what did they say in the hall of the dead? language d- what did they say in the hall of the dead?...

Download WHAT DID THEY SAY IN THE HALL OF THE DEAD? LANGUAGE d- WHAT DID THEY SAY IN THE HALL OF THE DEAD? LANGUAGE

If you can't read please download the document

Post on 21-Jan-2020

0 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • ii

    WHAT DID THEY SAY IN THE HALL OF THE DEAD?

    LANGUAGE AND IDENTITY IN THE CERRO MARAVILLA HEARINGS

    by

    Germán Negrón Rivera

    B.A. University of Puerto Rico, 1988

    M.A. University of Puerto Rico, 1997

    Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of

    Arts and Sciences in partial fulfillment

    of the requirements for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    University of Pittsburgh

    2010

  • ii

    UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

    FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

    This dissertation was presented

    by

    Germán Negrón Rivera

    It was defended on

    April 16, 2010

    and approved by

    Susan Berk-Seligson, Associate Professor, Spanish and Portuguese Department, Vanderbilt

    University

    Juan Duchesne Winter, Professor, Department of Hispanic Languages and Literatures

    Barbara Johnstone, Professor, English Department, Carnegie Mellon University

    Dissertation Advisor: Scott Kiesling, Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics

  • iii

    Copyright © by Germán Negrón Rivera

    2010

  • iv

    WHAT DID THEY SAY IN THE HALL OF THE DEAD?

    LANGUAGE AND IDENTITY IN THE CERRO MARAVILLA HEARINGS

    Germán Negrón Rivera, Ph.D.

    University of Pittsburgh, 2010

    Identity has become a major interest for researchers in the areas of linguistic anthropology and

    sociolinguistics. Recent understandings of identity emphasize its malleability and fluidity. This

    conceptualization of identities as malleable comes from the realization that speakers relate

    strategically to propositions and their interlocutors in order to achieve their communicative

    goals.

    This study is an exploration of the (co-)construction of identities in an institutional

    context, specifically in the Cerro Maravilla hearings. I examine the interactions between the

    Senate‘s main investigator, Héctor Rivera Cruz, and five witnesses in order to explore how

    identities were created and how speakers managed the interactions.

    In chapter 2, I discuss the theoretical framework and the literature. The concepts of

    identity, linguistic ideologies, power, discourses, indexicalities, and stances are discussed.

    Chapter 3 is a literature review of studies concerned with language in the legal context,

    particularly in trials. In chapter 4, I provide a historical background to contextualize the Cerro

    Maravilla events and the Senate hearings. The next chapter is the methodology. In Chapter 6, I

    present the analyses of the interactions between Rivera Cruz and five witnesses. In chapter 7, I

    discuss the findings. Chapter 8 is the conclusion.

    The present study supports the notion that power is better understood as emergent in

    interactions, even when interactional resources are unequally available to speakers. However, it

  • v

    is not independent of discourses that assign value to ways of speaking and ways of interacting. I

    claim that speakers combine stances in creative and unexpected ways, constructing memorable

    identities.

    The overarching question that motivated this study was: Why did people talk about

    Rivera Cruz‘s performance and way of speaking? I argue that the answer lies in his creative

    stance taking through which he was able to provoke a clash of linguistic ideologies in an

    unexpected and unconventional way. I argue that Rivera Cruz‘s performance attests to the

    creativity and the immense possibilities that individuals have for creating identities, while this

    individuality is still connected with discourses that exist in the broad society.

  • vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... VI

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................................ XII

     INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 1

     FRAMEWORK .......................................................................................................... 11

    2.1 IDENTITY.......................................................................................................... 13

     The Public and the Personal: Malleability and Continuity in Identity

    Creation.. .................................................................................................... 29

    2.2 INDEXICALITIES ............................................................................................ 33

     Direct and Indirect Indexicality ............................................................... 36

     Indexical Orders and Interior and Exterior Indexical Meanings ......... 38

     Indexical Presupposition and Indexical Entailment ............................... 43

     Problem with the Distinction between Indexical Presupposition and

    Entailment .................................................................................................. 47

    2.3 DISCOURSE AND POWER ............................................................................ 49

     Foucault and the Elusiveness of Power .................................................... 49

     The Uncomfortable Relationship between Agency and Social

    Structures.................................................................................................... 54

     The Limitations in the Search of Power .................................................. 56

  • vii

    2.4 LINGUISTIC IDEOLOGIES ........................................................................... 58

     Definitions ................................................................................................... 58

     Mediating between Linguistic Forms and Social Meanings .................. 59

     Ideologies and Interest ............................................................................... 62

     Stances ......................................................................................................... 65

     Indexical Processes in Stance Taking ....................................................... 65

     Making Sense of Stances ........................................................................... 72

     Collective memory ............................................................................... 75

     LANGUAGE IN THE LEGAL CONTEXT ............................................................ 78

    3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 78

    3.2 LANGUAGE IN THE LEGAL CONTEXT AND ITS FORM AND

    FUNCTION ......................................................................................................... 80

    3.3 THE BOUNTY OF PRE-ALLOCATION....................................................... 83

    3.4 MANIPULATION OF THE LINGUISTIC RESOURCES AND THE

    INTERACTION WITH CULTURAL IDEOLOGIES.................................... 87

    3.5 CODA ................................................................................................................ 112

     Four Implications for this Study of the Literature Reviewed.............. 114

     A Note on the Cerro Maravilla Hearings .............................................. 115

     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ............................................................................ 116

    4.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 116

    4.2 BEFORE THE INVASION ............................................................................ 117

    4.3 THE FIRST THREE DECADES UNDER AMERICAN FLAG ................ 119

    4.4 THE TURBULENT DECADE OF THE 1930’S........................................... 123

  • viii

    4.5 THE 1940’S: THE RISE OF THE POPULAR DEMOCRATIC

    PARTY ............................................................................................................... 128

    4.6 THE RETURN OF THE NATIONALIST PARTY AND THE

    CONSTITUTION ............................................................................................. 131

    4.7 THE RISE OF THE PRO-STATEHOOD MOVEMENT AND THE COLD

    WAR ................................................................................................................... 137

    4.8 1978: THE YEAR OF THE KILLINGS AT CERRO MARAVILLA ....... 141

    4.9 THE CERRO MARAVILLA CASE .............................................................. 146

     The Official Version ................................................................................. 146

     The Department of Justice Investigations ............................................. 149

     The Hearings Findings .............................................