Film The Life of a Film The Life of a Film Film Terms and Techniques Film Terms and Techniques.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Film The Life of a Film The Life of a Film Film Terms and Techniques Film Terms and Techniques </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Life of a Film Pre-production (Obtaining / Developing) Pre-production (Obtaining / Developing) Production (Shooting) Production (Shooting) Post-production (Editing) Post-production (Editing) </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Pre-production: the planning stage Development: person / company buys the rights to a literary work (screenplay or outline) Development: person / company buys the rights to a literary work (screenplay or outline) Scriptwriters are hired to improve the work Scriptwriters are hired to improve the work Once the owner decides to film personnel is hired Once the owner decides to film personnel is hired Director, business manager, talent, talent agents, lighting designers, sound engineers, accountants, special effects coordinators, etc. Director, business manager, talent, talent agents, lighting designers, sound engineers, accountants, special effects coordinators, etc. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Production Dailies: the days (or nights) shooting Dailies: the days (or nights) shooting Each night the director and staff review the dailies Each night the director and staff review the dailies Problems: bad weather, talent forgetting lines, technical glitches (ie. Uncontrollable outside noise or equipment malfunction) Problems: bad weather, talent forgetting lines, technical glitches (ie. Uncontrollable outside noise or equipment malfunction) Music is composed and recorded (The Score) Music is composed and recorded (The Score) Computer generated special effects designed Computer generated special effects designed Publicity strategies are mapped out Publicity strategies are mapped out </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Post-production: Editing Splicing: film is cut and arranged Splicing: film is cut and arranged Director and editor must decide on the order of the shots Director and editor must decide on the order of the shots Transition techniques: Transition techniques: Cut piece of film literally cut and spliced to another piece of film Cut piece of film literally cut and spliced to another piece of film Dissolve current shot gets lighter and fades away while the next shot appears and gradually takes over the screen Dissolve current shot gets lighter and fades away while the next shot appears and gradually takes over the screen </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Adding Sound Ambient sounds: sounds that occur naturally in the course of a scenes action Ambient sounds: sounds that occur naturally in the course of a scenes action Looping: actors watch themselves on a small screen in a recording studio and speak their lines; theyre lip-syncing with themselves Looping: actors watch themselves on a small screen in a recording studio and speak their lines; theyre lip-syncing with themselves The Score The Score </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Promotion and Distribution Trailers: coming attractions Trailers: coming attractions Print ads: Advertisements appearing in newspapers and magazines Print ads: Advertisements appearing in newspapers and magazines Posters Posters Previews Previews </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Film Terms and Techniques Cinematography: how the film was photographed </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Cinematography Frame: an individual picture, or exposure, on a strip of film. Film passes through camera at 24 frames per second (fps) Frame: an individual picture, or exposure, on a strip of film. Film passes through camera at 24 frames per second (fps) Shot: the basic unit of film; any continuous piece of unedited film (average length is 20 30 seconds long) Shot: the basic unit of film; any continuous piece of unedited film (average length is 20 30 seconds long) Scene: a group of interrelated shots taking place in the same location Scene: a group of interrelated shots taking place in the same location Sequence: a group of interrelated scenes that form a natural unit in the story. For example, an elevator scene, a fight scene, and a car chase may all be part of an escape sequence. Sequence: a group of interrelated scenes that form a natural unit in the story. For example, an elevator scene, a fight scene, and a car chase may all be part of an escape sequence. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Distance Long Shot (LS): shows the main visual subject of the shot in its entire surroundings (ex: a swimmer in a public pool showing the entire pool) ; also called establishing shot Long Shot (LS): shows the main visual subject of the shot in its entire surroundings (ex: a swimmer in a public pool showing the entire pool) ; also called establishing shot Extreme Long Shot (ELS): For example, a shot taken from a helicopter Extreme Long Shot (ELS): For example, a shot taken from a helicopter Medium Shot (MS): shows the main subject in its immediate surroundings (ex: the swimmer in the pool with only a portion of the pool visible Medium Shot (MS): shows the main subject in its immediate surroundings (ex: the swimmer in the pool with only a portion of the pool visible Close-up (CU): shows just the main subject (ex: only the swimmer is visible) Close-up (CU): shows just the main subject (ex: only the swimmer is visible) Extreme Close-up (ECU): For example, just the swimmers face Extreme Close-up (ECU): For example, just the swimmers face </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Establishing Shot (or Extreme Long Shot) Shot taken from a great distance, almost always an exterior shot, shows much of locale Shot taken from a great distance, almost always an exterior shot, shows much of locale ELS ELS Indiana Jones And The Temple Of Doom </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Long Shot (LS) (A relative term) A shot taken from a sufficient distance to show a landscape, a building, or a large crowd (A relative term) A shot taken from a sufficient distance to show a landscape, a building, or a large crowd Austin Powers and the Spy Who Shagged Me </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Medium Shot (MS) (Also relative) a shot between a long shot and a close-up that might show two people in full figure or several people from the waist up (Also relative) a shot between a long shot and a close-up that might show two people in full figure or several people from the waist up The Talented Mr. Ripley </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Close-Up (CU) A shot of a small object or face that fills the screen A shot of a small object or face that fills the screen Adds importance to object photographed Adds importance to object photographed Under Pressure </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Extreme Close-Up (ECU) A shot of a small object or part of a face that fills the screen A shot of a small object or part of a face that fills the screen The Saint In London Rocky Horror Picture Show </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Over the Shoulder Shot Usually contains two figures, one with his/her back to the camera, and the other facing the camera Usually contains two figures, one with his/her back to the camera, and the other facing the camera Hollow Man Cast Away </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Angle Low angle (LA): camera is lower than the subject and looks up at the subject (makes the subject look powerful) Low angle (LA): camera is lower than the subject and looks up at the subject (makes the subject look powerful) Extreme low angle (ELA): camera is directly below the subject looking straight up at it Extreme low angle (ELA): camera is directly below the subject looking straight up at it </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Low Angle (l/a) Camera is located below subject matter Camera is located below subject matter Increases height and power of subject Increases height and power of subject The Patriot </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Angle (continued) Flat angle (FA): camera is at the same level as the subject (eye-level shot); these are neutral shots and dont convey any particular sense about the strength or weakness of the subject. Flat angle (FA): camera is at the same level as the subject (eye-level shot); these are neutral shots and dont convey any particular sense about the strength or weakness of the subject. High angle (HA): camera is higher than the subject and looks down at the subject; makes the subject look inferior and insignificant conveys weakness and / or defeat High angle (HA): camera is higher than the subject and looks down at the subject; makes the subject look inferior and insignificant conveys weakness and / or defeat Extreme high angle (EHA): camera is directly above the subject looking straight down at it Extreme high angle (EHA): camera is directly above the subject looking straight down at it </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Eye-Level Roughly 5 to 6 feet off the ground, the way an actual observer might view a scene Roughly 5 to 6 feet off the ground, the way an actual observer might view a scene Most common Most common </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> High Angle (h/a) Camera looks down at what is being photographed Camera looks down at what is being photographed Takes away power of subject, makes it insignificant Takes away power of subject, makes it insignificant Gives a general overview Gives a general overview Without Limits </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Birds Eye View Camera is placed directly overhead Camera is placed directly overhead Extremely disorienting Extremely disorienting Viewer is godlike Viewer is godlike Beverly Hills Girl Scouts </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Oblique Angle Lateral tilt of the camera so that figures appear to be falling out of the frame Lateral tilt of the camera so that figures appear to be falling out of the frame Suggests tension and transition Suggests tension and transition Sometimes used as the point of view of a drunk Sometimes used as the point of view of a drunk The Matrix </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Movement Pan: camera remains in place but swivels from side to side; used to survey a scene or capture horizontal motion (example camera is located in the middle bleacher section, pan left as the swimmer passes by in the pool) Pan: camera remains in place but swivels from side to side; used to survey a scene or capture horizontal motion (example camera is located in the middle bleacher section, pan left as the swimmer passes by in the pool) </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Track: entire camera actually moves to the left or right, also capturing horizontal movement. Track: entire camera actually moves to the left or right, also capturing horizontal movement. Motion of the camera is parallel to the motion of the subject. Motion of the camera is parallel to the motion of the subject. Movement </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Zoom: camera remains in place, but the lens of the camera is manipulated to create the appearance of moving closer or farther away from the subject; used for dramatic effect Zoom: camera remains in place, but the lens of the camera is manipulated to create the appearance of moving closer or farther away from the subject; used for dramatic effect Dolly: camera moves toward or away from the subject; differs from a zoom in that it leaves more of the background visible than the zoom Dolly: camera moves toward or away from the subject; differs from a zoom in that it leaves more of the background visible than the zoom Movement </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Tilt: camera remains in place but pivots up or down; gives the viewer a trip up or down a building, person, or other vertical object Tilt: camera remains in place but pivots up or down; gives the viewer a trip up or down a building, person, or other vertical object Boom: camera, usually mounted on a crane or hydraulic arm, moves up or down; can also move sideways while moving up and down Boom: camera, usually mounted on a crane or hydraulic arm, moves up or down; can also move sideways while moving up and down Movement </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Subjective: camera shows what the character sees Subjective: camera shows what the character sees The camera is meant to take the place of the characters eyes. Subjective shots often are not perfectly smooth; they might bounce up and down a little to show that the character whom were seeing through is walking (also known as point of view [POV]) The camera is meant to take the place of the characters eyes. Subjective shots often are not perfectly smooth; they might bounce up and down a little to show that the character whom were seeing through is walking (also known as point of view [POV]) Movement </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Point of View (POV) A shot taken from the vantage point a particular character, or what a character sees A shot taken from the vantage point a particular character, or what a character sees </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Getting from Scene to Scene </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Cut Transition between scenes when one scenes ends and another one begins Transition between scenes when one scenes ends and another one begins Most common Most common </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Dissolve A gradual transition in which the end of one scene is superimposed over the beginning of a new one. A gradual transition in which the end of one scene is superimposed over the beginning of a new one. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Fade-out/Fade in A scene gradually goes dark or a new one gradually emerges from darkness A scene gradually goes dark or a new one gradually emerges from darkness </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Wipe An optical effect in which one shot appears to push appears to push the preceding one from the screen. An optical effect in which one shot appears to push appears to push the preceding one from the screen. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Iris An optical effect in which one shot appears to emerge from a shape on the screen. An optical effect in which one shot appears to emerge from a shape on the screen. </li> </ul>