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  • Chapter 10Applications of Nanotechnology:Biology & NanotechnologyNANO 101Introduction to Nanotechnology*

  • *OverviewMuch biology is mediated in the 1-100 nm rangeStructures and sizesInspiration for Self Assembly and Molecular Machine concepts

  • Nanotech and BiologyBioNanotechnology: use of biology (biological molecules) in nanotech use of biology as a model for a nanotechnology systemEx. DNA computing

    Nanobiotechnology: use of nanostructures to enhance biology or biotechuse of nanotechnology for creating or improving biotech systems or processesEx. Lab-on-a-chip assays*

  • Lab on a ChipCombining all lab functions in one device

    Soft lithographyPDMS casting

    Source: Nature Video*

  • Lab on a Chip: Research*

  • Lab on a Chip: Diagnosis*

  • How Biology Feels on the NanoscaleHydro environments v. carbon-based life

    What are these tiny species in a cell?Sugars (carbohydrates)Fatty acids (lipids)Nucleotides (DNA)Amino Acids (proteins)*

  • *CarbohydratesRoles:Mechanical support (large carbohydrates, ex. cellulose)Metabolized and used for energySugars are basic building blocks general formula: (CH2O)n examples glucose (n= 6) fructose (n= 6) ribose (n= 5)loop on themselves to form ringsrings attach to make chains of many types

  • *Basic Carbohydrate Examplesglucosefructoseribosechain formation: sugarssimplest: sucrose

    monosaccharides; disaccharides; polysaccharides

  • Complex Carbohydrate Examples*

  • *LipidsRoles:Energy (concentrated energy reserve)Structural (ex. membranes)

    Fatty acids are basic building blockslong carbon chains with COOH head groupamphiphilic interesting self-assembled structuressaturated; monounsaturated; polyunsaturated

    Oleic acidSource: Univ. of Calgary

  • PhospholipidsPair of fatty acids, connected by glycerol and phosphate groupUsually also bonded to a small hydrophilic moleculeCapable of self-assembly and self-repair!*Source: PB Works

  • *DNARoles:Stores, replicates informationAlong with RNA and proteins, translates info into productNucleotides are basic building blocksDeoxidized ribose rings chained together with phosphate bridgesPendant on the ribose rings are the four basesSpecific hydrogen bonding based pairingadeninecytosineguaninethymine

  • *Self- assembled DNA structure

  • *Base pair hydrogen bonding

  • *DNA - chromosome structure

  • DNA Transcription*

  • RNA Transcription*

  • *ProteinsRoles:Perform many many many rolesExamples include: hormones; transportation of other molecules; enzymes; detecting signals; structural supportAmino Acids are basic building blocksCarbon connected to: NH3 (amino group)COOH (carboxyl group)Side chainHydrogen

  • *The 20 amino acids

  • *Protein Structure

  • *Globular Protein Structure

  • Applications of BioNanotech:Molecular MotorsATP Synthase:as protons flow through membrane, spinsin cells, this mechanical energy is used for the ADP ATP rxn


  • *ATP Rotor and Attached SphereConstructing Biological Motor Powered Nanomechanical Devicesby Carlo Montemagno*, George Bachand, Scott Stelick, Marlene Bachand

  • *DNA (Genomic) microarraysSynthesis of Gene ChipsBiomolecular Engineering Volume 22, Issues 56, December 2005, Pages 173184

  • *Gene Chips

  • *Application of BioNanotech:Scaffolded DNA OrigamiUse short single strands of DNA (staples) to direct folding of long strands of DNA to make nanostructures

  • *

  • *Application of BioNanotech: Fluorescence taggingFluorescence tag attached to cDNAOrganic dyesCy3 and Cy5Quantum Dots

  • *Application of NanoBiotech: Metal Nanoparticle/Film Binding AssaysSurface plasmon resonanceColorimetric shifts indicate bindingCan be accomplished using 10-100 nm Au or Ag particles or films

  • *Protein BindingBasic phenomenon in much of biology

  • *Protein Microarray ScreeningSurface Plasmon ResonanceThe optical properties (reflectivity or spectral absorption) of a metal thin film or particle is determined by the size, shape, and number of any molecules attached to it. Input LightOutput Lightglassgoldspecular anglespecular angle

  • *Protein Microarray ScreeningAt some particular angle or wavelength, most of the input light energy will be converted to a plasmonInput Lightoutput lightSpecular Anglespecular anglespecular angle or wavelengthreflectivityreflectivity = output/inputReflectivity minimum is dependent on type of molecule bonded

  • *Protein Microarray ScreeningMonitor SPR curves over time to track binding events

  • Raman SpectroscopyGives information about vibrational (low energy) states*

  • Surface Enhanced Raman SpectroscopyNoble metal nanoparticles act as antennas*Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 5312-5328

  • *Nanoparticle Photothermal TherapySurface Plasmon Resonance effect using a metal nanoshell in the IR water window

  • MagnetismMagnetic field induces changes in alignment of electron spins in a substanceParamagnetism: unpaired spin magnetic moment is alligned with applied fieldFerromagnetism: unpaired spins align in absence of magnetic fieldDiamagnatism: a magnetic moment opposing the applied field from paired electrons *

  • *

  • Magnetic MemoryNon-volatile (is not lost when power is removed)Co alloy materialMagnetic domains are 1 and 0


  • Next Gen: Spin Torque TransferSpintronics: Integrated magnetic and electronic propertiesNew materials, fab in conjunction with silicon elementsCommercialized-> Everspin


  • Bottom Up : 12 atom bitAntiferromagnetic bitsNeeds 5K temps to operate*

  • Magnetic ImagingMRI contrast agentsMagnetic Particle Imaging*Goodwill, P. W., Saritas, E. U., Croft, L. R., Kim, T. N., Krishnan, K. M., Schaffer, D. V. and Conolly, S. M. (2012), X-Space MPI: Magnetic Nanoparticles for Safe Medical Imaging. Adv. Mater., 24:38703877. doi:10.1002/adma.201200221Choi, al. A hybrid nanoparticle probe for dual-modality positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.47, 62596262 (2008)

    *No need for specialized lab, trained professionals, less time, less sample needed, etc.



    *DNA in all of the cells in one human body can go around the circumference of the world 10 million times. ***