e1 and e2 (test manual)

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1. It is one of the ACA Code of Ethics which the counselor respect the rights, the freedom the integrity and the culture of the client, whether in an individual relationship or in a grouping setting. a. Counseling Relationship b. Professional Responsibility c. Client-Therapist Relationship d. Confidentiality ANSWER: a. Counseling Relationship- Counselors always respect the rights , freedom, the integrity and welfare of the client, whether in an individual or in group setting. Counselors believe that the clients have a potential to grow and change and strive to empower them in this endeavor. Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbok, 2 nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 131 2. It is the central developing a trust and productive- therapist relationship where the counselors have an ethical responsibility to discuss the nature and purpose of counseling process. a. Informed the client consent b. Confidentiality c. Competence d. Privilege Communication ANSWER: b. Confidentiality- Counselors maintain the standard of confidentiality as they work to establish the therapeutic relationship and this standard is violated only when the safety and well-being of the clients, those individuals around them, and the general community are jeopardy.

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Page 1: E1 and e2 (test manual)

1. It is one of the ACA Code of Ethics which the counselor respect the rights, the freedom the integrity and the culture of the client, whether in an individual relationship or in a grouping setting.

a. Counseling Relationshipb. Professional Responsibilityc. Client-Therapist Relationshipd. Confidentiality

ANSWER: a. Counseling Relationship- Counselors always respect the rights , freedom, the integrity and welfare of the client, whether in an individual or in group setting. Counselors believe that the clients have a potential to grow and change and strive to empower them in this endeavor.

Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbok, 2nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 131

2. It is the central developing a trust and productive-therapist relationship where the counselors have an ethical responsibility to discuss the nature and purpose of counseling process.

a. Informed the client consentb. Confidentialityc. Competenced. Privilege Communication

ANSWER: b. Confidentiality- Counselors maintain the standard of confidentiality as they work to establish the therapeutic relationship and this standard is violated only when the safety and well-being of the clients, those individuals around them, and the general community are jeopardy.

Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbok, 2nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 132

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3. Counselor has an ethical standard to provide their services to individual regardless of age, color, culture, disability, either group gender, race, religion, sexual orientation or socio-economic status as original.

a. Legal responsibilityb. Professional responsibilityc. Public responsibilityd. Social responsibility

ANSWER: b. Professional responsibility- Counselors operate their scope of competencies, education and training, and professional experience and committed to Continuing education and awareness in working with diverse populations, diagnose, and theories and techniques of treatment.

Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbok, 2nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 132

4. The counselor has an ethical to demonstrate respect for the rights and well being of colleagues and abide the policies and procedures of their agencies.

a. Therapeutic relationshipb. Counseling relationshipc. Relationship with other professionalsd. Professional relationship

ANSWER: c. Relationship with other professional- Counselors define and describe their professional roles and responsibilities with employers, employees, colleagues, and supervisors. These delineations are reflected in working agreements, clinical relationship, and issues of confidentiality and also adhere to professional standards.

Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbok, 2nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 133

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5. The counselors use this technique to the best interest of client welfare, where the results may interpret and may be a basis for conclusion and recommendation:

a. Evaluationb. Assessmentc. Mental status Examinationd. All of the above

ANSWER: b. Assessment- Counselors use educational and psychological assessment techniques in the best interest of clients welfare, and the counselor strive to respect client’s rights to know test results, interpretation, and the basis for conclusions and recommendation

Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbok, 2nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 133

6. The counselor educations advice prospective students concerning program requirement including the scope of professional skills development and they provide a comprehensive view of the counseling profession.

a. Teaching b. Trainingc. Supervisiond. All of the above

ANSWER: d. All of the above. Counselors responsible for training counselor education student and counselor supervisees are competent practitioners and teachers. They model the highest ethical standards of the profession, maintain appropriate professional and social boundaries.

Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbok, 2nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 134

7. The counselors may hypothetically discuss ethical issues and concerns with colleagues and take cautions so as not to initiate, participate in, or encourage the filing of unwarranted or harmful ethical complaints.

a. Resolving ethical Issuesb. Avoid an ethical conductc. Resolved Ethical dilemmad. None of the above

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ANSWER: a. Resolving Ethical Issues- Counselor are familiar with the code of ethics , realizing that ignorance or misunderstanding of an ethical responsibility is not an acceptable defense against a charge of unethical conduct. Counselor may confer with other counselors or appropriate authorizes.

Reference: Reference: Christopher Faiver, Sheri Eisengart, Ronald Colonna. The Counselor Intern’s Handbook, 2nd edition. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning. 2000. p. 135

8. The general goals of counseling, the responsibilities of the counselors toward the client, the responsibilities of the clients, limitations of and exceptions to confidentiality, legal and ethical parameters that could define the relationship, the qualifications and background of the practitioner, the fees involved, the services the clients can expect, and the approximate length of the therapeutic process are all included in.

a. Right to informed client consentb. Competencec. Privileged Communications d. Confidentiality

ANSWER: a. Right to informed client consent- is an ethical and legal requirement and is an integral part of the therapeutic process, providing clients with information they need to make informed choices tends to promote the active cooperation of clients in their counseling plan and by educating the client about their rights and responsibilities and both building trusting relationship.Reference: Gerald Corey. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 7th edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2005 p. 40

9. In counseling, it is ethical issue where the counselor accepts a position as a professional counselor and presents their credentials and scope of practice to the general public and their clients.

a. Competenceb. Privileged communications c. Confidentialityd. Professional Communication

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ANSWER: a. Competence- the counselor must determine along with his potential employer whether not he or she is qualified by virtue of training and the counselor must also accurately present their credential and scope of practice to the general public and their clients.

Reference: Evangeline M. De Jesus. Counseling Psychology. 1st edition. Educational Publishing House. 2006. p. 393

10. Counselors assume two or more roles sequentially with a client that involves social relationship, going into business venture and accepting expensive gift or even conducting friendship with a client at the same time he/she is in treatment is called .

a. Sexual dual Relationshipb. Multiple Relationship c. Non sexual dual relationshipd. Dual relationship

ANSWER: c. Non-sexual dual relationship- are combining the roles of teacher and therapist or of supervisor and therapist; bartering for goods or therapeutic services; borrowing money from client; providing therapy to a friend, employee, or a relative engaging in a social relationship with a client; accepting expensive gift or going into a business venture with a client.

Reference: Gerald Corey. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 7th edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole. p. 46

11. It provides a basis for reflecting on and improving one’s professional practice.

a. Ethics codeb. Ethical decisionc. Ethical issuesd. Ethical dilemma

ANSWER: a. Ethical code- educates counseling practitioners and the general public about the responsibilities of the profession and it provide a basis for accountability, and through their enforcement, clients are protected from unethical practices.

Reference: Gerald Corey. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 7th edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole. 2005 p. 38

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12. It shows the relationship between program resources and presumed outcomes, it also presents the theory of how and why the program is assumed to work.

a. Evaluation b. Counselor evaluationc. Logical modeld. Intake evaluation

ANSWER: C. Logical model- is a good way of identifying evaluation questions where it is a diagram that shows the relationships between program resources and presumed outcomes and presents the theory of how and why the program is assumed to work.

Reference: Evangeline M. De Jesus. Counseling Psychology. 1st edition. Educational Publishing House. 2006. p. 408

13. It is perspective that involves the client as an active participant in the therapy process implies that both the therapist and client are engaged in a search and discovery process from the first session to the last.

a. Holistic perspectiveb. Collaborative perspectivec. Biological perspectived. None of the above

ANSWER: B. Collaborative perspective- involves the client as an active participant in the therapy process implies that both the therapist and client are engaged in a search and discovery process from the first session to the last. This perspective on assessment and diagnosis is consistent with the principles of feminist therapy.

Reference: Gerald Corey. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 7th edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole. p. 44

14. The process of determining which ethical principles are involved and then prioritizing them based on the professional requirements and beliefs is called:

a. Ethical judgmentb. Decision planningc. Decision makingd. Ethical reasoning

ANSWER: d. Ethical reasoning- It is in such types of situations that counselors need to be aware of resources for ethical decision making, especially when

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questions arise over controversial behaviors such as setting or collecting fees or conducting dual relationships.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T.,Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 p. 57

15. It contains examples in which counselors are presented with issues and case studies of questionable ethical situations and given both guidelines and questions to reflect on in deciding what an ethical response should be:

a. Ethical Standard Casebookb. Code of Ethicsc. Practitioner’s Guide to Ethical Decision Makingd. Code of Ethics and Standard Practice

ANSWER: A. Ethical Standard Casebook- is distinguished from other guidelines in acting ethically because of the presented issues and case studies of questionable ethical decisions in its content.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T.,Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 p. 58

16. It is the precise codification of governing standards that are established legal and moral justice:

a. Conductb. Lawc. Ethicsd. Law

ANSWER: D. Law- does not dictate what is ethical in a given situation but what is legal.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T.,Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 p. 52

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17. It is trend in counseling where the counselor helps the individual to cope with negative things they are encountering in personal development and they usually face many stressors go along in fulfilling their responsibilities as young people. What setting it is?

a. Industriesb. Schoolc. Familyd. Community

ANSWER: B. School-The field of counseling becomes instrument to the development of new approaches and techniques that enable to help the individual to cope with their lives and the school setting is one of priority of counseling. The counselor’s role to help the student to cope with the negative things they encounter.

Reference: Evangeline M. De Jesus. Counseling Psychology. 1st edition. Educational Publishing House. 2006. p. 421

18. The primary ethical responsibility of counselors in making ethical decisions is:

a. Beneficenceb. Normal efficiencyc. Autonomyd. Justice

ANSWER: B. Normal efficiency- not only involves the “removal of present harm” but the “prevention of future harm and passive avoidance of harm”.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T.,Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 p. 57

19. It is the analysis and explanation of a client’s problem.

a. Psychodynamicsb. Assessmentc. Concludingd. Psychodiagnosis

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ANSWER: D. Psychodiagnosis- It include an explanation of the causes of the client’s difficulties, an account of how these problems developed overtime and an estimate of the chances for a successful resolution.

Reference: Corey, Gerald, Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 7th ED. 2005 p. 44

20. It is essential for an individual to determine what ethical conduct means both philosophical and behaviorally for incorporating this meaning into their professional practice. It is at the core of all ethical behavior:

a. Member Responsibilityb. Member Competencec. Client Accessibilityd. Dual Relationship

ANSWER: a. Member Responsibility -Members are responsible for continually evaluating not only their own behavior but also those of their colleagues.Reference: Capuzzi, David, Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories and Intervention, 2001 pp. 89

21. The provision of only those services and techniques for which the member is qualified by training or experience.

a. Member-Client Relationshipb. Member Competencec. Multiple Relationshipd. Dual relationship

ANSWER: b. Member Competence – ethical review boards and licensing committees spend a large percentage of their time and financial resources attempting to determine the degree of competence of the practioner. Reference: Capuzzi, David, Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories and Intervention, 2001 pp. 91

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22. It includes provision for or prohibition of such relationship variables as client freedom of choice; client accessibility regardless of ethnicity, race, religion, disability and socio-economic group.

a. Client Welfareb. Member-Client Relationshipc. Multiple Relationshipd. Member Responsibility

ANSWER: b. Member-client Relationship – a third central factor related to ethical behavior deals with relationship dynamics between the member and the client.Reference: Capuzzi, David, Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories and Intervention, 2001 pp. 93

23. It is a process to ensure that the services provided by the counselors are available to all clients regardless of ethnicity, race, religion, disability and socio-economic group.

a. Dual Relationshipb. Clients’ Rightc. Client Accessibilityd. Multiple Relationship

ANSWER: c. Client Accessibility – if the members find that such barriers exist within the work setting, she must take steps to alleviate such barriers.

Reference: Capuzzi, David, Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories and Intervention, 2001 pp. 95

24. It is a legal term that indicates that the client’s communications cannot be disclosed in a court of law without the client’s consent.

a. Confidentialityb. Client’s Rightc. Client’s Consentd. Privileged Communication

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ANSWER: d. Privileged Communication – the privileged belongs to the client; not the members, and under most circumstances only the client can waive the privileged.

Reference: Capuzzi, David, Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories and Intervention, 2001 pp. 95

25. It does not appear in either set of ethical standards but is inferred based upon the nature of documents. It has a direct relationship to client freedom of choice.

a. Privileged Communicationb. Member Competencec. Informed Consentd. Client’s Consent

ANSWER: c. Informed Consent – Informed consent has direct relationship to client freedom of choice.

Reference: Capuzzi, David, Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories and Intervention, 2001 pp. 96

26. It refers to the law or the state of being lawful.

a. Moralb. Lawc. Legald. Rights

ANSWER: c. Legal – It offers few definite answers, and there are always notable exceptions to any legal precedent.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T., Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 pp. 63

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27. It is through this procedure that the recognition of counseling as a separate professional entity is regulating.

a. Communicatingb. Supervisingc. Professional Credentialingd. Decision Making

ANSWER: c. Professional Credentialing – Credentialed counselors possesses enhanced visibility and credibility.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T., Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 pp. 64

28. It this process “a state agency periodically examines the activities of a profession’s practitioners to ascertain whether they are practicing the profession in a fashion consistent with the public safety, health and welfare.

a. Registrationb. Licensurec. Inspectiond. Credentialing

ANSWER: c. Inspection – Many state agencies that employ counselors, such as mental health centers, are subject to having their personnel and programs regularly inspected.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T., Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 pp. 64

29.This plan requires practitioners to submit information to the state concerning the nature of their practice.

a. Inspectionb. Registrationc. Supervisingd. Codification

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ANSWER: b. Registration – This method is employed in Kansas, for instance, as a way to gain legal recognition for counselors who used the title “registered professional counselor”.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T., Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 pp. 64

30. It is a professional, statutory or nonstatutory process “by which an agency or association grants recognition to an individual for having met certain predetermined professional qualifications.

a. Codificationb. Inspectionc. Certificationd. Registration

ANSWER: c. Certification – it is a limited licensed, that is, the protection of title only.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T., Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 pp. 65

31.The statutory process by which an agency of government, usually a state, grants permission to a person meeting predetermined qualifications to engage in a given occupation and/or use a particular title and to perform specified function”.

a. Licensureb. Certificationc. Codificationd. Verification

ANSWER: a. Licensure differs in purpose from certification but recquires similar procedures in terms of education and testing for competence.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T., Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 pp. 65

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32. The ethical duty to fulfill a contract or promise to clients that the information revealed during therapy will be protected from unauthorized disclosure.

a. Privacyb. Confidentialityc. Member Competenced. Privileged Communication

ANSWER: b. Confidentiality – Confidentiality becomes a legal as well as an ethical concern if it is broken, whether intentionally or not.

Reference: Gladding, Samuel T., Counseling a Comprehensive Behavior, 4th Ed. 2000 pp. 68

33. It is the desire outcome of counseling on the part of the client.

a. development of client insights and understanding of the relationship of self and environment.b. to recognize the individual differencesc. self-realization and self-directiond. development of individual to the fullest

ANSWER: d. Self-realization and self-direction- Most of the leaders in the field agree that the desired outcome of counseling is self-realization and self-direction on the part of the client. It is generally recognized that most human beings solve the bulk of their problems and achieve an adequate degree of self-realization and self-direction without the formal help of a professional counselor.

Reference: Milton E. Hahn & Malcolm S. Maclean. Counseling Psychology. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. p. 24

34. Practitioner are often broadsided by difficult dilemmas is because they fall into naïve orientation based on the idea that if you merely study ethical codes, you will be well prepared to handle anything that comes up.

a. Commonsense trapb. Values trapc. Circumstantialities trap d. Cultural trap

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ANSWER: A. Commonsense trap- The codes provide guidance but most of difficulties arise because of personal interpretation of rules and laws that are not necessarily based on consensual standards. (Stanman, Richardson & McEnroe, 1998) p. 364

Reference: Jeffrey A. Rotter, Robert W. Brown. Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling: voice from the field. 4th edition. Wadsworth Brooks/Cole. 2000. p. 364

35. In counseling, it provides some understanding of the performance of the program and information for potential replication, as well as for improvement.

a. Assessmentb. Process Evaluationc. Monitoring Systemd. Evaluation

ANSWER: b. Process evaluation- focuses on program to implementation, it describe how the program operates, how it delivers and how well it carries out its function. It also provides some understanding performance of the program and information for potential replication as well for improvement.

Reference: Evangeline M. De Jesus. Counseling Psychology. 1st edition. Educational Publishing House. 2006. p. 401

36. Who recognized that therapeutic relationships should be afforded protection as private communications.

a. Remleyb. Herlihyc. Jaffe V. Redmondd. DeBell & Jones

Answer: C - In spite of this gradual recognition of privileged communications in counseling, we are still faced with painful decisions about times when our previous vow to maintain secrecy with clients should be overruled by an even more pressing moral imperative to protect human life.Reference: A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 360

37. This naïve orientation is based on the idea that if you merely study the ethical codes you will be well prepared to handle anything that comes up.

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a. The commonsense trapb. The values trapc. The circumstantiality trapd. All of the above

Answer: A - In truth, while the code provides guidance, most difficulties arise because of personal interpretations of rules and laws that are not necessary based on consensual standards. Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 364

38. Some counselors confuse ethical standards with their own values and religious and moral convictions.

a. The commonsense trapb. The values trapc. The circumstantiality trapd. All of the above

Answer: B – Under the myth that they are being ethical, they attempt to impose their own strong beliefs on their clients, without respect or sensitivity to their unique cultural values.Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 364

39. Making sound ethical decisions is certainly based on contextual circumstances, but never to the point where a client’s rights or safety are compromised.

a. The commonsense trapb. The values trapc. The circumstantiality trapd. All the above

Answer: C – Keeping this traps in mind, the ethical decision – making process involves a number of sequential steps that would be most helpful for you to study.Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 364

40. The client is entitled to receive accurate and clear information regarding the therapeutic process, expected roles, risks and benefits of treatment, cost and contractual arrangements, right to access his or her files, implications of

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diagnostic labeling, alternative treatment options available, and qualifications and training of the counselor.

a. The right to privacyb. The right to protection against harmc. The right to refuse treatmentd. The right to informed consent

Answer: D - Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 368

41. This involves helping the client to understand the meaning of confidentiality and privileged communications, as well as the circumstances under which they may be breached. It also means keeping records secure and protecting the content of counseling sessions.

a. The right to competent treatmentb. The right to refuse treatmentc. The right to protect against harmd. The right to privacy

Answer: D - Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 368

42. This means following the major dictum of all helping professions. It also means protecting the client against himself or herself.

a. The right to protect against harmb. The right to privacyc. The right to refuse treatmentd. The right to competent treatment

Answer: A – Do not harm! It involves more than not hurting a client through negligence.Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 368

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43. A number of new laws were enacted to protect people from being subjected to “chemical straightjackets,” especially with regard to being medicated and “medically managed” to the point where they lost their free will.

a. The right to privacyb. The right to refuse treatmentc. The right to protect against harmd. The right to competent treatment

Answer: B – In emergency situations, or when someone is in imminent danger of inflicting harm, laws now offer limited protection against forcible mental health treatments.Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 368

44. The client is entitled to a counselor who is well trained in the profession and in any specialties that are practice.

a. The right to competent treatmentb. The right to privacyc. The right to refuse treatmentd. The right to informed consent

Answer: A – In illegal language this means that you will be abide by the usual and customary standards of care that are agreed upon by members of the profession.Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler & Robert W. Brown Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling Voice from the Field pp. 368

45. A right granted by and is usually specified in American state rules of evidence and in the relevant professional licensure.

a. Confidentialityb. Privileged Communicationc. Competenced. Legal Considerations for Counselors

Answer: B – It is a legal concept and refers to the right of clients not to have their privileged communications used in court without their consent.Reference: Dr. Evangeline M. De Jesus, Counseling Psychology pp. 395

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46. A form of secrecy and is derived from ethics and it is commonly recognized in law.

a. Personal Relationship with Clientsb. Privileged Communicationc. Confidentiality d. Competence

Answer: C – It relates to matters of professionals ethics. It protects the clients form unauthorized disclosures of any sort by the professional without the informed consent of the client.Reference: Dr. Evangeline M. De Jesus, Counseling Psychology pp. 394

47. An important aspect of program and service planning, implementation, and management.

a. Evaluationb. Ethical Issues c. Competenced. Confidentiality

Answer: A – It provides information needed to make critical decisions regarding the direction, modification and future of the program.Reference: Dr. Evangeline M. De Jesus, Counseling Psychology pp. 401

48. Represents the professional values of a profession translated into standards of conduct for the membership.

a. Ethical Issuesb. Evaluation Processc. Code of Ethicsd. Confidentiality

Answer: C – It provide structure or guidelines for its membership to anticipate in these Interactions with the profession and the membership.Reference: Dr. Evangeline M. De Jesus, Counseling Psychology pp. 397

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49. Suggest the seven general principles of confidentiality and communication.

a. Robert H. Woodyb. Samuel T. Gladdingc. Robert L. Gibsond. Schneider

Answer: D – The seven general principles of confidentiality and communication was suggested by Schneider.Reference: Dr. Evangeline M. De Jesus, Counseling Psychology pp. 394

50. Defined as the suggested standards of conduct based on a consensus value set.

a. Code of Ethicsb. Ethical issuesc. Ethicsd. Competence

Answer: C – The analysis of good versus bad choices, moral versus immoral motives, helpful versus harmful actions.Reference: Dr. Evangeline M. De Jesus, Counseling Psychology pp. 392