Evidence for Evolution A slide extravaganza…. Types of evidence… z1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things)

Download Evidence for Evolution A slide extravaganza…. Types of evidence… z1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things)

Post on 03-Jan-2016

215 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>Evidence for EvolutionA slide extravaganza</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things)</p></li><li><p>Fossil formationBones and shells undergo mineral replacement and are turned into rockSoft material either disappears, or leaves an impression in the earth (that turns to rock)</p></li><li><p>A selection of fossils</p></li><li><p>Fossils show transitionsThe Archaeopterix -- between reptile and bird</p></li><li><p>Scallops</p></li><li><p>From early to modern horse</p></li><li><p>(Living things show transitions too)</p></li><li><p>Coelacanths - the living fossil</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy</p></li><li><p>A. Homologous Structures</p><p> Homo - logy</p><p>Homologous structures have the same underlying forms</p></li><li><p>Wing anatomy comparisonAnd compared to our arm</p></li><li><p>Arm anatomy comparison</p></li><li><p>B. Analogous Structures</p><p>Ana - logy</p><p>Analogous structures have a similar outward appearance (but different underlying forms)</p></li><li><p>Types of evolution Convergent evolution Distantly related organisms evolve similar external features</p><p> Divergent evolution A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that evolve for different environments</p></li><li><p>Which goes with which? .Homologous structures</p><p>Analogous structuresConvergent evolutionDistantly related organisms evolve similar external features</p><p>Divergent evolution A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.</p></li><li><p>Which goes with which?Homologous structures</p><p>Analogous structuresConvergent evolutionDistantly related organisms evolve similar external features</p><p>Divergent evolution A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.</p></li><li><p>C. Vestigial Structures</p><p>Vestige - a left-over/ remnant</p><p>Vestigial structures are evolutionary leftovers from an earlier ancestor</p></li><li><p>The dew claw of a wild cat</p></li><li><p>The human appendixRabbitFetal HumanAdult Human</p></li><li><p>Membranes in our eyes</p></li><li><p>Hip bones in whales(Look at that hand too!)</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology</p></li><li><p>Human embryo at 5 weeks</p></li><li><p>Embryos</p><p> can you guess which one is human?</p></li><li><p>how about now?Embryos</p></li><li><p>And nowWere you right?</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence</p></li><li><p>Comparing DNA</p></li><li><p>Determining relationships</p><p> DNA similarity between species is used to determine how closely related they are.</p><p>This is in turn used to construct possible evolutionary trees.</p></li><li><p>How closely related are these fellows?</p><p> Giant PandaBrown BearMystery critter! (Im not telling)got your guess?</p></li><li><p>An Evolutionary Tree</p><p> so why is he called a red panda?This tree was constructed by looking at % similarity of DNA among bears</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence5. Behavior</p></li><li><p>Behavioral similaritiesDuck and other bird mating dancesHow primates carry their youngFish swimming motions and salamander walksAnd on and on and on.</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence5. Behavior</p></li><li><p>Types of evidence1. Evidence from the Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence5. Behavior6. Direct observation also known as microevolution</p></li><li><p>Artificial selectionRemember us?</p></li><li><p>And look at us!</p></li><li><p>And Natural SelectionHawaiian Rock Wallabies!</p></li><li><p>The Beak of the FinchBiologists Peter and Rosemary Grant documented natural selection occurring in populations of finches on the Galapagos islands over a period of only 20 years! This generation to generation changes in the frequency of certain traits is called microevolution. </p><p>*</p></li></ul>