Evidence for Evolution A slide extravaganza…. Types of evidence… z1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things)

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  • Evidence for EvolutionA slide extravaganza

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record (dead things)

  • Fossil formationBones and shells undergo mineral replacement and are turned into rockSoft material either disappears, or leaves an impression in the earth (that turns to rock)

  • A selection of fossils

  • Fossils show transitionsThe Archaeopterix -- between reptile and bird

  • Scallops

  • From early to modern horse

  • (Living things show transitions too)

  • Coelacanths - the living fossil

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy

  • A. Homologous Structures

    Homo - logy

    Homologous structures have the same underlying forms

  • Wing anatomy comparisonAnd compared to our arm

  • Arm anatomy comparison

  • B. Analogous Structures

    Ana - logy

    Analogous structures have a similar outward appearance (but different underlying forms)

  • Types of evolution Convergent evolution Distantly related organisms evolve similar external features

    Divergent evolution A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that evolve for different environments

  • Which goes with which? .Homologous structures

    Analogous structuresConvergent evolutionDistantly related organisms evolve similar external features

    Divergent evolution A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.

  • Which goes with which?Homologous structures

    Analogous structuresConvergent evolutionDistantly related organisms evolve similar external features

    Divergent evolution A common ancestor gives rise to organisms that become more different with time.

  • C. Vestigial Structures

    Vestige - a left-over/ remnant

    Vestigial structures are evolutionary leftovers from an earlier ancestor

  • The dew claw of a wild cat

  • The human appendixRabbitFetal HumanAdult Human

  • Membranes in our eyes

  • Hip bones in whales(Look at that hand too!)

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology

  • Human embryo at 5 weeks

  • Embryos

    can you guess which one is human?

  • how about now?Embryos

  • And nowWere you right?

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence

  • Comparing DNA

  • Determining relationships

    DNA similarity between species is used to determine how closely related they are.

    This is in turn used to construct possible evolutionary trees.

  • How closely related are these fellows?

    Giant PandaBrown BearMystery critter! (Im not telling)got your guess?

  • An Evolutionary Tree

    so why is he called a red panda?This tree was constructed by looking at % similarity of DNA among bears

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence5. Behavior

  • Behavioral similaritiesDuck and other bird mating dancesHow primates carry their youngFish swimming motions and salamander walksAnd on and on and on.

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the fossil record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence5. Behavior

  • Types of evidence1. Evidence from the Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Molecular Evidence5. Behavior6. Direct observation also known as microevolution

  • Artificial selectionRemember us?

  • And look at us!

  • And Natural SelectionHawaiian Rock Wallabies!

  • The Beak of the FinchBiologists Peter and Rosemary Grant documented natural selection occurring in populations of finches on the Galapagos islands over a period of only 20 years! This generation to generation changes in the frequency of certain traits is called microevolution.

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