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    Friday, March 30, 2012

    Taimoor Gondal Diplomat

    Join Date: Jul 2010Location: Mandi BahauddinPosts: 1,757Thanks: 1,623Thanked 2,062 Times in 1,053 Posts

    Current Affairs Notes


    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok,Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers ofASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.ASEAN covers an area of 4.46 million km, 3% of the total land area of Earth, with a population ofapproximately 600 million people, 8.8% of the world population. In 2010, its combined nominal GDP hadgrown to US$1.8 trillion. If ASEAN was a single entity, it would rank as the ninth largest economy in theworld.


    As set out in the ASEAN Declaration, the aims and purposes of ASEAN are:1. To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region throughjoint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for aprosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations;2. To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in therelationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter;

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  • 3. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic,social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields;4. To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational,professional, technical and administrative spheres;5. To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of their agriculture and industries, theexpansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, theimprovement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standardsof their peoples;6. To promote Southeast Asian studies; and7. To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations withsimilar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.


    In their relations with one another, the ASEAN Member States have adopted the following fundamentalprinciples, as contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) of 1976:1. Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity ofall nations;2. The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion orcoercion;3. Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another;4. Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner;5. Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and6. Effective cooperation among themselves.


    The ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted by the ASEAN Leaders on the 30th Anniversary of ASEAN, agreed on ashared vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stabilityand prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caringsocieties.At the 9th ASEAN Summit in 2003, the ASEAN Leaders resolved that an ASEAN Community shall beestablished.At the 12th ASEAN Summit in January 2007, the Leaders affirmed their strong commitment to acceleratethe establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015 and signed the Cebu Declaration on the Accelerationof the Establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015.The ASEAN Community is comprised of three pillars, namely the ASEAN Political-Security Community,ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community. Each pillar has its own Blueprint,and, together with the Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) Strategic Framework and IAI Work PlanPhase II (2009-2015), they form the Roadmap for and ASEAN Community 2009-2015.


    The ASEAN Charter serves as a firm foundation in achieving the ASEAN Community by providing legalstatus and institutional framework for ASEAN. It also codifies ASEAN norms, rules and values; sets cleartargets for ASEAN; and presents accountability and compliance.The ASEAN Charter entered into force on 15 December 2008. A gathering of the ASEAN Foreign Ministerswas held at the ASEAN Secretariat in Jakarta to mark this very historic occasion for ASEAN.With the entry into force of the ASEAN Charter, ASEAN will henceforth operate under a new legalframework and establish a number of new organs to boost its community-building process.In effect, the ASEAN Charter has become a legally binding agreement among the 10 ASEAN MemberStates.

    Enlargement of ASEAN:-

    During the 1990s, the bloc experienced an increase in both membership and drive for further integration.In 1990, Malaysia proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus comprising the then members ofASEAN as well as the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea, with the intention ofcounterbalancing the growing influence of the United States in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC) and in the Asian region as a whole. This proposal failed, however, because of heavy opposition

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    from the United States and Japan. Despite this failure, member states continued to work for furtherintegration and ASEAN Plus Three was created in 1997.In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasingtariffs and as a goal to increase the regions competitive advantage as a production base geared for theworld market. This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area. After the East AsianFinancial Crisis of 1997, a revival of the Malaysian proposal was established in Chiang Mai, known as theChiang Mai Initiative, which calls for better integration between the economies of ASEAN as well as theASEAN Plus Three countries (China, Japan, and South Korea).Aside from improving each member state's economies, the bloc also focused on peace and stability in theregion. On 15 December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed withthe intention of turning Southeast Asia into a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The treaty took effect on 28March 1997 after all but one of the member states have ratified it. It became fully effective on 21 June2001, after the Philippines ratified it, effectively banning all nuclear weapons in the region.Early 2011, East Timor plans to submit a letter of application to the ASEAN Secretariat in Indonesia to bethe eleventh member of ASEAN at the summit in Jakarta. Indonesia has shown a warm welcome to EastTimor.[/SIZE]

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    The Following 17 Users Say Thank You to Taimoor Gondal For This Useful Post:

    abdul basit lone (Thursday, July 19, 2012), anam047 (Friday, April 27, 2012), arbab01 (Sunday, October06, 2013), BALOCHISTAN (Friday, October 12, 2012), hafizahmedraza (Friday, November 01, 2013),inash (Wednesday, December 12, 2012), isha saeed (Monday, July 15, 2013), Jolie Dame (Thursday,August 22, 2013), khyamakbar (Tuesday, January 08, 2013), king khan jadoon (Saturday, April 21,2012), Malmeena Khan (Thursday, June 21, 2012), Mehwish Dolly (Friday, October 12, 2012), MehwishPervez (Friday, December 28, 2012), Raptor (Wednesday, August 15, 2012), Rescuer 1122 (Friday,December 28, 2012), Rushna Qureshi (Saturday, October 06, 2012), syeda naqvi (Saturday, May 26,2012)

    Friday, March 30, 2012

    Taimoor Gondal Diplomat

    Join Date: Jul 2010Location: Mandi BahauddinPosts: 1,757Thanks: 1,623Thanked 2,062 Times in 1,053 Posts

    Baluchistan conflict

    The Government of Pakistan over Baluchistan, the country's largest province. Recently,separatists have also clashed with Islamic Republic of Iran over its respective Balochregion, which borders Pakistan. Shortly after Pakistan's creation in 1947, the Army of theIslamic Republic had to subdue insurgents based in Kalat who rejected the King of Kalatdecision to accede to Pakistan, reminiscent of the Indian Army's operation in thePrincipality state of Hyderabad. The movement gained momentum during the 1960s, andamid consistent political disorder, the government ordered a military operation into theregion in 1973, assisted by Iran, and inflicted heavy casualties on the separatists. Themovement was largely quelled after the imposition of martial law in 1977, after whichBaluchistan witnessed significant development. After insurgency groups againmushroomed in the 1990s and 2000s, the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and the war inNorth-West Pakistan exacerbated the conflict, most recently manifested in the killings of

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  • non-Baloch settlers in the province by separatists since 2006.


    1. First conflict 1948 (led by Prince Abdul Karim Khan)

    In April 1948, Baloch nationalists claim that the central government sent the Pakistanarmy, which allegedly forced Mir Ahmed Yar Khan to give up his state, Kalat. Kalat was alandlocked British protectorate that comprised roughly 22%23% of Baluchistan. MirAhmed Yar Khan signed an accession agreement ending Kalat's de facto independence.His brother, Prince Abdul Karim Khan, was a powerful governor of a section of Kalat, aposition that he was removed from after accession. He decided to initiate an insurgencyagainst Pakistan. On the night of May 16, 1948 Prince Abdul Karim Khan initiated aseparatist movement against the Pakistani government. He conducted guerrilla warfarebased in Afghanistan against the Pakistan army.

    2. Second conflict 195859 (led by Nawab Nowroz Khan)

    Nawab Nowroz Khan took up arms in resistance to the One Unit policy, which decreasedgovernment represenation for tribal leaders. He and his followers started a guerrilla waragainst Pakistan. Nowroz Khan and his followers were charged with treason and arrestedand confined in Hyderabad jail. Five of his family members (sons and nephews) weresubsequently hanged under charges of aiding murder of Pakistani troops and treason.Nawab Nowroz Khan later died in captivity.

    3. Third conflict 196369 (led by Nawab Khair Baksh Marri)

    After the second conflict, the Federal government sent the Army to build new militarybases in the key conflict areas of Baluchistan in order to resist further chaos. Nawab KhairBaksh marri appointed an unknow shero marri to lead like-minded militants in guerrillawarfare by creating their own insurgent bases spread out over 45,000 miles (72,000 km)of land, from the Mengal tribal area in the south to the Marri and Bugti tribal areas in thenorth. Their goal was to force Pakistan to share revenue generated from the Sui gas fieldswith the tribal leaders. The insurgents bombed railway tracks and ambushed convoys.The Army retaliated by destroying vast areas of the Marri tribe's land. This insurgencyended in 1969 and the Baloch separatists agreed to a ceasefire. Yahya Khan abolished the"One Unit" policy. This eventually led to the recognition of Baluchistan as the fourthprovince of West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) in 1970, containing all the Baluchistaniprincely states, the High Commissioners Province and Gwadar, an 800 km2 coastal areapurchased by the Pakistani Government from Oman.

    4. Fourth conflict 197377 (led by Nawab Khair Baksh Marri)

    Citing treason, President Bhutto dismissed the provincial governments of Baluchistan andNWFP and imposed martial law in those provinces. Dismissal of the provincialgovernments led to armed insurgency. Khair Bakhsh Marri formed the BaluchistanPeoples Liberation Front (BPLF), which led large numbers of Marri and Mengal tribesmeninto guerrilla warfare against the central government. According to some authors, thePakistani military lost 300 to 400 soldiers during the conflict with the Balochi separatists,while between 7,300 and 9,000 Balochi militants and civilians were killed.

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  • 5. Fifth conflict 2004 to date (led by Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and Mir BalachMarri)

    In 2005, the Baluch political leaders Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and Mir Balach Marripresented a 15-point agenda to the Pakistan government. Their stated demands includedgreater control of the province's resources and a Moratorium on the construction ofmilitary bases. On 15 December 2005, Inspector-General of Frontier Corps Maj GenShujaat Zamir Dar and his deputy Brig Salim Nawaz (the current IGFC) were woundedafter shots were fired at their helicopter in Baluchistan province. The provincial interiorsecretary later said that "both of them were wounded in the leg but both are in stablecondition." The two men had been visiting Kohlu, about 220 km (135 miles) south-east ofQuetta, when their aircraft came under fire. The helicopter landed safely.In August 2006, Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, 79 years old, was killed in fighting with thePakistan Army in which at least 60 Pakistani soldiers and 7 officers were killed. He wascharged by Pakistan's government of a series of bomb blasts, killings of the people heprofessed to protect and the rocket attack on the President Pervez Musharraf.In April 2009, Baloch National Movement president Ghulam Mohammed Baloch and twoother nationalist leaders (Lala Munir and Sher Muhammad), were seized from a small legaloffice and were allegedly "handcuffed, blindfolded and hustled into a waiting pickup truckwhich is in still use of intelligence forces in front of their lawyer and neighboringshopkeepers."The gunmen were allegedly speaking in Persian (a national language ofneighboring Afghanistan and Iran) Five days later on April 8 their bodies, "riddled withbullets" were found in a commercial area.The BLA claims Pakistani forces were behind...