From Typing to Swiping: A Brief History of Interaction Design

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  • FROM TYPING TO SWIPINGA Brief History of Interaction Design

  • 2

    HOW WE TALK TO COMPUTERSHOW MACHINES TALK BACK

  • FIT THE PERSON TO THE MACHINE

    3

    FIT THE MACHINE TO THE PERSON

  • WHOS THE USER?

  • WHATS THE INTERFACE?

  • HOW WAS IT USED?

  • WHO BOUGHT THEM?

  • COUNTING

    GEARS AND CRANKS

    BEFORE 1945

    MECHANICAL TOOLS

    How is it used?

    Who bought them?

    Whos the user?

    Whats the interface?

    IT DEPENDS

    1, 2, 3, 4...

    MAD SCIENTISTS

  • 9

    An undetected error in a logarithmic table is like a sunken rock at sea yet undiscovered, upon which it is impossible to say what wrecks may have taken place.

    Sir John Herschel (1842)

    First published table of Logarithms by John Napier, 1614http://www.math.yorku.ca/SCS/Gallery/images/dan/napier_logtable.jpg

  • CHARLES BABBAGE(17911871)

    10http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CharlesBabbage.jpg

    As soon as an Analytical Engine exists, it will necessarily guide the future course of the science. Whenever any result is sought by its aid, the question will then arise by what course of calculation can these results be arrived at by the machine in the shortest time?

    Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, ch. 8 Of the

    Analytical Engine

  • THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE(1822)

    11http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/45/Difference_engine.JPG

  • THE ANALYTICAL ENGINE(1833)

    12web.arch.usyd.edu.au/~sriz8189/computing7.html

    http://web.arch.usyd.edu.au/%7Esriz8189/computing7.htmlhttp://web.arch.usyd.edu.au/%7Esriz8189/computing7.html

  • 13

    DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZER(193040s)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:KayMcNultyAlyseSnyderSisStumpDifferentialAnalyzer.jpg

  • VANNEVAR BUSH(1890 1974) Vannevar Bush is a great name for playing six degrees of separation. Turn back the clock on any aspect of information technology from the

    birth of Silicon Valley and the marriage of science and the military to the advent of the World Wide Web and you find his footprints. As historian Michael Sherry says, "To understand the world of Bill Gates and Bill Clinton, start with understanding Vannevar Bush.

    G. Pascal Zachary, The Godfather

    14

    http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Bill_Gateshttp://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Bill_Gateshttp://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Bill_Clintonhttp://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton

  • BRUTE FORCE ARITHMETIC

    MOVING CABLES AROUND

    19451950

    THE NEW INVENTION

    How is it used?

    Who bought them?

    Whos the user?

    Whats the interface?

    THE MILITARY

    THE INVENTORS

  • PRESPER ECKERT & JOHN MAUCHLEY (1946)

    16

  • One would think that if a man invented a machine that revolutionized the world, took out a patent on that machine, and had the full financial and legal resources of a major American corporation on his side, he would spend most of the rest of his life enjoying fortune and fame.

    Edison did. Bell did.

    By and large, Pres Eckert and John Mauchley did not.

    Shurkin, Engines of the Mind

    17

  • ENIAC (1946)

    18http://mrsec.wisc.edu/Edetc/SlideShow/slides/computer/eniac.html

  • ENIAC(1946)

    19http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/eniac4.png

  • The principle flaw was ENIACs inability to hold easily altered instructions in its memory. Every time the machine needed reprogramming, operators had to run around the room turning dials, throwing switches, replugging cables, and rolling function tables about.

    It was realized that this whole method of programming was a clumsy method, and archaic but it did not matter with firing tables, which permitted the same program to run for weeks.

    Joel Shurkin, Engines of the Mind20

  • 1950 1960

    THE CALCULATOR

    ROCKET SCIENTISTSHIGH SPEED CALCULATIONS

    PUNCH CARDS AND TAPEEXPERTS AND PIONEERS

    How is it used?

    Who bought them?

    Whos the user?

    Whats the interface?

  • HERMAN HOLLERITH(1860 1929)

    22http://www.census.gov/history/img/Hollerith.jpg http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/1890-card.gif

  • THE CENSUS(1880)

    23

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  • HOLLERITH CENSUS TABULATOR(1890)

    24http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/census-tabulator.html

  • 25http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/census-tabulator.html

    READING PUNCH CARDS1. Card reader2. Cups of mercury3. Tabulating dials4. Sorting compartment

    1 2

    34

  • F.W. TAYLOR(1856 1915)

    26

    Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would, for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character.

    http://explorepahistory.com/images/ExplorePAHistory-a0j8p9-a_349.jpg

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig_ironhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig_iron

  • SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    27http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=bd5182b00cffc073

  • 28http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/images/4506VV2015.jpg

    http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/images/4506VV2015.jpghttp://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/images/4506VV2015.jpg

  • 29http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/vintage_4506VV9002.html

  • 30

    1925

    http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/

    1933

    19641949

    http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/

  • One place where IBM did succeed was in keeping viable the basic input medium of the punched card, and with that the basic flow of data through a customers installation. The same card, encoded the same way and using a keypunch little changed since the 1930s, served IBMs computers through the 1960s and beyond. The sequential processing and file structure, implicit in punched card operations, also survived in the form of batch processing common to most mainframe computer centers of the 1960s.

    Ceruzzi, A History of Modern Computing31

  • 32

    PUNCHED HOLE FUNCTIONS1. Adds2. Subtracts3. Multiplies4. Divides5. Lists itself6. Reproduces itself7. Classifies itself8. Selects itself9. Prints to an IBM Card10. Automatic balance forward11. Files itself12. Posts itself13. Reproduces and prints14. Punch from pencil mark15. Print total16. Compare to something17. Advance/eject a form

  • 33

    IBM ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS (1950s)

    http://www.digibarn.com/collections/ads/ibm-50s/index.html

  • TELETYPE AND TERMINAL

    INFORMATION INTENSIVE BUSINESSESBATCH PROCESSING

    COMPUTER CENTER ACOLYTES

    1960 1970

    THE GIANT BRAIN

    How is it used?

    Who bought them?

    Whos the user?

    Whats the interface?

  • MAN-COMPUTER SYMBIOSIS

    The hope is that, in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.

    J.C.R. Licklider Man-Computer Symbiosis

    35

  • 36http://www.digibarn.com/collections/ads/univac-50s/stand-alone/index.htm http://www.digibarn.com/collections/ads/univac-50s/divide-by-zero/index.htm

  • 37

  • 38http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/comphist/objects/univac.htm

    UNIVAC(1951)

  • 39

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  • GRACE MURRAY HOPPER(1906 1992)

    40http://www.flickr.com/photos/publicresourceorg/493885707/

    A ship in port is safe; but that is not what ships are built for. Sail out to sea and do new things.It's easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission.

  • Not only would a programmer hardly ever see the computer, he or she might never even see the keypunch on which the programs were entered into the computer.

    A History of Modern Computing

    41

  • HENRY DREYFUSS(1904 1972)

    The products we design are going to be ridden in, sat upon, looked at, talked into, activated, operated, or in some way used by people individually or en masse. If the point of contact between the product and the people becomes a point of friction, then the industrial designer has failed. If, on the other hand, people are made safer, more comfortable, more eager to purchase, more efficientor just plain happierthe industrial designer has succeeded.

    42http://perpenduum.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/henrydreyfuss.jpg

  • DESIGNING FOR PEOPLE(1955)

    43

  • 44

  • 1970 1985

    PINK COLLAR LABOR

    MOST BUSINESSESTIME SHARING

    GREEN-SCREEN ALPHANUMERICDATA ENTRY OPERATORS

    How is it used?

    Who bought them?

    Whos the user?

    Whats the interface?

  • WHIRLWIND (1952)

    http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102622503http://www.computermuseum.li/Testpage/Whirlwind-1949.htm

    46

  • WHIRLWIND

    COMMAND LINE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

    47

  • 48

    DATA ENTRY

  • By the mid-1960s, data processing computers for business had become well established. The commercial computer installation was characterized by a large, centralized computer manufactured by IBM or one of the other half-dozen mainframe computer companies, running a batch-processing or real-time application.

    The role of the user in this computing environment was to feed data into the computer system and interact with it in the very restricted fashion determined by the application.

    Kelly and Aspray, Computer49

  • WHIRLWIND

    COMMAND LINE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

    50

  • BATCH PROCESSING

    TIME SHARING

    51

  • 52

    DIRECT MANIPULATION

  • IVAN SUTHERLAND(b.1938)

    The Sketchpad system makes it possible for a man and a computer to converse rapidly through the medium of line drawings. Heretofore, most interaction between man and computers has been slowed down by the need to reduce all communication to written statements that can be typed; in the past, we have been writing letters to rather than conferring with our computers. The Sketchpad system, by eliminating typed statements (except for legends) in favor of line drawings, opens up a new area of man-machine communication.

    53http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_fall/projects/abowd_team/ivan/ivanbw_45.jpg

  • SKETCHPAD (1963)

    54http://images.businessweek.com/ss/08/10/1006_ceo_guide/image/ivanssketchpad600gimpr.jpghttp://design.osu.edu/carlson/history/images/ivan-sutherland.jpg

  • DOUGLAS ENGELBART(b. 1925) By augmenting man's intellect we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation,

    gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems. One objective is to develop new techniques, procedures, and systems that will better adapt people's basic information-handling capabilities to the needs, problems, and progress of society.

    Douglas Englebart55http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Engelbartmice.jpg

  • X/Y POSITION INDICATOR ALSO KNOWN AS THE MOUSE (1964)

    56http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Mouse-patents-englebart-rid.png

    The number of buttons on a mouse is one of the most controversial issues in the industry. People get religious.

    Bill Gates

  • NLS ONLINE SYSTEM (60s)

    57http://www.dougengelbart.org/

  • THE MOTHER OF ALL DEMOS(1968)

    58http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/files/2008/12/engelbart-demo.jpg http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8734787622017763097

  • GUIs

    PACKAGED SOFTWARE APPS UPWARDLY MOBILE HOME USERS

    1985 1995

    PERSONAL COMPUTING

    How is it used?

    Who bought them?

    GEEKS

    Whos the user?

    Whats the interface?

  • MITS ALTAIR 8800 (1975)

    60

  • ALTAIR BASIC

    61http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Altair_Basic_Sign.jpg

  • PERSONAL COMPUTING (1975)

  • 63http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Homebrew_Computer_Club_Sep1976.png

  • 64http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Apple_I_Computer.jpg

  • Apple II

    Commodore PET Tandy Radio Shack TRS-80

    IBM 5150

    Commodore VIC-20

    HOME COMPUTERS (Late 70s)

    65

  • Command Line

    VisiCalc

    APPLICATION INTERFACES (70s)

    WordStar

    Hierarchical Menus

  • XEROX PARC(1970s)

    _Laser Printer_Ethernet local area computer network

    _Computer generated bitmap graphics

    _Graphical user interface featuring windows and icons

    _WYSIWYG text editor

    67

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitmaphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitmaphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interfacehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interfacehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WYSIWYGhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WYSIWYG

  • XEROX ALTO (1973)

    68

  • XEROX STAR (1981)

    69

  • APPLE LISA (1983)

  • APPLE MACINTOSH (1983)

    71

  • First Web Browser/Editor, 1990

    Netscape, 1994

    Yahoo, 1994

    WORLD WIDE WEB (1990s)

  • THEYRE CHEAP! BUY SEVERAL!WEB-ENABLED TOOLS

    EVERYONE.

    1995 ?

    NETWORKED UBIQUITY

    How is it used?

    Who bought them?

    Whos the user?

    Whats the interface?

    GUIs

  • THANKS!

    @karenmcgranekaren@bondartscience.comwww.bondartscience.com+1 (917) 887-8149

    mailto:karen@bondartscience.commailto:karen@bondartscience.comhttp://www.bondartscience.comhttp://www.bondartscience.com