020.57767650384040.90463372566056.52411663698067.485538226910073.657421812412580.413655038515085.946241527817590.139540056720092.370989332225096.326385238630099.5632590859350100Fused_f2Fused_f1Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFlat areaB6usgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage206532.356532.3543.24011311.964779.6174.76012991.581679.6285.88013759.47767.8990.910014932.651173.1898.712515135.52202.87100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203784.0212.4406554.562770.5421.5608963.312408.7529.48012085.713122.4039.610015026.212940.5049.212518313.413287.2060.015020821.202507.7968.217523387.542566.3476.620025646.842259.3084.025028816.183169.3494.430030353.551537.3799.435030535.86182.31100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2010481.6640.94016473.445991.7864.26018723.602250.1673.08019931.671208.0777.710020610.65678.9880.412520980.65370.0081.815021119.23138.5882.317523323.552204.3290.920025646.842323.29100.0alosepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2011525.3034.14019489.097963.7957.76023589.134100.0469.98026778.173189.0479.310028628.111849.9484.812530553.901925.7990.515032202.011648.1195.417533767.591565.58100.0B6usgsasterfusedalosEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within buffermountain Area 12011.41178613654020.8340893826028.049522138032.81330182510037.140073601312544.609255169215052.133403834917558.811640408220063.826510939625076.174935003430089.260222958735096.026527383640099.3357167766450100ASTER_m1ASTER_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain Area66.896574048879.591641055289.845421517296.3783082436100ALOS_m1ALOS_m2Epsilon band (m)% of draiange network within bufferMountain Area66.896574048836.567770417879.591641055266.003706352889.845421517288.477594120196.378308243697.671919926810099.36617259100Mountain1Mountain2WaterEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferALOS PRISM draiange network51.3199173884.179308911995.665354825898.9732646929100100Fused_m1Fused_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain Area42.882675339575.533813947992.083441289297.498638566399.7203599981100usgs_m1usgs_m2Epsilon band (m)% of draiange network within bufferUSGSusgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage209914.0542.94017462.677548.6275.56021288.783826.1192.18022540.721251.9497.510023054.36513.6499.712523119.0164.65100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203220.0511.4405878.732658.6820.8607914.702035.9728.0809258.891344.1932.810010479.771220.8837.112512587.342107.5744.615014710.422123.0852.117516594.811884.3958.820018009.851415.0463.825021494.193484.3476.230025186.453692.2689.335027095.691909.2496.040028029.44933.7599.345028216.88187.44100.0228.68alosepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2032651.8966.94038848.296196.4079.66043853.115004.8289.88047041.783188.6796.410048809.511767.73100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2015017.0751.34024632.289615.2184.26027993.293361.0195.78028961.24967.9599.010029261.68300.44100.012529307.5645.88100.015017.0715.0224632.2824.6327993.2927.9928961.2428.9629261.6829.2629307.5629.31usgsasteralosfusedEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within bufferMountain Area 234.13124833612057.71537145534069.85730992356079.30139521368084.779843631110090.482915718912595.3636608357150100175ALOS_m1ALOS_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain areausgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207742.7737.14014507.766764.9969.66018516.314008.5588.88020093.491577.1896.310020813.32719.8399.812520858.4045.08100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage204345.8417.6408478.204132.3634.46011559.993081.7946.98014439.962879.9758.510017097.672657.7169.312520104.973007.3081.515022475.992371.0291.117523538.481062.4995.420024460.60922.1299.125024672.64212.04100.011748.7211.7521206.0821.21alos28426.6328.4331380.6431.38epsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage31924.9831.922011748.7236.632128.6232.134021206.089457.3666.06028426.637220.5588.58031380.642954.0197.710031924.98544.3499.412532128.62203.64100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage204345.8417.6408478.204132.3634.46011559.993081.7946.98014439.962879.9758.510017097.672657.7169.312520104.973007.3081.515022475.992371.0291.117523538.481062.4995.420024460.60922.1299.125024672.64212.04100.04345.844.358478.208.4811559.9911.5614439.9614.4417097.6717.1020104.9720.1022475.9922.4823538.4823.5424460.6024.4615017.0715.0224672.6424.6724632.2824.6327993.2927.9928961.2428.9629261.6829.2629307.5629.3143.159072169342.882675339556.682064063567.406363049674.737835237975.533813947986.44291180996.807127759685.835042337592.083441289295.329811515699.945128033990.90847225697.498638566399.070998928710098.659643011999.7203599981100100100usgs_wusgs_m1usgs_m2usgs_f1usgs_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferAll of usgs draianage networksASTER_wEpsilon band% of draiange network within bufferWater area000000ALOS_WEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferALOS PRISM drainage network at Water area0000000000Fused-wEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFused- Water areausgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2011568.0647.14019450.577882.5179.36022783.193332.6292.98024128.971345.7898.310024430.87301.9099.612524535.05104.18100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203220.0511.4405878.732658.6820.8607914.702035.9728.0809258.891344.1932.810010479.771220.8837.112512587.342107.5744.615014710.422123.0852.117516594.811884.3958.820018009.851415.0463.825021494.193484.3476.230025186.453692.2689.32658.682.6635027095.691909.2496.02035.972.0440028029.44933.7599.31344.191.3445028216.88187.44100.01220.881.222107.572.112123.082.12alos1884.391.881415.041.42epsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage3484.343.482011748.7236.83692.263.694021206.089457.3666.41909.241.916028426.637220.5589.0933.750.938031380.642954.0198.3187.440.1910031924.98544.34100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2014155.2232.74027094.7812939.5662.56034478.697383.9179.68037873.733395.0487.410039330.121456.3990.812540846.811516.6994.315041901.681054.8796.717542674.06772.3898.520043135.07461.0199.625043329.14194.07100.00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfuseEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferTested Siteusgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2012149.9957.14018658.786508.7987.76020154.221495.4494.88020697.14542.9297.310020987.03289.8998.712521255.37268.34100.015021264.909.53100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2015761.3460.84022831.207069.8688.06024300.861469.6693.78024832.16531.3095.710025028.25196.0996.512525392.74364.4997.915025505.99113.2598.317525605.99100.0098.720025692.2986.3099.025025836.20143.9199.630025919.2683.0699.935025941.4422.18100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage202243.908.0404847.712603.8117.3608065.423217.7128.88011001.352935.9339.210013663.002661.6548.712516553.252890.2559.015019369.292816.0469.117521778.302409.0177.720023717.391939.0984.625026870.593153.2095.830027866.19995.6099.435028037.92171.73100.00036.801025403900066.424724463400089.041966510200098.294940200400010000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfuseEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferTested SiteLocational Error contdChart125.720149931317.614004824836.567770417837.12063245557.138879341734.362759720966.003706352869.553561155281.486902090746.853478184788.477594120188.771478157591.096818175958.526205545997.671919926896.332844321795.40316723369.298097001499.3661725999.783876040399.140586495881.486902090710010010091.096818175917595.40316723320099.1405864958250100FusionASTERALOSUSGSEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferWater areaflat1uagsbuffer widthlengthaccumulatationpercentagewithinomissionaccumalate2018794.1456.718.79-18.794028661.989867.8486.428.66-28.669.876031608.622946.6495.331.61-31.612.958032849.091240.4799.132.85-32.851.2410033157.12308.03100.033.16-33.160.31asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207770.8220.64015446.967676.1440.96021345.405898.4456.58025484.804139.4067.510027815.512330.7173.712530366.892551.3880.415032456.182089.2985.917534039.711583.5390.120034882.38842.6792.425036376.071493.6996.330037598.421222.3599.635037763.35164.93100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207770.8220.64015446.967676.1440.96021345.405898.4456.58025484.804139.4067.510027815.512330.7173.712530366.892551.3880.415032456.182089.2985.917534039.711583.5390.120034882.38842.6792.425036376.071493.6996.330037598.421222.3599.635037763.35164.93100.0alos is not covers the flat area, so fused data has displayed aster dataflat100000000000000000asterusgsEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within bufferFlat Area1flat 205.433038974612.392053146711.411786136517.6140048248010.410507617321.465123300920.83408938234.3627597209017.051469720629.353389752228.0495221346.8534781847024.067061483739.578744466332.81330182558.5262055459032.46977481449.208406116637.140073601369.2980970014045.442287514859.973454161844.609255169281.4869020907058.376594177268.186060585852.133403834991.0968181759069.920016073376.590408784958.811640408295.403167233076.711856947483.989250671263.826510939699.1405864958090.209718621194.368326289276.1749350034100098.406923010799.402964252589.2602229587300010010096.026527383635040040040099.3357167766400450450450100450Flat1flat2Mountain1Mountain2WaterEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferASTERmountain105.433038974640.869206498751.3199173817.6140048248010.410507617364.231850785584.179308911934.3627597209017.051469720673.005485276295.665354825846.8534781847024.067061483777.715890144898.973264692958.5262055459032.46977481480.363311815410069.2980970014045.442287514881.805984674910081.4869020907058.376594177282.3463241475091.0968181759069.920016073390.9412231682095.403167233076.7118569474100099.1405864958090.209718621100100098.40692301070000100000Fused_f1Fused_f2Fused_m1Fused-m2Fused_wEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFused datasetmountain2067.4063630496096.8071277596099.9451280339010000usgs_f1usgs_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferusgs draiange network at flat areawateruagsbuffer widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2017345.4367.44024911.027565.5996.86025718.51807.4999.98025732.6314.12100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage201703.605.4403264.351560.7510.4605346.712082.3617.1807546.542199.8324.110010181.322634.7832.512514249.024067.7045.415018304.744055.7258.417521924.333619.5969.920024054.002129.6776.725028286.434232.4390.230030856.772570.3498.435031356.30499.53100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage201703.605.4403264.351560.7510.4605346.712082.3617.1807546.542199.8324.110010181.322634.7832.512514249.024067.7045.415018304.744055.7258.417521924.333619.5969.920024054.002129.6776.725028286.434232.4390.230030856.772570.3498.435031356.30499.53100.0water20.5776765038040.9046337256056.5241166369067.4855382269073.6574218124080.4136550385085.9462415278090.1395400567092.3709893322096.3263852386099.563259085901000aster_f1aster_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFlat AreaB5020.5776765038040.9046337256056.5241166369067.4855382269073.6574218124080.4136550385085.9462415278090.1395400567092.3709893322096.3263852386099.56325908590100Fused_f2Fused_f1Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferFlat areaB6usgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage206532.356532.3543.24011311.964779.6174.76012991.581679.6285.88013759.47767.8990.910014932.651173.1898.712515135.52202.87100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203784.0212.4406554.562770.5421.5608963.312408.7529.48012085.713122.4039.610015026.212940.5049.212518313.413287.2060.015020821.202507.7968.217523387.542566.3476.620025646.842259.3084.025028816.183169.3494.430030353.551537.3799.435030535.86182.31100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2010481.6640.94016473.445991.7864.26018723.602250.1673.08019931.671208.0777.710020610.65678.9880.412520980.65370.0081.815021119.23138.5882.317523323.552204.3290.920025646.842323.29100.0alosepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2011525.3034.14019489.097963.7957.76023589.134100.0469.98026778.173189.0479.310028628.111849.9484.812530553.901925.7990.515032202.011648.1195.417533767.591565.58100.0B600000000000000000000000000000000000000000usgsasterfusedalosEpsilon band (m)% of stream line within buffermountain Area 1011.4117861365020.834089382028.04952213032.813301825037.1400736013044.6092551692052.1334038349058.8116404082063.8265109396076.1749350034089.2602229587096.026527383640099.3357167766450100ASTER_m1ASTER_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain Area066.8965740488079.5916410552089.8454215172096.37830824360100000ALOS_m1ALOS_m2Epsilon band (m)% of draiange network within bufferMountain Area066.896574048836.5677704178079.591641055266.0037063528089.845421517288.4775941201096.378308243697.6719199268010099.3661725900100000000Mountain1Mountain2WaterEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferALOS PRISM draiange network051.31991738084.1793089119095.6653548258098.973264692901000100000000Fused_m1Fused_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain Area042.8826753395075.5338139479092.0834412892097.4986385663099.72035999810100usgs_m1usgs_m2Epsilon band (m)% of draiange network within bufferUSGSusgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage209914.0542.94017462.677548.6275.56021288.783826.1192.18022540.721251.9497.510023054.36513.6499.712523119.0164.65100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203220.0511.4405878.732658.6820.8607914.702035.9728.0809258.891344.1932.810010479.771220.8837.112512587.342107.5744.615014710.422123.0852.117516594.811884.3958.820018009.851415.0463.825021494.193484.3476.230025186.453692.2689.335027095.691909.2496.040028029.44933.7599.345028216.88187.44100.0228.68alosepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2032651.8966.94038848.296196.4079.66043853.115004.8289.88047041.783188.6796.410048809.511767.73100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2015017.0751.34024632.289615.2184.26027993.293361.0195.78028961.24967.9599.010029261.68300.44100.012529307.5645.88100.015017.0715.0224632.2824.6327993.2927.9928961.2428.9629261.6829.2629307.5629.31000000000000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfusedEpsilon band (m)% ofdrainage network within bufferMountain Area 234.1312483361057.7153714553069.8573099235079.3013952136084.7798436311090.482915718912595.3636608357150100175ALOS_m1ALOS_m2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferMountain areausgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage207742.7737.14014507.766764.9969.66018516.314008.5588.88020093.491577.1896.310020813.32719.8399.812520858.4045.08100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage204345.8417.6408478.204132.3634.46011559.993081.7946.98014439.962879.9758.510017097.672657.7169.312520104.973007.3081.515022475.992371.0291.117523538.481062.4995.420024460.60922.1299.125024672.64212.04100.011748.7211.7521206.0821.21alos28426.6328.4331380.6431.38epsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage31924.9831.922011748.7236.632128.6232.134021206.089457.3666.06028426.637220.5588.58031380.642954.0197.710031924.98544.3499.412532128.62203.64100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage206345.8425.74014097.677751.8357.16020104.976007.3081.58022475.992371.0291.110023538.481062.4995.412524460.60922.1299.115024672.64212.04100.01751062.4995.4200922.1299.1250212.04100.04345.844.358478.208.4811559.9911.5614439.9614.4417097.6717.1020104.9720.1022475.9922.4823538.4823.5424460.6024.4615017.0715.0224672.6424.6724632.2824.6327993.2927.9928961.2428.9629261.6829.2629307.5629.31043.159072169342.882675339556.682064063567.4063630496074.737835237975.533813947986.44291180996.8071277596085.835042337592.083441289295.329811515699.9451280339090.90847225697.498638566399.0709989287100098.659643011999.72035999811000100100usgs_wusgs_m1usgs_m2usgs_f1usgs_f2Epsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferAll of usgs draianage networks0000000000ASTER_wEpsilon band% of draiange network within bufferWater areaALOS_WEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferALOS PRISM drainage network at Water areaFusionASTERALOSUSGSEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferWater areausgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2011568.0647.14019450.577882.5179.36022783.193332.6292.98024128.971345.7898.310024430.87301.9099.612524535.05104.18100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage203220.0511.4405878.732658.6820.8607914.702035.9728.0809258.891344.1932.810010479.771220.8837.112512587.342107.5744.615014710.422123.0852.117516594.811884.3958.820018009.851415.0463.825021494.193484.3476.230025186.453692.2689.32658.682.6635027095.691909.2496.02035.972.0440028029.44933.7599.31344.191.3445028216.88187.44100.01220.881.222107.572.112123.082.12alos1884.391.881415.041.42epsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage3484.343.482011748.7236.83692.263.694021206.089457.3666.41909.241.916028426.637220.5589.0933.750.938031380.642954.0198.3187.440.1910031924.98544.34100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2014155.2232.74027094.7812939.5662.56034478.697383.9179.68037873.733395.0487.410039330.121456.3990.812540846.811516.6994.315041901.681054.8796.717542674.06772.3898.520043135.07461.0199.625043329.14194.07100.00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfuseEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferTested Siteusgsepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2012149.9957.14018658.786508.7987.76020154.221495.4494.88020697.14542.9297.310020987.03289.8998.712521255.37268.34100.015021264.909.53100.0fusedepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage2015761.3460.84022831.207069.8688.06024300.861469.6693.78024832.16531.3095.710025028.25196.0996.512525392.74364.4997.915025505.99113.2598.317525605.99100.0098.720025692.2986.3099.025025836.20143.9199.630025919.2683.0699.935025941.4422.18100.0asterepsilon widthlengthaccumulatationpercentage202243.908.0404847.712603.8117.3608065.423217.7128.88011001.352935.9339.210013663.002661.6548.712516553.252890.2559.015019369.292816.0469.117521778.302409.0177.720023717.391939.0984.625026870.593153.2095.830027866.19995.6099.435028037.92171.73100.00036.801025403900066.424724463400089.041966510200098.294940200400010000000000000000000000000000000usgsasteralosfuseEpsilon band (m)% of drainage network within bufferTested SiteComparison of the terrain relief and Profile CurvatureTerrain relief & Profile CurvatureTerrain relief & Profile Curvature ContdMin-204Max474Mean29SD98Terrain relief & Profile Curvature ContdMin-0.68Max0.47Mean-0.01SD0.19Terrain relief & Profile Curvature ContdMin-182Max166Mean3SD34Comparison of the elevation of the derived DEM with the check pointsComparison of the elevation of the derived DEM with the check pointsFUSEMin-21.0Max30.0Mean4.0RMSE13.2Chart23-37.13.130-23.3-19.8056126.958.5171078.27.180-53.7-1.920-19.4-16010-18.721.51603.94.20091.7-0.90024.77.70-1376.581.515.58-37.7-5.8-60-3.4-14.701036.716.2003.19.4150-7-80012.912.5122910.8-15.930-150.5-5.9002.317.515.63342.812.190-0.55.93.40-47.7-3.3-30-25.1-6.300131.25.70038.3-17.2-4559.17.800-18.8-19.7-21ALOSASTERUSGSFusedPoints IDElevation (m)Error Profile at Mountain areaGCPsNo.ENHeightRemark1497,1121,906,530248.43549.442057.563546.52448.52501,6431,906,154143.23851.832038.583848.82434.53493,3441,907,061297.03295.0820593293.332448.674488,0521,912,372837.828931759.8328952128.25485,9381,915,308355.02726.831586.672724.41977.86481,1851,919,176265.02375.421377.52373.641769.557502,5251,906,019140.03911.422038.923908.272434.918505,8591,901,522128.04174.32303.34172.312699.549505,0451,904,701159.04090.332101.54087.462496.4610507,5521,904,212159.04260.172109.54257.922504.511502,3861,898,471162.03974.672538.173972.752933.3812502,0171,898,642163.03948.52530.4239472925.6413485,3331,906,280411.02773.9221882772.362575.5514498,0431,884,524141.03823.583500.173820.643896.2715490,9451,887,112316.333303398.173328.2378616451,4161,881,620266.5774.174142.837734535.3317454,0401,883,100295.9933.424019.83931.154410.6918469,6251,923,4251195.41569.171208.921568.891565.6719476,1241,931,353970.01923.25623.08192199420487,7071,920,385260.02793.831234.672792.61626.421509,7901,924,097180.04215.5776.174212.91171.922511,4361,921,403159.04350.5937.924347.361333.4323505,1081,919,546174.03950.921121.673947.861516.8624508,1271,915,131153.04192.671383.674189.861779.5725508,2081,908,365141.04263.61829.24260.52225.2926505,1491,886,549126.04272.333297.834270.363693.9327463,3321,917,281270.01215.61675.21213.79206628456,7521,885,505839.41086.673835.081086.644206.2929472,0751,886,912426.420863593.9220853977.9330467,2841,926,611260.01386.311021.541384.211413.2131460,5551,935,395960.0853.06507.06856877.7332451,2631,911,150903.0475.752196.42475.272565.7333454,4161,897,520640.0815.923065818.09344934468,6341,906,357350.01671.172344.51669.552735.6435466,8871,899,273280.01624.582828.671622.553218.7336501,1681,925,577185.03632.08761.923630.181155.8237512,3211,932,688190.04300.081854296.18580.5538502,4731,874,783170.04209.674099.834207.734495.5539493,4631,899,840310.03372.832534.173371.212923.540512,1231,931,436228.14298.67269.54295.9366341452,8431,881,962290.0865.54106.42863.54499.2542506,1641,903,057160.04180.172199.0841772595.1443500,0341,885,078150.53949.333444.333947.063838.8844507,2931,918,250170.04108.0811864104158245482,2471,896,6631456.42662.332852.422663.433199.4346460,9941,893,766327.11287.532491288.153636.6947448,3601,891,188485.5478.53541.33478.573925.5748486,3981,876,458526.9313341453131.574526.8649457,3601,917,737585.4816.111702.89814.292081.7150456,7001,926,219455.8690.41149.8689.431533.8651461,6821,937,385459.2912.3365909.2749.852462,7161,903,402490.91308.72596.71307297853476,2291,915,180418.8208716892085207254481,2091,910,713226.82459.11935.52457232555481,2091,910,713226.82750.4516.2274990756488,0691,887,520400.03117.863399.143152.13755.757482,4021,876,935480.0286341522862454058451,6461,901,665350.0596.672818.33594.53206.4259452,8211,920,7671020.0485.171546.92486190760465,9301,881,397420.01734.0840171732440361498,6131,880,425170.03899.0837653896.58415962498,3291,879,496178.03889.8238293886.54223.1763501,1181,891,387185.03958.453017.643955.543412.4664482,7011,888,942800.0276233662765372965467,0801,940,872613.01233.8382.821232.11458.4666478,0791,939,1821047.0197587.821974.85462.0867502,4751,935,816230.03618.0973.913615.77465.7768482,9871,932,088260.02368.73508.452366.54900.4669485,5611,929,559266.02562.27650.362561.381041.6270490,8491,905,266255.03146.732201.553144.312593.3871463,8951,913,650246.872475,4391,883,571475.873458,9531,894,287315.074502,4641,898,457170.6Sheet249.4400 2057.5600 3546.5000 2448.5000 4.97111763e+005 1.90653034e+006 248.3524003851.8300 2038.5800 3848.8000 2434.5000 5.01642865e+005 1.90615355e+006 143.2359003295.0800 2059.0000 3293.3300 2448.6700 4.93343536e+005 1.90706114e+006 297.0000002893.0000 1759.8300 2895.0000 2128.2000 4.88052252e+005 1.91237201e+006 837.7936002726.8300 1586.6700 2724.4000 1977.8000 4.85937873e+005 1.91530778e+006 355.0000002375.4200 1377.5000 2373.6400 1769.5500 4.81185004e+005 1.91917590e+006 265.0000003911.4200 2038.9200 3908.2700 2434.9100 5.02525472e+005 1.90601895e+006 140.0000004174.3000 2303.3000 4172.3100 2699.5400 5.05859360e+005 1.90152187e+006 128.0000004090.3300 2101.5000 4087.4600 2496.4600 5.05044740e+005 1.90470073e+006 159.0000004260.1700 2109.5000 4257.9200 2504.5000 5.07551839e+005 1.90421171e+006 159.0000003974.6700 2538.1700 3972.7500 2933.3800 5.02385511e+005 1.89847072e+006 162.0000003948.5000 2530.4200 3947.0000 2925.6400 5.02017219e+005 1.89864221e+006 163.0000002773.9200 2188.0000 2772.3600 2575.5500 4.85333267e+005 1.90628038e+006 411.0000003823.5800 3500.1700 3820.6400 3896.2700 4.98043082e+005 1.88452355e+006 141.0000003330.0000 3398.1700 3328.2000 3786.0000 4.90945215e+005 1.88711158e+006 316.331400774.1700 4142.8300 773.0000 4535.3300 4.51415782e+005 1.88161993e+006 266.482900933.4200 4019.8300 931.1500 4410.6900 4.54039636e+005 1.88309991e+006 295.8862001569.1700 1208.9200 1568.8900 1565.6700 4.69625190e+005 1.92342489e+006 1195.3823001923.2500 623.0800 1921.0000 994.0000 4.76124029e+005 1.93135291e+006 970.0000002793.8300 1234.6700 2792.6000 1626.4000 4.87706997e+005 1.92038460e+006 260.0000004215.5000 776.1700 4212.9000 1171.9000 5.09789630e+005 1.92409699e+006 180.0000004350.5000 937.9200 4347.3600 1333.4300 5.11436295e+005 1.92140336e+006 159.0000003950.9200 1121.6700 3947.8600 1516.8600 5.05107970e+005 1.91954581e+006 174.0000004192.6700 1383.6700 4189.8600 1779.5700 5.08127220e+005 1.91513107e+006 153.0000004263.6000 1829.2000 4260.5000 2225.2900 5.08207942e+005 1.90836493e+006 141.0000004272.3300 3297.8300 4270.3600 3693.9300 5.05149019e+005 1.88654881e+006 126.0000001215.6000 1675.2000 1213.7900 2066.0000 4.63331973e+005 1.91728123e+006 270.0000001086.6700 3835.0800 1086.6400 4206.2900 4.56751541e+005 1.88550534e+006 839.3646002086.0000 3593.9200 2085.0000 3977.9300 4.72075459e+005 1.88691204e+006 426.4044001386.3100 1021.5400 1384.2100 1413.2100 4.67284343e+005 1.92661095e+006 260.000000853.0600 507.0600 856.0000 877.7300 4.60555170e+005 1.93539524e+006 960.000000475.7500 2196.4200 475.2700 2565.7300 4.51263048e+005 1.91114998e+006 903.000000815.9200 3065.0000 818.0900 3449.0000 4.54415742e+005 1.89752041e+006 640.0000001671.1700 2344.5000 1669.5500 2735.6400 4.68634337e+005 1.90635703e+006 350.0000001624.5800 2828.6700 1622.5500 3218.7300 4.66887015e+005 1.89927339e+006 280.0000003632.0800 761.9200 3630.1800 1155.8200 5.01167947e+005 1.92557733e+006 185.0000004300.0800 185.0000 4296.1800 580.5500 5.12321452e+005 1.93268782e+006 190.0000004209.6700 4099.8300 4207.7300 4495.5500 5.02473326e+005 1.87478297e+006 170.0000003372.8300 2534.1700 3371.2100 2923.5000 4.93463294e+005 1.89984011e+006 310.0000004298.6700 269.5000 4295.9300 663.0000 5.12122535e+005 1.93143567e+006 228.059000865.5000 4106.4200 863.5000 4499.2500 4.52843368e+005 1.88196243e+006 290.0000004180.1700 2199.0800 4177.0000 2595.1400 5.06164364e+005 1.90305720e+006 160.0000003949.3300 3444.3300 3947.0600 3838.8800 5.00033827e+005 1.88507823e+006 150.4894004108.0800 1186.0000 4104.0000 1582.0000 5.07293099e+005 1.91825018e+006 170.0000002662.3300 2852.4200 2663.4300 3199.4300 4.82247143e+005 1.89666272e+006 1456.4471001287.5000 3249.0000 1288.1500 3636.6900 4.60994025e+005 1.89376586e+006 327.085500478.5000 3541.3300 478.5700 3925.5700 4.48359528e+005 1.89118772e+006 485.4515003133.0000 4145.0000 3131.5700 4526.8600 4.86398038e+005 1.87645779e+006 526.930300816.1100 1702.8900 814.2900 2081.7100 4.57359746e+005 1.91773708e+006 585.387300690.4000 1149.8000 689.4300 1533.8600 4.56699563e+005 1.92621858e+006 455.785700912.3000 365.0000 909.2000 749.8000 4.61681955e+005 1.93738475e+006 459.1725001308.7000 2596.7000 1307.0000 2978.0000 4.62716114e+005 1.90340206e+006 490.8795002087.0000 1689.0000 2085.0000 2072.0000 4.76229192e+005 1.91518019e+006 418.8357002459.1000 1935.5000 2457.0000 2325.0000 4.81209482e+005 1.91071304e+006 226.7931002750.4000 516.2000 2749.0000 907.0000 4.81209482e+005 1.91071304e+006 226.7931003117.8600 3399.1400 3152.1000 3755.7000 4.88068827e+005 1.88752003e+006 400.0000002863.0000 4152.0000 2862.0000 4540.0000 4.82402484e+005 1.87693525e+006 480.000000596.6700 2818.3300 594.5000 3206.4200 4.51645849e+005 1.90166466e+006 350.000000485.1700 1546.9200 486.0000 1907.0000 4.52820977e+005 1.92076746e+006 1020.0000001734.0800 4017.0000 1732.0000 4403.0000 4.65930370e+005 1.88139736e+006 420.0000003899.0800 3765.0000 3896.5800 4159.0000 4.98613076e+005 1.88042455e+006 170.0000003889.8200 3829.0000 3886.5000 4223.1700 4.98329378e+005 1.87949591e+006 178.0000003958.4500 3017.6400 3955.5400 3412.4600 5.01118160e+005 1.89138736e+006 185.0000002762.0000 3366.0000 2765.0000 3729.0000 4.82700879e+005 1.88894164e+006 800.0000001233.8300 82.8200 1232.1100 458.4600 4.67080333e+005 1.94087182e+006 613.0000001975.0000 87.8200 1974.8500 462.0800 4.78078625e+005 1.93918227e+006 1047.0000003618.0900 73.9100 3615.7700 465.7700 5.02474839e+005 1.93581647e+006 230.0000002368.7300 508.4500 2366.5400 900.4600 4.82987104e+005 1.93208760e+006 260.0000002562.2700 650.3600 2561.3800 1041.6200 4.85560915e+005 1.92955851e+006 266.0000003146.7300 2201.5500 3144.3100 2593.3800 4.90848906e+005 1.90526589e+006 255.000000whole areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2No.HeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS - GPSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.11284.434.41183.41236.7-13.3176.91240.0-10.0100.02501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.22153.4-6.643.620.00.02150.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.23274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.34817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.05339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.26241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.67156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.48134.714.7216.180.00.080.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.09144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.210139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.511160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.412192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.113385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.614151.11.11.2140.00.014107.0-43.01849.015490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.415303.13.19.615303.03.09.015303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.916250.2-19.8392.0160.00.0160.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.117289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.6181198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.219967.17.150.419970.010.0100.019968.08.064.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.420244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.421182.82.87.8210.00.0210.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.022157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.423161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.824141.81.83.2240.00.0240.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.625158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.226121.91.93.6260.00.0260.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.727308.1-1.93.6270.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.428824.0-16.0256.0280.00.0280.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.729481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.029476.016.0256.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.430234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.231964.24.217.6310.00.0310.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.932899.1-0.90.8320.00.0320.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.133637.77.759.3330.00.0330.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.334441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.034375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.335274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.035274.0-6.036.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.036185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.737184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.038502,4731,874,783170140.90.00.0380.00.00.0380.00.00.0380.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.639303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.440192.42.45.8400.00.0400.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.641275.3-14.7216.1410.00.0410.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.442132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.543164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.244140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.9451476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0450.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.646299.49.488.4460.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.047412.0-8.064.0470.00.0470.048486,3981,876,458520501.30.00.0480.00.00.0480.00.0480.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.449612.512.5156.3490.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.650464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.050510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.351494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.0510.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.352507.517.5306.3520.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.853502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.053499.09.081.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.354314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.355235.95.934.8550.00.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.356386.7-3.310.9560.00.056387.0-3.09.057482,4021,876,935480380.10.00.0570.00.00.0570.00.00.0570.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.058353.7-6.339.7580.00.0580.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4591125.75.732.5590.00.0590.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.960422.8-17.2295.8600.00.060436.0-4.016.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.461178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.462188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.363161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.864907.87.860.864905.05.025.064900.00.00.065467,0801,940,8726100.00.00.0650.00.0650.00.0650.066478,0791,939,18210400.00.00.0660.00.0660.00.0660.067502,4751,935,816m2200.00.00.0670.00.0670.00.0670.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.368251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.769485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.469245.3-19.7388.1690.00.06924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areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AST- USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightGPS-ALOSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^22501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.2-48.8153.4-6.643.622150.0-10.0100.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.2-1.2241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.6-45.2156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.4-4.1134.714.7216.180.00.080.00.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.014.4144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.00.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.2-13.5139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.00.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.5-35.7160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.4-61.5192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.6-44.2151.11.11.2140.00.0140.00.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.1-4.4289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.00.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.4-54.0182.82.87.8210.00.0210.00.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.0-40.1157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.00.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.420.9161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.00.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.827.3141.81.83.2240.00.0240.00.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.6-10.5158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.00.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.2-28.0121.91.93.6260.00.0260.00.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.0-28.9185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.7-3.3184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.00.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.4-16.2192.42.45.8400.00.0400.00.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.4-16.6132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.00.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.5-59.8164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.225.4140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.00.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.4-35.9178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.00.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.4-76.4188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.00.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.3-51.2161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.071463894.5731913650.37f246.8256.69.896.8-27.2283.837.01372.064283.937.11379.464283.837.01372.072475438.7821883570.806f475.8456.9-18.9356.1-23.1480.04.217.965480.14.318.765480.04.217.973458952.6121894287.185f315.0305.2-9.896.2-10.4315.60.60.3660.066304.0-11.0121.274502463.5291898457.433f170.6123.7-46.92201.5-44.3168.0-2.66.9670.067123.0-47.62267.7Sum-737.836874.4lessSum-41.34733.5Sum45.82357.3Sum-93.58309.484Mean-25.41271.5moreMean-1.4163.2Mean5.7294.7Mean-7.8692.416Std25.435.7RSME12.8RSME17.2RSME16.826.3min-59.5100Std14.7min-11.0min-47.6max29.1min-27.2max37.1max37.0max37.0265254.0-11.0190193.03.0140141.41.4190180.0-10.0170196.426.4170164.5-5.5246.8283.937.1475.8480.14.317.3flat areaASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFusedPoint IDElevation (m)Flat Areamountain areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS-USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS-GPSPower^2alos - usgsNo.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^215490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.4-40.2303.13.19.615303.03.09.0-0.115303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.9-3.5250.2-19.8392.0160.00.00.0160.00.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.668.41198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0-2.5181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.271.1967.17.150.419970.010.0100.02.919968.08.064.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.7-51.8308.1-1.93.6270.00.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.4-3.4824.0-16.0256.0280.00.00.0280.00.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.7-40.2481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.0-11.529476.016.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.2-0.3964.24.217.6310.00.00.0310.00.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.992.6899.1-0.90.8320.00.00.0320.00.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.117.0637.77.759.3330.00.00.0330.00.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.3-5.0441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.0-94.534375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.3-31.9274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.013.835274.0-6.036.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.611.3275.3-14.7216.1410.00.00.0410.00.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.920.51476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0-6.2450.00.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.6-6.3299.49.488.4460.00.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.01.0412.0-8.064.0470.00.00.0470.00.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.40.4612.512.5156.3490.00.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.626.7464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.044.950510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.356.4494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.04.9510.00.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.3-15.2507.517.5306.3520.00.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.830.7502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.020.953499.09.081.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.3-6.4235.95.934.855000.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.3-44.4386.7-3.310.9560.00.00.056387.0-3.09.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.0-18.8353.7-6.339.7580.00.00.0580.00.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4125.51125.75.732.5590.00.00.0590.00.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.955.5422.8-17.2295.8600.00.00.060436.0-4.016.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.851.3907.87.860.864905.05.025.0-2.864900.00.00.069485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.40.9245.3-19.7388.1690.00.0-245.369244.0-21.0441.0Sum497.275575.2lessSum135.313739.9Sum150.05634.0Sum112.52969.2Min-53.742.9Min-19.8Min-13.0Min-21.0Max131.2Max81.5Max56.0Max30.0Mean17.8moreMean4.8Mean5.4Mean4.02699.157.1490.7512.2174.7RMSE52.0RMSE22.2RMSE22.6RMSE13.2100.0mountain areaASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation (m)Elevation Profile at Mountain Areawater areaALOSASTERUSGSFusedPoints IDElevation (m)Error Profile at Mountain areaTotalGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS - USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightGPS-ALOSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.1-44.1284.434.41183.410.00.01240.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.22.0274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.327.0817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.0-15.4339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.185.0385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.4-27.8244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.421.6234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.6-29.2303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.3-55.7314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.00.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.37.9251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.770490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.24.1235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.0Sum-127.714062.7lessSum-103.14035.8Sum-14.87014.8Sum-163.35455.145.5Mean-11.61278.4Mean-9.4366.9Mean-2.11002.1Mean-16.3545.5moreStd35.854.5Std19.2Std31.7Std23.4100.0TotalASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation (m)Water Areaappendix AGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS-USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS- GPSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.1-44.1284.434.41183.41236.7-13.3176.91240.0-10.0100.02501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.2-48.8153.4-6.643.620.00.02150.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.22.0274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.327.0817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.0-15.4339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.2-1.2241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.6-45.2156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.4-4.1134.714.7216.180.00.080.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.014.4144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.2-13.5139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.5-35.7160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.4-61.5192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.185.0385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.6-44.2151.11.11.2140.00.014107.0-43.01849.015490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.4-40.2303.13.19.615303.03.09.015303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.9-3.5250.2-19.8392.0160.00.0160.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.1-4.4289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.668.41198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.271.1967.17.150.419970.010.0100.019968.08.064.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.4-27.8244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.4-54.0182.82.87.8210.00.0210.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.0-40.1157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.420.9161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.827.3141.81.83.2240.00.0240.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.6-10.5158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.2-28.0121.91.93.6260.00.0260.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.7-51.8308.1-1.93.6270.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.4-3.4824.0-16.0256.0280.00.0280.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.7-40.2481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.029476.016.0256.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.421.6234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.2-0.3964.24.217.6310.00.0310.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.992.6899.1-0.90.8320.00.0320.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.117.0637.77.759.3330.00.0330.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.3-5.0441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.034375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.3-31.9274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.035274.0-6.036.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.0-28.9185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.7-3.3184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.00.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.6-29.2303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.4-16.2192.42.45.8400.00.0400.00.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.611.3275.3-14.7216.1410.00.0410.00.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.4-16.6132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.00.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.5-59.8164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.225.4140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.920.51476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0450.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.6-6.3299.49.488.4460.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.01.0412.0-8.064.0470.00.0470.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.40.4612.512.5156.3490.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.626.7464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.050510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.356.4494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.0510.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.3-15.2507.517.5306.3520.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.830.7502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.053499.09.081.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.3-55.7314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.3-6.4235.95.934.8550.00.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.3-44.4386.7-3.310.9560.00.056387.0-3.09.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.0-18.8353.7-6.339.7580.00.0580.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4125.51125.75.732.5590.00.0590.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.955.5422.8-17.2295.8600.00.060436.0-4.016.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.4-35.9178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.4-76.4188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.3-51.2161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.851.3907.87.860.864905.05.025.064900.00.00.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.37.9251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.769485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.40.9245.3-19.7388.1690.00.069244.0-21.0441.070490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.24.1235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.071463,8951,913,650f246.8256.69.896.871283.837.01372.071283.937.11379.4283.837.01372.072475,4391,883,571f475.8456.9-18.9356.172480.04.217.972480.14.318.7480.04.217.973458,9531,894,287f315.0305.2-9.896.273315.60.60.3730.00.0304.0-11.0121.274502,4641,898,457f170.6123.7-46.92201.574168.0-2.66.9740.00.0123.0-47.62267.7Sum-368.3126512.455.9Sum-9.123906.3Sum167.715183.0Sum-78.718582.6Mean-5.41860.538.2Mean-0.1351.6Mean6.2562.3Mean-2.0464.6Min-61.5Min-27.2Min-30.0Min-47.6Max131.2Max81.5Max65.0Max37.0RMSE43.194.1RMSE18.8RMSE23.7RMSE21.6SD43.1SD18.9SDSD26525676254166254928784240121-17-38144428927.50226939910756.3333333333997.75sd27.501515109831.5871809442rmseappendix A0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000GCPsASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation(m)Elevation profile00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ASTERUSGSALOSFused DataPoints IDElevation (m)Elevation ErrorAppendic A : The ground truth elevation of quality assessment of DEM extracted by check pointsPointGPSUSGSASTERALOS PRISMFUSEDRemarkID.ENHeightHeightResidualHeightResidualHeightResidualHeightResidual1497,1121,906,530250284.434.4240.3-9.7236.7-13.3240.0-10.0w2501,6431,906,154160153.4-6.6104.6-55.40.0150.0-10.0f3493,3441,907,061297274.6-22.4276.6-20.4267.0-30.0270.0-27.0w4488,0521,912,372810817.57.5844.534.5819.89.8829.419.4w5485,9381,915,308360339.4-20.6324.0-36.0334.0-26.0334.0-26.0w6481,1851,919,176265241.6-23.4240.4-24.6254.0-11.0253.3-11.7f7502,5251,906,019170156.0-14.0110.8-59.2150.0-20.0f8505,8591,901,522120134.714.7130.610.6f9505,0451,904,701160144.6-15.4159.0-1.0f10507,5521,904,212160139.6-20.4126.1-33.9f11502,3861,898,471160160.00.0124.3-35.7130.0-30.0f12502,0171,898,642160192.132.1130.6-29.4193.033.0f13485,3331,906,280410385.3-24.7470.360.3382.4-27.6366.0-44.0w14498,0431,884,524150151.11.1106.9-43.1107.0-43.0f15490,9451,887,112300303.13.1262.9-37.1303.03.0303.03.0m16451,4161,881,620270250.2-19.8246.7-23.3m17454,0401,883,100290289.7-0.3285.3-4.7f18469,6251,923,42511401198.558.51266.9126.91196.056.01157.017.0m19476,1241,931,353960967.17.11038.278.2970.010.0968.08.0m20487,7071,920,385260244.0-16.0216.2-43.8270.010.0234.0-26.0w21509,7901,924,097180182.82.8128.8-51.2f22511,4361,921,403160157.1-2.9117.0-43.0f23505,1081,919,546180161.2-18.8182.12.1f24508,1271,915,131140141.81.8169.129.1f25508,2081,908,365170158.9-11.1148.4-21.6f26505,1491,886,549120121.91.993.9-26.1f27463,3321,917,281310308.1-1.9256.3-53.7312.02.0m28456,7521,885,505840824.0-16.0820.6-19.4m29472,0751,886,912460481.521.5441.3-18.7470.010.0476.016.0m30467,2841,926,611250234.0-16.0255.65.6234.0-16.0234.0-16.0w31460,5551,935,395960964.24.2963.93.9m32451,2631,911,150900899.1-0.9991.791.7m33454,4161,897,520630637.77.7654.724.7m34468,6341,906,357360441.581.5436.576.5347.0-13.0375.515.5m35466,8871,899,273280274.2-5.8242.3-37.7288.08.0274.0-6.0m36501,1681,925,577190185.9-4.1157.0-33.0193.03.0192.62.6f37512,3211,932,688190184.6-5.4181.3-8.7f38493,4631,899,840310303.4-6.6274.2-35.8306.0-4.0w39512,1231,931,436190192.42.4176.2-13.8f40452,8431,881,962290275.3-14.7286.6-3.4m41506,1641,903,057160132.8-27.2116.2-43.8f42500,0341,885,078150164.114.1104.3-45.7107.0-43.0f43507,2931,918,250140140.00.0165.425.4141.41.4f44482,2471,896,66314601476.216.21496.736.71470.010.0m45460,9941,893,766290299.49.4293.13.1305.015.0m46448,3601,891,188420412.0-8.0413.0-7.0m47457,3601,917,737600612.512.5612.912.9612.012.0m48456,7001,926,219480464.1-15.9490.810.8509.029.0510.030.0m49461,6821,937,385500494.1-5.9550.550.5499.0-1.0m50462,7161,903,402490507.517.5492.32.3505.615.6m51476,2291,915,180490502.112.1532.842.8523.033.0499.09.0m52481,2091,910,713320314.2-5.8258.5-61.5385.065.0w53481,2091,910,713230235.95.9229.5-0.5233.43.4m54488,0691,887,520390386.7-3.3342.3-47.7387.0-3.0m55451,6461,901,665360353.7-6.3334.9-25.1m56452,8211,920,76711201125.75.71251.2131.2m57465,9301,881,397440422.8-17.2478.338.3436.0-4.0m58498,6131,880,425190178.0-12.0142.1-47.9180.0-10.0f59498,3291,879,496170188.518.5112.1-57.9196.426.4f60501,1181,891,387170161.7-8.3110.5-59.5164.5-5.5163.0-7.0f61482,7011,888,942900907.87.8959.159.1905.05.0900.0m62482,9871,932,088260251.6-8.4259.5-0.5256.3-3.7w63485,5611,929,559265245.3-19.7246.2-18.8244.0-21.0m64490,8491,905,266260235.5-24.5239.6-20.4234.0-26.0w65463,8951,913,650246.8283.837.0256.69.8283.937.1283.837.0f66475,4391,883,571475.8480.04.2456.9-18.9480.14.3480.04.2f67458,9531,894,287315.0315.60.6305.2-9.8304.0-11.0f68502,4641,898,457170.6168.0-2.6123.7-46.9123.0-47.6fRemarkmMountain areafFlat areawWater areaComparison of the elevation of the derived DEM with the check points ContdFuseMin-47.6Mean-7.8Max37.0RSME26.3Chart5-55.42-6.6-10-24.6-11-23.4-11.7-59.20-14-2010.6014.70-10-15.40-33.90-20.40-35.700-30-29.4032.133-43.101.10-4.70-0.30-51.202.80-430-2.902.10-18.8029.101.80-21.60-11.10-26.101.90-333-4.12.6-8.70-5.40-13.802.40-43.80-27.20-45.7014.1-4325.41.400-47.9-10-120-57.926.418.50-59.5-5.5-8.3-79.8437.1437.0437.04-18.874.334.234.23-9.81660.59-11.01-46.9267-2.62-47.62ASTERALOSUSGSFusePoints IDElevation (m)Error profile at Flat 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585.387300690.4000 1149.8000 689.4300 1533.8600 4.56699563e+005 1.92621858e+006 455.785700912.3000 365.0000 909.2000 749.8000 4.61681955e+005 1.93738475e+006 459.1725001308.7000 2596.7000 1307.0000 2978.0000 4.62716114e+005 1.90340206e+006 490.8795002087.0000 1689.0000 2085.0000 2072.0000 4.76229192e+005 1.91518019e+006 418.8357002459.1000 1935.5000 2457.0000 2325.0000 4.81209482e+005 1.91071304e+006 226.7931002750.4000 516.2000 2749.0000 907.0000 4.81209482e+005 1.91071304e+006 226.7931003117.8600 3399.1400 3152.1000 3755.7000 4.88068827e+005 1.88752003e+006 400.0000002863.0000 4152.0000 2862.0000 4540.0000 4.82402484e+005 1.87693525e+006 480.000000596.6700 2818.3300 594.5000 3206.4200 4.51645849e+005 1.90166466e+006 350.000000485.1700 1546.9200 486.0000 1907.0000 4.52820977e+005 1.92076746e+006 1020.0000001734.0800 4017.0000 1732.0000 4403.0000 4.65930370e+005 1.88139736e+006 420.0000003899.0800 3765.0000 3896.5800 4159.0000 4.98613076e+005 1.88042455e+006 170.0000003889.8200 3829.0000 3886.5000 4223.1700 4.98329378e+005 1.87949591e+006 178.0000003958.4500 3017.6400 3955.5400 3412.4600 5.01118160e+005 1.89138736e+006 185.0000002762.0000 3366.0000 2765.0000 3729.0000 4.82700879e+005 1.88894164e+006 800.0000001233.8300 82.8200 1232.1100 458.4600 4.67080333e+005 1.94087182e+006 613.0000001975.0000 87.8200 1974.8500 462.0800 4.78078625e+005 1.93918227e+006 1047.0000003618.0900 73.9100 3615.7700 465.7700 5.02474839e+005 1.93581647e+006 230.0000002368.7300 508.4500 2366.5400 900.4600 4.82987104e+005 1.93208760e+006 260.0000002562.2700 650.3600 2561.3800 1041.6200 4.85560915e+005 1.92955851e+006 266.0000003146.7300 2201.5500 3144.3100 2593.3800 4.90848906e+005 1.90526589e+006 255.000000whole areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2No.HeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS - GPSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.11284.434.41183.41236.7-13.3176.91240.0-10.0100.02501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.22153.4-6.643.620.00.02150.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.23274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.34817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.05339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.26241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.67156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.48134.714.7216.180.00.080.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.09144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.210139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.511160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.412192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.113385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.614151.11.11.2140.00.014107.0-43.01849.015490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.415303.13.19.615303.03.09.015303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.916250.2-19.8392.0160.00.0160.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.117289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.6181198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.219967.17.150.419970.010.0100.019968.08.064.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.420244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.421182.82.87.8210.00.0210.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.022157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.423161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.824141.81.83.2240.00.0240.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.625158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.226121.91.93.6260.00.0260.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.727308.1-1.93.6270.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.428824.0-16.0256.0280.00.0280.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.729481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.029476.016.0256.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.430234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.231964.24.217.6310.00.0310.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.932899.1-0.90.8320.00.0320.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.133637.77.759.3330.00.0330.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.334441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.034375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.335274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.035274.0-6.036.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.036185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.737184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.038502,4731,874,783170140.90.00.0380.00.00.0380.00.00.0380.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.639303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.440192.42.45.8400.00.0400.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.641275.3-14.7216.1410.00.0410.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.442132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.543164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.244140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.9451476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0450.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.646299.49.488.4460.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.047412.0-8.064.0470.00.0470.048486,3981,876,458520501.30.00.0480.00.00.0480.00.0480.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.449612.512.5156.3490.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.650464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.050510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.351494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.0510.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.352507.517.5306.3520.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.853502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.053499.09.081.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.354314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.355235.95.934.8550.00.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.356386.7-3.310.9560.00.056387.0-3.09.057482,4021,876,935480380.10.00.0570.00.00.0570.00.00.0570.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.058353.7-6.339.7580.00.0580.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4591125.75.732.5590.00.0590.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.960422.8-17.2295.8600.00.060436.0-4.016.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.461178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.462188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.363161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.864907.87.860.864905.05.025.064900.00.00.065467,0801,940,8726100.00.00.0650.00.0650.00.0650.066478,0791,939,18210400.00.00.0660.00.0660.00.0660.067502,4751,935,816m2200.00.00.0670.00.0670.00.0670.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.368251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.769485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.469245.3-19.7388.1690.00.069244.0-21.0441.070490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.270235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.071463894.5731913650.37f246.8256.69.896.871283.837.01372.071283.937.11379.4283.837.01372.072475438.7821883570.806f475.8456.9-18.9356.172480.04.217.972480.14.318.7480.04.217.973458952.6121894287.185f315.0305.2-9.896.273315.60.60.3730.00.0304.0-11.0121.274502463.5291898457.433f170.6123.7-46.92201.574168.0-2.66.9740.00.0123.0-47.62267.7Sum-368.3126512.4Sum-9.123906.3Sum167.715183.0Sum-197.318582.6Mean-5.41860.5Mean-0.1351.6Mean6.2562.3Mean-4.9464.6Std43.1Std18.8Std23.7Std21.6flat areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AST- USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightGPS-ALOSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^22501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.2-48.8153.4-6.643.622150.0-10.0100.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.2-1.2241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.6-45.2156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.4-4.1134.714.7216.180.00.080.00.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.014.4144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.00.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.2-13.5139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.00.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.5-35.7160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.4-61.5192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.6-44.2151.11.11.2140.00.0140.00.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.1-4.4289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.00.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.4-54.0182.82.87.8210.00.0210.00.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.0-40.1157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.00.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.420.9161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.00.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.827.3141.81.83.2240.00.0240.00.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.6-10.5158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.00.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.2-28.0121.91.93.6260.00.0260.00.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.0-28.9185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.7-3.3184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.00.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.4-16.2192.42.45.8400.00.0400.00.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.4-16.6132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.00.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.5-59.8164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.225.4140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.00.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.4-35.9178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.00.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.4-76.4188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.00.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.3-51.2161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.071463894.5731913650.37f246.8256.69.896.8-27.2283.837.01372.064283.937.11379.464283.837.01372.072475438.7821883570.806f475.8456.9-18.9356.1-23.1480.04.217.965480.14.318.765480.04.217.973458952.6121894287.185f315.0305.2-9.896.2-10.4315.60.60.3660.066304.0-11.0121.274502463.5291898457.433f170.6123.7-46.92201.5-44.3168.0-2.66.9670.067123.0-47.62267.7Sum-737.836874.4lessSum-41.34733.5Sum45.82357.3Sum-93.58309.4min-59.584min-27.2min-11.0min-47.6Mean-25.41271.5moreMean-1.4163.2Mean5.7294.7Mean-7.8692.4max29.116max37.0max37.1max37.0Std25.435.7RSME12.8RSME17.2RSME26.3100Std14.7std16.8265254.0-11.0190193.03.0140141.41.4190180.0-10.0170196.426.4170164.5-5.5246.8283.937.1475.8480.14.317.3flat areaASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFusedPoint IDElevation (m)Elevation Profile at Flat Areamountain areaASTERALOSUSGSFusePoints IDElevation (m)Error profile at Flat areawater areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS-USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS-GPSPower^2alos - usgsNo.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^215490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.4-40.2303.13.19.615303.03.09.0-0.115303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.9-3.5250.2-19.8392.0160.00.00.0160.00.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.668.41198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0-2.5181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.271.1967.17.150.419970.010.0100.02.919968.08.064.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.7-51.8308.1-1.93.6270.00.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.4-3.4824.0-16.0256.0280.00.00.0280.00.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.7-40.2481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.0-11.529476.016.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.2-0.3964.24.217.6310.00.00.0310.00.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.992.6899.1-0.90.8320.00.00.0320.00.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.117.0637.77.759.3330.00.00.0330.00.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.3-5.0441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.0-94.534375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.3-31.9274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.013.835274.0-6.036.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.611.3275.3-14.7216.1410.00.00.0410.00.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.920.51476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0-6.2450.00.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.6-6.3299.49.488.4460.00.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.01.0412.0-8.064.0470.00.00.0470.00.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.40.4612.512.5156.3490.00.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.626.7464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.044.950510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.356.4494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.04.9510.00.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.3-15.2507.517.5306.3520.00.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.830.7502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.020.953499.09.081.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.3-6.4235.95.934.855000.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.3-44.4386.7-3.310.9560.00.00.056387.0-3.09.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.0-18.8353.7-6.339.7580.00.00.0580.00.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4125.51125.75.732.5590.00.00.0590.00.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.955.5422.8-17.2295.8600.00.00.060436.0-4.016.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.851.3907.87.860.864905.05.025.0-2.864900.00.00.069485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.40.9245.3-19.7388.1690.00.0-245.369244.0-21.0441.0Sum497.275575.2Sum135.313739.9Sum150.05634.0Sum112.52969.2Min-53.7Min-19.8Min-13.0Min-21.0Max131.2Max81.5Max56.0Max30.0Mean17.8Mean4.8Mean5.4Mean4.02699.1490.7512.2174.7RMSE52.0RMSE22.2RMSE22.6RMSE13.2water areaASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation (m)Elevation Profile at Mountain AreaTotalALOSASTERUSGSFusedPoints IDElevation (m)Error Profile at Mountain areaappendix AGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS - USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightGPS-ALOSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.1-44.1284.434.41183.410.00.01240.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.22.0274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.327.0817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.0-15.4339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.185.0385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.4-27.8244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.421.6234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.6-29.2303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.3-55.7314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.00.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.37.9251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.770490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.24.1235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.0Sum-127.714062.7lessSum-103.14035.8Sum-14.87014.8Sum-163.35455.145.5Mean-11.61278.4Mean-9.4366.9Mean-2.11002.1Mean-16.3545.5moreStd35.854.5Std19.2Std31.7Std23.4100.0appendix AASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation (m)Water AreaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS-USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS- GPSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.1-44.1284.434.41183.41236.7-13.3176.91240.0-10.0100.02501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.2-48.8153.4-6.643.620.00.02150.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.22.0274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.327.0817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.0-15.4339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.2-1.2241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.6-45.2156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.4-4.1134.714.7216.180.00.080.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.014.4144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.2-13.5139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.5-35.7160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.4-61.5192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.185.0385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.6-44.2151.11.11.2140.00.014107.0-43.01849.015490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.4-40.2303.13.19.615303.03.09.015303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.9-3.5250.2-19.8392.0160.00.0160.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.1-4.4289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.668.41198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.271.1967.17.150.419970.010.0100.019968.08.064.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.4-27.8244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.4-54.0182.82.87.8210.00.0210.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.0-40.1157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.420.9161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.827.3141.81.83.2240.00.0240.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.6-10.5158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.2-28.0121.91.93.6260.00.0260.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.7-51.8308.1-1.93.6270.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.4-3.4824.0-16.0256.0280.00.0280.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.7-40.2481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.029476.016.0256.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.421.6234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.2-0.3964.24.217.6310.00.0310.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.992.6899.1-0.90.8320.00.0320.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.117.0637.77.759.3330.00.0330.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.3-5.0441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.034375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.3-31.9274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.035274.0-6.036.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.0-28.9185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.7-3.3184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.00.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.6-29.2303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.4-16.2192.42.45.8400.00.0400.00.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.611.3275.3-14.7216.1410.00.0410.00.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.4-16.6132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.00.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.5-59.8164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.225.4140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.920.51476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0450.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.6-6.3299.49.488.4460.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.01.0412.0-8.064.0470.00.0470.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.40.4612.512.5156.3490.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.626.7464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.050510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.356.4494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.0510.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.3-15.2507.517.5306.3520.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.830.7502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.053499.09.081.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.3-55.7314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.3-6.4235.95.934.8550.00.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.3-44.4386.7-3.310.9560.00.056387.0-3.09.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.0-18.8353.7-6.339.7580.00.0580.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4125.51125.75.732.5590.00.0590.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.955.5422.8-17.2295.8600.00.060436.0-4.016.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.4-35.9178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.4-76.4188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.3-51.2161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.851.3907.87.860.864905.05.025.064900.00.00.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.37.9251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.769485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.40.9245.3-19.7388.1690.00.069244.0-21.0441.070490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.24.1235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.071463,8951,913,650f246.8256.69.896.871283.837.01372.071283.937.11379.4283.837.01372.072475,4391,883,571f475.8456.9-18.9356.172480.04.217.972480.14.318.7480.04.217.973458,9531,894,287f315.0305.2-9.896.273315.60.60.3730.00.0304.0-11.0121.274502,4641,898,457f170.6123.7-46.92201.574168.0-2.66.9740.00.0123.0-47.62267.7Sum-368.3126512.455.9Sum-9.123906.3Sum167.715183.0Sum-78.718582.6Mean-5.41860.538.2Mean-0.1351.6Mean6.2562.3Mean-2.0464.6Min-61.5Min-27.2Min-30.0Min-47.6Max131.2Max81.5Max65.0Max37.0RMSE43.194.1RMSE18.8RMSE23.7RMSE21.6SD43.1SD18.9SDSD26525676254166254928784240121-17-38144428927.50226939910756.3333333333997.75sd27.501515109831.5871809442rmse0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000GCPsASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation(m)Elevation profile00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ASTERUSGSALOSFused DataPoints IDElevation (m)Elevation ErrorAppendic A : The ground truth elevation of quality assessment of DEM extracted by check pointsPointGPSUSGSASTERALOS PRISMFUSEDRemarkID.ENHeightHeightResidualHeightResidualHeightResidualHeightResidual1497,1121,906,530250284.434.4240.3-9.7236.7-13.3240.0-10.0w2501,6431,906,154160153.4-6.6104.6-55.40.0150.0-10.0f3493,3441,907,061297274.6-22.4276.6-20.4267.0-30.0270.0-27.0w4488,0521,912,372810817.57.5844.534.5819.89.8829.419.4w5485,9381,915,308360339.4-20.6324.0-36.0334.0-26.0334.0-26.0w6481,1851,919,176265241.6-23.4240.4-24.6254.0-11.0253.3-11.7f7502,5251,906,019170156.0-14.0110.8-59.2150.0-20.0f8505,8591,901,522120134.714.7130.610.6f9505,0451,904,701160144.6-15.4159.0-1.0f10507,5521,904,212160139.6-20.4126.1-33.9f11502,3861,898,471160160.00.0124.3-35.7130.0-30.0f12502,0171,898,642160192.132.1130.6-29.4193.033.0f13485,3331,906,280410385.3-24.7470.360.3382.4-27.6366.0-44.0w14498,0431,884,524150151.11.1106.9-43.1107.0-43.0f15490,9451,887,112300303.13.1262.9-37.1303.03.0303.03.0m16451,4161,881,620270250.2-19.8246.7-23.3m17454,0401,883,100290289.7-0.3285.3-4.7f18469,6251,923,42511401198.558.51266.9126.91196.056.01157.017.0m19476,1241,931,353960967.17.11038.278.2970.010.0968.08.0m20487,7071,920,385260244.0-16.0216.2-43.8270.010.0234.0-26.0w21509,7901,924,097180182.82.8128.8-51.2f22511,4361,921,403160157.1-2.9117.0-43.0f23505,1081,919,546180161.2-18.8182.12.1f24508,1271,915,131140141.81.8169.129.1f25508,2081,908,365170158.9-11.1148.4-21.6f26505,1491,886,549120121.91.993.9-26.1f27463,3321,917,281310308.1-1.9256.3-53.7312.02.0m28456,7521,885,505840824.0-16.0820.6-19.4m29472,0751,886,912460481.521.5441.3-18.7470.010.0476.016.0m30467,2841,926,611250234.0-16.0255.65.6234.0-16.0234.0-16.0w31460,5551,935,395960964.24.2963.93.9m32451,2631,911,150900899.1-0.9991.791.7m33454,4161,897,520630637.77.7654.724.7m34468,6341,906,357360441.581.5436.576.5347.0-13.0375.515.5m35466,8871,899,273280274.2-5.8242.3-37.7288.08.0274.0-6.0m36501,1681,925,577190185.9-4.1157.0-33.0193.03.0192.62.6f37512,3211,932,688190184.6-5.4181.3-8.7f38493,4631,899,840310303.4-6.6274.2-35.8306.0-4.0w39512,1231,931,436190192.42.4176.2-13.8f40452,8431,881,962290275.3-14.7286.6-3.4m41506,1641,903,057160132.8-27.2116.2-43.8f42500,0341,885,078150164.114.1104.3-45.7107.0-43.0f43507,2931,918,250140140.00.0165.425.4141.41.4f44482,2471,896,66314601476.216.21496.736.71470.010.0m45460,9941,893,766290299.49.4293.13.1305.015.0m46448,3601,891,188420412.0-8.0413.0-7.0m47457,3601,917,737600612.512.5612.912.9612.012.0m48456,7001,926,219480464.1-15.9490.810.8509.029.0510.030.0m49461,6821,937,385500494.1-5.9550.550.5499.0-1.0m50462,7161,903,402490507.517.5492.32.3505.615.6m51476,2291,915,180490502.112.1532.842.8523.033.0499.09.0m52481,2091,910,713320314.2-5.8258.5-61.5385.065.0w53481,2091,910,713230235.95.9229.5-0.5233.43.4m54488,0691,887,520390386.7-3.3342.3-47.7387.0-3.0m55451,6461,901,665360353.7-6.3334.9-25.1m56452,8211,920,76711201125.75.71251.2131.2m57465,9301,881,397440422.8-17.2478.338.3436.0-4.0m58498,6131,880,425190178.0-12.0142.1-47.9180.0-10.0f59498,3291,879,496170188.518.5112.1-57.9196.426.4f60501,1181,891,387170161.7-8.3110.5-59.5164.5-5.5163.0-7.0f61482,7011,888,942900907.87.8959.159.1905.05.0900.0m62482,9871,932,088260251.6-8.4259.5-0.5256.3-3.7w63485,5611,929,559265245.3-19.7246.2-18.8244.0-21.0m64490,8491,905,266260235.5-24.5239.6-20.4234.0-26.0w65463,8951,913,650246.8283.837.0256.69.8283.937.1283.837.0f66475,4391,883,571475.8480.04.2456.9-18.9480.14.3480.04.2f67458,9531,894,287315.0315.60.6305.2-9.8304.0-11.0f68502,4641,898,457170.6168.0-2.6123.7-46.9123.0-47.6fRemarkmMountain areafFlat areawWater areaComparison of the elevation of the derived DEM with the check points ContdFuseMin-44.0Mean-14.8Max19.4RSME23.4Chart1240.3284.4250240276.6274.6297267270844.5817.5810819.8829.4324339.4360334334470.3385.3410382.4366216.2244260270234255.6234250234234274.2303.4310306258.5314.2320385259.5251.6260256.3239.6235.5260234ASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation (m)Water 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GPSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.11284.434.41183.41236.7-13.3176.91240.0-10.0100.02501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.22153.4-6.643.620.00.02150.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.23274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.34817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.05339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.26241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.67156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.48134.714.7216.180.00.080.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.09144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.210139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.511160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.412192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.113385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.614151.11.11.2140.00.014107.0-43.01849.015490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.415303.13.19.615303.03.09.015303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.916250.2-19.8392.0160.00.0160.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.117289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.6181198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.219967.17.150.419970.010.0100.019968.08.064.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.420244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.421182.82.87.8210.00.0210.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.022157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.423161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.824141.81.83.2240.00.0240.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.625158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.226121.91.93.6260.00.0260.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.727308.1-1.93.6270.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.428824.0-16.0256.0280.00.0280.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.729481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.029476.016.0256.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.430234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.231964.24.217.6310.00.0310.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.932899.1-0.90.8320.00.0320.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.133637.77.759.3330.00.0330.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.334441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.034375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.335274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.035274.0-6.036.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.036185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.737184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.038502,4731,874,783170140.90.00.0380.00.00.0380.00.00.0380.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.639303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.440192.42.45.8400.00.0400.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.641275.3-14.7216.1410.00.0410.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.442132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.543164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.244140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.9451476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0450.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.646299.49.488.4460.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.047412.0-8.064.0470.00.0470.048486,3981,876,458520501.30.00.0480.00.00.0480.00.0480.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.449612.512.5156.3490.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.650464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.050510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.351494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.0510.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.352507.517.5306.3520.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.853502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.053499.09.081.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.354314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.355235.95.934.8550.00.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.356386.7-3.310.9560.00.056387.0-3.09.057482,4021,876,935480380.10.00.0570.00.00.0570.00.00.0570.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.058353.7-6.339.7580.00.0580.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4591125.75.732.5590.00.0590.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.960422.8-17.2295.8600.00.060436.0-4.016.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.461178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.462188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.363161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.864907.87.860.864905.05.025.064900.00.00.065467,0801,940,8726100.00.00.0650.00.0650.00.0650.066478,0791,939,18210400.00.00.0660.00.0660.00.0660.067502,4751,935,816m2200.00.00.0670.00.0670.00.0670.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.368251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.769485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.469245.3-19.7388.1690.00.069244.0-21.0441.070490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.270235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.071463894.5731913650.37f246.8256.69.896.871283.837.01372.071283.937.11379.4283.837.01372.072475438.7821883570.806f475.8456.9-18.9356.172480.04.217.972480.14.318.7480.04.217.973458952.6121894287.185f315.0305.2-9.896.273315.60.60.3730.00.0304.0-11.0121.274502463.5291898457.433f170.6123.7-46.92201.574168.0-2.66.9740.00.0123.0-47.62267.7Sum-368.3126512.4Sum-9.123906.3Sum167.715183.0Sum-197.318582.6Mean-5.41860.5Mean-0.1351.6Mean6.2562.3Mean-4.9464.6Std43.1Std18.8Std23.7Std21.6flat areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AST- USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightGPS-ALOSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^22501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.2-48.8153.4-6.643.622150.0-10.0100.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.2-1.2241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.6-45.2156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.4-4.1134.714.7216.180.00.080.00.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.014.4144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.00.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.2-13.5139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.00.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.5-35.7160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.4-61.5192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.6-44.2151.11.11.2140.00.0140.00.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.1-4.4289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.00.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.4-54.0182.82.87.8210.00.0210.00.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.0-40.1157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.00.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.420.9161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.00.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.827.3141.81.83.2240.00.0240.00.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.6-10.5158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.00.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.2-28.0121.91.93.6260.00.0260.00.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.0-28.9185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.7-3.3184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.00.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.4-16.2192.42.45.8400.00.0400.00.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.4-16.6132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.00.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.5-59.8164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.225.4140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.00.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.4-35.9178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.00.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.4-76.4188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.00.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.3-51.2161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.071463894.5731913650.37f246.8256.69.896.8-27.2283.837.01372.064283.937.11379.464283.837.01372.072475438.7821883570.806f475.8456.9-18.9356.1-23.1480.04.217.965480.14.318.765480.04.217.973458952.6121894287.185f315.0305.2-9.896.2-10.4315.60.60.3660.066304.0-11.0121.274502463.5291898457.433f170.6123.7-46.92201.5-44.3168.0-2.66.9670.067123.0-47.62267.7Sum-737.836874.4lessSum-41.34733.5Sum45.82357.3Sum-93.58309.4min-59.584min-27.2min-11.0min-47.6Mean-25.41271.5moreMean-1.4163.2Mean5.7294.7Mean-7.8692.4max29.116max37.0max37.1max37.0RSME35.7RSME12.8RSME17.2RSME26.3Std25.4100Std14.7std16.8265254.0-11.0190193.03.0140141.41.4190180.0-10.0170196.426.4170164.5-5.5246.8283.937.1475.8480.14.317.3flat area0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFusedPoint IDElevation (m)Elevation Profile at Flat Areamountain area00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ASTERALOSUSGSFusePoints IDElevation (m)Error profile at Flat areawater areaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS-USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS-GPSPower^2alos - usgsNo.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^215490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.4-40.2303.13.19.615303.03.09.0-0.115303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.9-3.5250.2-19.8392.0160.00.00.0160.00.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.668.41198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0-2.5181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.271.1967.17.150.419970.010.0100.02.919968.08.064.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.7-51.8308.1-1.93.6270.00.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.4-3.4824.0-16.0256.0280.00.00.0280.00.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.7-40.2481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.0-11.529476.016.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.2-0.3964.24.217.6310.00.00.0310.00.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.992.6899.1-0.90.8320.00.00.0320.00.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.117.0637.77.759.3330.00.00.0330.00.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.3-5.0441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.0-94.534375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.3-31.9274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.013.835274.0-6.036.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.611.3275.3-14.7216.1410.00.00.0410.00.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.920.51476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0-6.2450.00.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.6-6.3299.49.488.4460.00.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.01.0412.0-8.064.0470.00.00.0470.00.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.40.4612.512.5156.3490.00.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.626.7464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.044.950510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.356.4494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.04.9510.00.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.3-15.2507.517.5306.3520.00.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.830.7502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.020.953499.09.081.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.3-6.4235.95.934.855000.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.3-44.4386.7-3.310.9560.00.00.056387.0-3.09.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.0-18.8353.7-6.339.7580.00.00.0580.00.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4125.51125.75.732.5590.00.00.0590.00.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.955.5422.8-17.2295.8600.00.00.060436.0-4.016.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.851.3907.87.860.864905.05.025.0-2.864900.00.00.069485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.40.9245.3-19.7388.1690.00.0-245.369244.0-21.0441.0Sum497.275575.2Sum135.313739.9Sum150.05634.0Sum112.52969.2Min-53.7Min-19.8Min-13.0Min-21.0Max131.2Max81.5Max56.0Max30.0Mean17.8Mean4.8Mean5.4Mean4.02699.1490.7512.2174.7RMSE52.0RMSE22.2RMSE22.6RMSE13.2water area00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation (m)Elevation Profile at Mountain AreaTotal0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ALOSASTERUSGSFusedPoints IDElevation (m)Error Profile at Mountain areaappendix AGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS - USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightGPS-ALOSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.1-44.1284.434.41183.410.00.01240.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.22.0274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.327.0817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.0-15.4339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.185.0385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.4-27.8244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.421.6234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.6-29.2303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.3-55.7314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.00.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.37.9251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.770490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.24.1235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.0Sum-127.714062.7lessSum-103.14035.8Sum-14.87014.8Sum-163.35455.145.5Mean-11.61278.4Mean-9.4366.9Mean-2.11002.1Mean-16.3545.5moreStd35.854.5Std19.2Std31.7Std23.4100.0appendix AASTERUSGSGCPsALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation (m)Water AreaGPSASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDNo.ENremarkHeightHeightGPS-ASTERPower^2AS-USHeightGPS-USGSPower^2No.HeightALOS- GPSPower^2No.HeightGPS-FUSEDPower^21497,1121,906,530w250240.3-9.794.1-44.1284.434.41183.41236.7-13.3176.91240.0-10.0100.02501,6431,906,154f160104.6-55.43069.2-48.8153.4-6.643.620.00.02150.0-10.0100.03493,3441,907,061w297276.6-20.4416.22.0274.6-22.4501.83267.0-30.0900.03270.0-27.0729.04488,0521,912,372w810844.534.51190.327.0817.57.556.34819.89.896.04829.419.4376.45485,9381,915,308w360324.0-36.01296.0-15.4339.4-20.6424.45334.0-26.0676.05334.0-26.0676.06481,1851,919,176f265240.4-24.6605.2-1.2241.6-23.4547.66254.0-11.0121.06253.3-11.7136.97502,5251,906,019f170110.8-59.23504.6-45.2156.0-14.0196.070.00.07150.0-20.0400.08505,8591,901,522f120130.610.6112.4-4.1134.714.7216.180.00.080.09505,0451,904,701f160159.0-1.01.014.4144.6-15.4237.290.00.090.010507,5521,904,212f160126.1-33.91149.2-13.5139.6-20.4416.2100.00.0100.011502,3861,898,471f160124.3-35.71274.5-35.7160.00.00.0110.00.011130.0-30.0900.012502,0171,898,642f160130.6-29.4864.4-61.5192.132.11030.4120.00.012193.033.01089.013485,3331,906,280w410470.360.33636.185.0385.3-24.7610.113382.4-27.6761.813366.0-44.01936.014498,0431,884,524f150106.9-43.11857.6-44.2151.11.11.2140.00.014107.0-43.01849.015490,9451,887,112m300262.9-37.11376.4-40.2303.13.19.615303.03.09.015303.03.09.016451,4161,881,620m270246.7-23.3542.9-3.5250.2-19.8392.0160.00.0160.017454,0401,883,100f290285.3-4.722.1-4.4289.7-0.30.1170.00.0170.018469,6251,923,425m11401266.9126.916103.668.41198.558.53422.3181196.056.03136.0181157.017.0289.019476,1241,931,353m9601038.278.26115.271.1967.17.150.419970.010.0100.019968.08.064.020487,7071,920,385w260216.2-43.81918.4-27.8244.0-16.0256.020270.010.0100.020234.0-26.0676.021509,7901,924,097f180128.8-51.22621.4-54.0182.82.87.8210.00.0210.022511,4361,921,403f160117.0-43.01849.0-40.1157.1-2.98.4220.00.0220.023505,1081,919,546f180182.12.14.420.9161.2-18.8353.4230.00.0230.024508,1271,915,131f140169.129.1846.827.3141.81.83.2240.00.0240.025508,2081,908,365f170148.4-21.6466.6-10.5158.9-11.1123.2250.00.0250.026505,1491,886,549f12093.9-26.1681.2-28.0121.91.93.6260.00.0260.027463,3321,917,281m310256.3-53.72883.7-51.8308.1-1.93.6270.00.027312.02.04.028456,7521,885,505m840820.6-19.4376.4-3.4824.0-16.0256.0280.00.0280.029472,0751,886,912m460441.3-18.7349.7-40.2481.521.5462.329470.010.0100.029476.016.0256.030467,2841,926,611w250255.65.631.421.6234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.030234.0-16.0256.031460,5551,935,395m960963.93.915.2-0.3964.24.217.6310.00.0310.032451,2631,911,150m900991.791.78408.992.6899.1-0.90.8320.00.0320.033454,4161,897,520m630654.724.7610.117.0637.77.759.3330.00.0330.034468,6341,906,357m360436.576.55852.3-5.0441.581.56642.334347.0-13.0169.034375.515.5240.335466,8871,899,273m280242.3-37.71421.3-31.9274.2-5.833.635288.08.064.035274.0-6.036.036501,1681,925,577f190157.0-33.01089.0-28.9185.9-4.116.836193.03.09.036192.62.66.837512,3211,932,688f190181.3-8.775.7-3.3184.6-5.429.2370.00.0370.00.039493,4631,899,840w310274.2-35.81281.6-29.2303.4-6.643.6390.00.039306.0-4.016.040512,1231,931,436f190176.2-13.8190.4-16.2192.42.45.8400.00.0400.00.041452,8431,881,962m290286.6-3.411.611.3275.3-14.7216.1410.00.0410.00.042506,1641,903,057f160116.2-43.81918.4-16.6132.8-27.2739.8420.00.0420.00.043500,0341,885,078f150104.3-45.72088.5-59.8164.114.1198.8430.00.043107.0-43.01849.044507,2931,918,250f140165.425.4645.225.4140.00.00.044141.41.42.0440.045482,2471,896,663m14601496.736.71346.920.51476.216.2262.4451470.010.0100.0450.046460,9941,893,766m290293.13.19.6-6.3299.49.488.4460.00.046305.015.0225.047448,3601,891,188m420413.0-7.049.01.0412.0-8.064.0470.00.0470.049457,3601,917,737m600612.912.9166.40.4612.512.5156.3490.00.049612.012.0144.050456,7001,926,219m480490.810.8116.626.7464.1-15.9252.850509.029.0841.050510.030.0900.051461,6821,937,385m500550.550.52550.356.4494.1-5.934.851499.0-1.01.0510.052462,7161,903,402m490492.32.35.3-15.2507.517.5306.3520.00.052505.615.6243.453476,2291,915,180m490532.842.81831.830.7502.112.1146.453523.033.01089.053499.09.081.054481,2091,910,713w320258.5-61.53782.3-55.7314.2-5.833.654385.065.04225.0540.055481,2091,910,713m230229.5-0.50.3-6.4235.95.934.8550.00.055233.43.411.656488,0691,887,520m390342.3-47.72275.3-44.4386.7-3.310.9560.00.056387.0-3.09.058451,6461,901,665m360334.9-25.1630.0-18.8353.7-6.339.7580.00.0580.059452,8211,920,767m11201251.2131.217213.4125.51125.75.732.5590.00.0590.060465,9301,881,397m440478.338.31466.955.5422.8-17.2295.8600.00.060436.0-4.016.061498,6131,880,425f190142.1-47.92294.4-35.9178.0-12.0144.061180.0-10.0100.0610.062498,3291,879,496f170112.1-57.93352.4-76.4188.518.5342.362196.426.4697.0620.063501,1181,891,387f170110.5-59.53540.3-51.2161.7-8.368.963164.5-5.530.363163.0-7.049.064482,7011,888,942m900959.159.13492.851.3907.87.860.864905.05.025.064900.00.00.068482,9871,932,088w260259.5-0.50.37.9251.6-8.470.6680.00.068256.3-3.713.769485,5611,929,559m265246.2-18.8353.40.9245.3-19.7388.1690.00.069244.0-21.0441.070490,8491,905,266w260239.6-20.4416.24.1235.5-24.5600.3700.00.070234.0-26.0676.071463,8951,913,650f246.8256.69.896.871283.837.01372.071283.937.11379.4283.837.01372.072475,4391,883,571f475.8456.9-18.9356.172480.04.217.972480.14.318.7480.04.217.973458,9531,894,287f315.0305.2-9.896.273315.60.60.3730.00.0304.0-11.0121.274502,4641,898,457f170.6123.7-46.92201.574168.0-2.66.9740.00.0123.0-47.62267.7Sum-368.3126512.455.9Sum-9.123906.3Sum167.715183.0Sum-78.718582.6Mean-5.41860.538.2Mean-0.1351.6Mean6.2562.3Mean-2.0464.6Min-61.5Min-27.2Min-30.0Min-47.6Max131.2Max81.5Max65.0Max37.0RMSE43.194.1RMSE18.8RMSE23.7RMSE21.6SD43.1SD18.9SDSD26525676254166254928784240121-17-38144428927.50226939910756.3333333333997.75sd27.501515109831.5871809442rmseGCPsASTERUSGSALOSFUSEDPoint IDElevation(m)Elevation profileASTERUSGSALOSFused DataPoints IDElevation (m)Elevation ErrorAppendic A : The ground truth elevation of quality assessment of DEM extracted by check pointsPointGPSUSGSASTERALOS PRISMFUSEDRemarkID.ENHeightHeightResidualHeightResidualHeightResidualHeightResidual1497,1121,906,530250284.434.4240.3-9.7236.7-13.3240.0-10.0w2501,6431,906,154160153.4-6.6104.6-55.40.0150.0-10.0f3493,3441,907,061297274.6-22.4276.6-20.4267.0-30.0270.0-27.0w4488,0521,912,372810817.57.5844.534.5819.89.8829.419.4w5485,9381,915,308360339.4-20.6324.0-36.0334.0-26.0334.0-26.0w6481,1851,919,176265241.6-23.4240.4-24.6254.0-11.0253.3-11.7f7502,5251,906,019170156.0-14.0110.8-59.2150.0-20.0f8505,8591,901,522120134.714.7130.610.6f9505,0451,904,701160144.6-15.4159.0-1.0f10507,5521,904,212160139.6-20.4126.1-33.9f11502,3861,898,471160160.00.0124.3-35.7130.0-30.0f12502,0171,898,642160192.132.1130.6-29.4193.033.0f13485,3331,906,280410385.3-24.7470.360.3382.4-27.6366.0-44.0w14498,0431,884,524150151.11.1106.9-43.1107.0-43.0f15490,9451,887,112300303.13.1262.9-37.1303.03.0303.03.0m16451,4161,881,620270250.2-19.8246.7-23.3m17454,0401,883,100290289.7-0.3285.3-4.7f18469,6251,923,42511401198.558.51266.9126.91196.056.01157.017.0m19476,1241,931,353960967.17.11038.278.2970.010.0968.08.0m20487,7071,920,385260244.0-16.0216.2-43.8270.010.0234.0-26.0w21509,7901,924,097180182.82.8128.8-51.2f22511,4361,921,403160157.1-2.9117.0-43.0f23505,1081,919,546180161.2-18.8182.12.1f24508,1271,915,131140141.81.8169.129.1f25508,2081,908,365170158.9-11.1148.4-21.6f26505,1491,886,549120121.91.993.9-26.1f27463,3321,917,281310308.1-1.9256.3-53.7312.02.0m28456,7521,885,505840824.0-16.0820.6-19.4m29472,0751,886,912460481.521.5441.3-18.7470.010.0476.016.0m30467,2841,926,611250234.0-16.0255.65.6234.0-16.0234.0-16.0w31460,5551,935,395960964.24.2963.93.9m32451,2631,911,150900899.1-0.9991.791.7m33454,4161,897,520630637.77.7654.724.7m34468,6341,906,357360441.581.5436.576.5347.0-13.0375.515.5m35466,8871,899,273280274.2-5.8242.3-37.7288.08.0274.0-6.0m36501,1681,925,577190185.9-4.1157.0-33.0193.03.0192.62.6f37512,3211,932,688190184.6-5.4181.3-8.7f38493,4631,899,840310303.4-6.6274.2-35.8306.0-4.0w39512,1231,931,436190192.42.4176.2-13.8f40452,8431,881,962290275.3-14.7286.6-3.4m41506,1641,903,057160132.8-27.2116.2-43.8f42500,0341,885,078150164.114.1104.3-45.7107.0-43.0f43507,2931,918,250140140.00.0165.425.4141.41.4f44482,2471,896,66314601476.216.21496.736.71470.010.0m45460,9941,893,766290299.49.4293.13.1305.015.0m46448,3601,891,188420412.0-8.0413.0-7.0m47457,3601,917,737600612.512.5612.912.9612.012.0m48456,7001,926,219480464.1-15.9490.810.8509.029.0510.030.0m49461,6821,937,385500494.1-5.9550.550.5499.0-1.0m50462,7161,903,402490507.517.5492.32.3505.615.6m51476,2291,915,180490502.112.1532.842.8523.033.0499.09.0m52481,2091,910,713320314.2-5.8258.5-61.5385.065.0w53481,2091,910,713230235.95.9229.5-0.5233.43.4m54488,0691,887,520390386.7-3.3342.3-47.7387.0-3.0m55451,6461,901,665360353.7-6.3334.9-25.1m56452,8211,920,76711201125.75.71251.2131.2m57465,9301,881,397440422.8-17.2478.338.3436.0-4.0m58498,6131,880,425190178.0-12.0142.1-47.9180.0-10.0f59498,3291,879,496170188.518.5112.1-57.9196.426.4f60501,1181,891,387170161.7-8.3110.5-59.5164.5-5.5163.0-7.0f61482,7011,888,942900907.87.8959.159.1905.05.0900.0m62482,9871,932,088260251.6-8.4259.5-0.5256.3-3.7w63485,5611,929,559265245.3-19.7246.2-18.8244.0-21.0m64490,8491,905,266260235.5-24.5239.6-20.4234.0-26.0w65463,8951,913,650246.8283.837.0256.69.8283.937.1283.837.0f66475,4391,883,571475.8480.04.2456.9-18.9480.14.3480.04.2f67458,9531,894,287315.0315.60.6305.2-9.8304.0-11.0f68502,4641,898,457170.6168.0-2.6123.7-46.9123.0-47.6fRemarkmMountain areafFlat areawWater areaComparison of the elevation of the derived DEM with the check points ContdIntroductionMethodologyResult of this studyConclusion Presentation Outline Conclusion - The quality of ALOS PRISM DEM result is fitted to the referenced DEM. The drainage networks of ALOS PRISM are likely fitted to the referenced dataset.ALOS PRISM DEM at finer resolution present more detailed features. Fused data are more useful for the lack of data and the damaging terrain surface.Recommendation for Further researches - Satellite Image should be free cloud for DEM generationThe quality of DEM result depend on the number of GCPs- User must concern the source of data to generate DEM. - Apply to use in other area.THANK YOU VERY MUCHUsgs m1, fused m1, alos, asterfused m1fused m1fused m1Usgs 3-6, aster 3-6,Usgs 3-6, aster 3-6,aster 5-1, alos aster 5-1, alos aster 5-1, alos

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