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    Supporting Kinship Care: Research andResearch andResearch andResearch andStrategies to Promote and FundStrategies to Promote and FundStrategies to Promote and FundStrategies to Promote and FundPlacement with RelativesPlacement with RelativesPlacement with RelativesPlacement with Relatives

    Kay Casey, M.A.Kay Casey, M.A.Kay Casey, M.A.Kay Casey, M.A.

    Maia Hurley, Ph.D., M.P.P.Maia Hurley, Ph.D., M.P.P.Maia Hurley, Ph.D., M.P.P.Maia Hurley, Ph.D., M.P.P.

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    Presentation OverviewPresentation OverviewPresentation OverviewPresentation Overview

    Legislative Background & Context

    Overview of Research Findings & Policy Implications

    Available Funding for Kinship Caregiver Support

    Strategies for States to Leverage Available Funding

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    Legislative Context & Policy TrendsLegislative Context & Policy TrendsLegislative Context & Policy TrendsLegislative Context & Policy Trends

    Increase in reports of child abuse/neglect and numberof children in foster care

    Shifting demographic trends in foster care Overrepresentation of minority children

    Severe health needs

    Debate over Best Interest of Child Caregiver type (Relative vs. Non-Relative)

    Placement type (Permanent Home vs. Long-Term Foster Care)

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    Kinship Care OverviewKinship Care OverviewKinship Care OverviewKinship Care Overview

    Formal vs. Informal Kinship Care

    Integration of Formal Kinship Care Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997

    Fostering Connections Act of 2008

    Characteristics of kinship foster caregivers are differentthan non-relative foster caregivers

    Subsidized guardianship seen as alternative permanentplacement when adoption is not an option

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    WellWellWellWell----being of Children in Nonbeing of Children in Nonbeing of Children in Nonbeing of Children in Non----Relative Foster CareRelative Foster CareRelative Foster CareRelative Foster Care

    Shaped by environment and experiences beforeentering, as well as during, placement

    Disproportionately high rates of: Physical, developmental, mental health, behavioral problems

    Increased risk of insecure or disordered attachment

    Lower rates of school readiness and academicachievement

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    WellWellWellWell----Being of Children in Kinship Foster CareBeing of Children in Kinship Foster CareBeing of Children in Kinship Foster CareBeing of Children in Kinship Foster Care

    Consistent with notion that children are best served intheir own homes

    Maintains attachment relationships; serves as bufferagainst trauma of separation

    Research provides mixed results for well-being ofchildren in kinship foster care Increased placement stability

    Fewer behavior problems?

    Higher academic functioning?

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    Description of Data & MethodsDescription of Data & MethodsDescription of Data & MethodsDescription of Data & Methods

    National Survey of Child and AdolescentWellbeing (NSCAW), Restricted Release, Waves

    1-4

    Collects data from children and families who

    have had contact with the child welfare system

    Logistic regression analysis examined: Demographic predictors of children placed in kinship foster vs. non-relative care

    Demographic predictors of kinship foster vs. non-relative caregivers

    Predictors of severe scores on 3 domains of well-being for children (Behavior, Adaptive Skills,Developmental/Educational)

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    Characteristics of Children in Kinship Foster CareCharacteristics of Children in Kinship Foster CareCharacteristics of Children in Kinship Foster CareCharacteristics of Children in Kinship Foster Care

    Child Age

    Gender

    .0032.07 (.01; .40)Special Education

    .07342.05 (.93; 4.49)3-5 years

    .04671.99 (1.01; 3.92)Female

    Kinship Foster Care vs. NonKinship Foster Care vs. NonKinship Foster Care vs. NonKinship Foster Care vs. Non----Relative Foster CareRelative Foster CareRelative Foster CareRelative Foster Care

    PPPP----valuevaluevaluevalueOR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)

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    Characteristics of Kinship Foster CaregiversCharacteristics of Kinship Foster CaregiversCharacteristics of Kinship Foster CaregiversCharacteristics of Kinship Foster Caregivers

    .0003.14 (.05; .40)35-44

    Caregiver Age

    Overall Health

    .00493.96 (1.54; 10.23)Good

    .000015.14 (4.28; 53.54)Fair

    .05762.44 (.97; 6.12)Very Good

    .0047.27 (.11; .66)45-54

    .0000.14 (.06; .35)

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    Impact of Caregiver Type on Severe ScoresImpact of Caregiver Type on Severe ScoresImpact of Caregiver Type on Severe ScoresImpact of Caregiver Type on Severe Scores

    Adaptive SkillsAdaptive SkillsAdaptive SkillsAdaptive Skills

    BehaviorBehaviorBehaviorBehavior

    .0301.30 (.10; .89)Kinship Foster Care

    .0273.21 (.05; .83)Kinship Foster Care

    Children in OOH PlacementChildren in OOH PlacementChildren in OOH PlacementChildren in OOH Placement

    PPPP----valuevaluevaluevalueOR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)

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    Demographic Predictors of Severe ScoresDemographic Predictors of Severe ScoresDemographic Predictors of Severe ScoresDemographic Predictors of Severe Scores

    .0301.13 (.10; .89)Hispanic

    Race/Ethnicity

    .03203.80 (1.13; 12.84)Severe

    Wave 1 Scores

    Gender

    .0022.20 (.07; .55)Female

    Adaptive Skills, Children in OOH PlacementAdaptive Skills, Children in OOH PlacementAdaptive Skills, Children in OOH PlacementAdaptive Skills, Children in OOH Placement

    PPPP----valuevaluevaluevalueOR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)

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    Demographic Predictors of Severe ScoresDemographic Predictors of Severe ScoresDemographic Predictors of Severe ScoresDemographic Predictors of Severe Scores

    .02948.28 (1.24; 55.18)SevereWave 1 Scores

    Child Age

    .00215.99 (1.95; 18.37)0-4 years

    Developmental/Educational, Children in OOH PlacementDevelopmental/Educational, Children in OOH PlacementDevelopmental/Educational, Children in OOH PlacementDevelopmental/Educational, Children in OOH Placement

    PPPP----valuevaluevaluevalueOR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)OR (90% CI)

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    Funding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship Placements

    2005 American Community Survey identified 6.7million children residing in grandparent or other

    relative headed households

    About 20% of relative caregivers live in poverty.

    With only about 25% of children in kinshipplacements receive a payment.

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    Funding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship Placements

    In 2004 of the 509,662 children in out of homecare, 23.5% were living with relatives.

    One in four children living with relatives are in longterm foster care

    Subsidized guardianships are a relatively newemphasis.

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    Funding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship PlacementsFunding Facts for Kinship Placements

    Massachusetts had the first program in 1983

    By 2004, 35 states and the District of Columbia hadsubsidized guardianship programs.

    In 2005,7 states had demonstration waiverprograms using Title IV-E Foster Care and AdoptionAssistance to support guardianship programs.

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    Funding for Kinship PlacementsFunding for Kinship PlacementsFunding for Kinship PlacementsFunding for Kinship Placements

    TANF Child Only Grants

    TANF Kinship Placements Title IV-E Relative Foster Home

    Title IV-E Guardianship Assistance Program (GAP)

    Title IV-E Adoption Assistance

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    TANF Child OnlyTANF Child OnlyTANF Child OnlyTANF Child Only

    Grandparents and other relatives may receive thepayment allowed for one child in the home.

    No income/resources of relative caregiver are takeninto consideration.

    Child only payments range from $89 to $350

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    TANFTANFTANFTANF ---- Kinship Care ProgramsKinship Care ProgramsKinship Care ProgramsKinship Care Programs

    Nationally about a half of states have some versionof a TANF funded kinship care program

    Special requirements often accompany a childwelfare program funded by TANF such as anadjudication of dependency, home study/approvalprocess, custody and control of the state agency.

    Payments higher than child only but lower than foster

    care payments

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    Title IVTitle IVTitle IVTitle IV----E Relative Foster CareE Relative Foster CareE Relative Foster CareE Relative Foster Care

    Relatives entitled to foster care board rate, childMedicaid, support services

    Payments equal to state board rates

    Licensing requirements may be more lenient thannon relative foster care licensing

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    Title IVTitle IVTitle IVTitle IV----E Guardianship Assistance Payments (GAP)E Guardianship Assistance Payments (GAP)E Guardianship Assistance Payments (GAP)E Guardianship Assistance Payments (GAP)

    Fostering Successful Connections and IncreaseAdoption Assistance Act of 2008 created a new

    category of children eligible for Title IV-Ereimbursement.

    Provides support to relative caregivers for childrenwho have been in foster care for the last 6 monthsand who are eligible for Title IV -E Foster Care

    funds.

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    Title IVTitle IVTitle IVTitle IV----E Guardianship Assistance Payments (ContE Guardianship Assistance Payments (ContE Guardianship Assistance Payments (ContE Guardianship Assistance Payments (Contd)d)d)d)

    The childs reunification with his/her birthparents hasbeen ruled out as viable option.

    Licensing for relative to receive Title IV-E foster caremaintenance payments and therefore, qualify for

    guardianship assistance.

    Payments must not exceed the foster care board

    payment but states have latitude to set the rate.

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    Title IVTitle IVTitle IVTitle IV----E Guardianship Assistance Payments (ContE Guardianship Assistance Payments (ContE Guardianship Assistance Payments (ContE Guardianship Assistance Payments (Contd)d)d)d)

    States may pay nonrecurring costs up to $2,000associated with obtaining legal guardianship

    State must provide supported guardianshipassistance payments until the age of 18, unless the

    state determines the guardian in no longer eligible.

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    Title IVTitle IVTitle IVTitle IV----E Adoption Assistance SubsidyE Adoption Assistance SubsidyE Adoption Assistance SubsidyE Adoption Assistance Subsidy

    Relatives who adopt may receive a subsidy that is nohigher than the foster care board payment.

    Relatives must meet all the requirements for anapproved home study, criminal background checks

    and training for prospective adoptive parents

    Eligible for up to $2,000 nonrecurring expense

    reimbursement

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    Additional Funding Sources for Kinship PlacementsAdditional Funding Sources for Kinship PlacementsAdditional Funding Sources for Kinship PlacementsAdditional Funding Sources for Kinship Placements

    Medicaid

    Eligible for Chafee Program services and Educationand Training Vouchers (ETV)

    Promoting Safe and Stable Families Older Americans Act, National Family Caregiver

    Support Program Child Care and Development Fund

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    Support Services of Kinship CareSupport Services of Kinship CareSupport Services of Kinship CareSupport Services of Kinship Care

    Legal Services

    Wraparound Services

    Respite Care

    Mentoring (i.e Big Brother/Big Sister)

    Mental health services for relative caregiver and the

    child

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    Funding Strategy for Kinship CareFunding Strategy for Kinship CareFunding Strategy for Kinship CareFunding Strategy for Kinship Care

    Enhance Title IV-E administrative and trainingclaiming mechanisms to provide ongoing funding

    Consider TANF Kinship Care for non Title IV-Echildren in kinship placements

    Identify TANF non-assistance for kinship placementsthat will provide support services

    Collaboration with federal and state agenciesregarding available funding and services.