Were the “Dark Ages” really that Dark?. PeriodizationPeriodization Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1300 Late Middle Ages: 1300-1450.

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Slide 1 Were the Dark Ages really that Dark? Slide 2 PeriodizationPeriodization Early Middle Ages: 500 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 1300 Late Middle Ages: 1300-1450 Slide 3 The Dark Ages: Key Characteristics Feudalism Knights Castles Chivalry Canon Law Cathedrals Stained Glass Windows Monasticism Manor/Manorialism Serfdom Heavy Plow Horseshoe Horse Collar Three-Field System Guilds Crusades Scholasticism Universities Commercial Revolution Plagues/disease Superstition Church Hierarchy Poor hygiene & sanitation Widespread illiteracy Slide 4 Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service. Slide 5 Parts of a Medieval Castle Parts of a Medieval Castle Parts of a Medieval Castle Parts of a Medieval Castle Slide 6 The Road to Knighthood The Road to Knighthood The Road to Knighthood The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE Slide 7 Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Displays of courage & valor in combat Respect toward women Devotion to a feudal lord & heavenly lord Slide 8 The Medieval Church Hierarchy The Medieval Church Hierarchy The Medieval Church Hierarchy The Medieval Church Hierarchy PopeCardinals (Curia)ArchbishopsBishopsParish Priests filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. Slide 9 The Power of the Medieval Church The Power of the Medieval Church The Power of the Medieval Church The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants]. Slide 10 Cathedrals: Two Architectural Styles Cathedrals: Two Architectural Styles Cathedrals: Two Architectural Styles Cathedrals: Two Architectural Styles Gothic Romanesque Slide 11 Stained Glass Windows Stained Glass Windows Stained Glass Windows Stained Glass Windows e For the Glory of God e For Religious Instruction Slide 12 Late Medieval Church Art Late Medieval Church Art Late Medieval Church Art Late Medieval Church Art Relinquary, late 12c Chalice, paten, and straw, mid-13c Slide 13 Monasticism Goal: create communities of men & women dedicated to God; serve as moral example to rest of world St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface] Slide 14 Illuminated Manuscripts Illuminated Manuscripts Illuminated Manuscripts Illuminated Manuscripts Slide 15 The Medieval Manor The Medieval Manor The Medieval Manor The Medieval Manor Slide 16 Slide 17 Life on the Medieval Manor Life on the Medieval Manor Life on the Medieval Manor Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work Slide 18 An Agricultural Revolution (1000- 1300) The heavy plow Horseshoe Horses could now be used to plow fields plowed 3 times more land a day Horse Collar transferred strain from animals neck to withers did not strangle animal Three-Field System two-fields planted each season one left fallow Slide 19 Medieval Guilds Medieval Guilds Medieval Guilds Medieval Guilds Guild Hall Commercial Monopoly: C ontrolled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices Slide 20 Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade Slide 21 Christian Crusades: East and West Christian Crusades: East and West Christian Crusades: East and West Christian Crusades: East and West Slide 22 Medieval Universities Medieval Universities Medieval Universities Medieval Universities Slide 23 Medieval Trade Medieval Trade Medieval Trade Medieval Trade Slide 24 The Medieval Mind: William Manchester Violent Devoutly Christian (in name rather than deed) Lack of Ego (no sense of self) No awareness of time Nothing would ever change (until death) Slide 25 What caused the down fall of the three pillars of the Middle Ages? Why? Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 The Culprits Slide 29 SymptomsSymptoms Buboe Dark Blotches on Skin Slide 30 Causes of the Black Death: Little Ice Age in Europe (1300-1450) Great Famine (1315-1322)= chronic malnutrition Govts ineffective in famine relief Little land left in Europe for agriculture New long-distance trade routes opened (Italians); acquire grain from abroad Slide 31 1346: Plague Reaches Caffa Slide 32 Slide 33 Attempts to Stop the Plague A Doctors Robe Leeching Slide 34 Attempts to Stop the Plague Flagellanti: Self-inflicted penance for our sins! Slide 35 Attempts to Stop the Plague Pogroms against the Jews Golden Circle obligatory badge Jew hat Slide 36 Medieval Art & the Plague An obsession with death. Slide 37 Consequences of the Black Death: Killed 1/3 of European population (19-38 million) Trade declined; prices rose (inflation); rise in real wages Guilds opened up to new members Serfdom ends in Western Europe Nobles resist demands for higher wages (English Statute of Laborers (1351) Peasant Revolts (English Peasants Revolt of 1381) Standard of living in towns & per capita income rose Slide 38 Slide 39 Controversy over succession to French throne (Edward III vs. Philip VI)Controversy over succession to French throne (Edward III vs. Philip VI) Dispute over Gascony Conflict over Flanders Struggle for National Identity in France (King vs. French nobles in a Civil War)Struggle for National Identity in France (King vs. French nobles in a Civil War) Causes of the Hundred Years War: Slide 40 Controversy Over Succession Edward III Philip VI of Valois Slide 41 Hundred Years War: A Tale of Two Styles France 100 Years War England Pop.= 16 million Army over 50,000 Far richer than England Strategy = heavily- armored cavalry of knights Much smaller than France Army = 32,000 New Weapons Technology Strategy = sneak attacks & guerilla raids Slide 42 English Weapons Advantage #1 Battle of Crcy (1346) Slide 43 English Weapons Advantage #2 Battle of Poitiers (1356) Slide 44 The Turning Point for France! Slide 45 France Becomes Unified! France in 1337 France in 1453 Slide 46 Consequences of the 100 Years War: Death toll was huge on both sides; Economies of both countries (+ Low Countries) devastated Ended feudal tactics & chivalrous rules of war (knights & castles now obsolete) Formation of national identities in England & France People in both countries now saw king as a national leader Fostered development of Parliament in England (Power of the Purse!) Slide 47 Slide 48 Background: King Philip IV vs. Pope Boniface VIII Pope Boniface issues Unam Sanctam (1302) Slide 49 The Babylonian Captivity (1309-77) Clement V moved papacy from Rome to Avignon. Becomes powerful symbol of abuses w/in the Church. Slide 50 The Great Schism (1378-1415) Now Europe has TWO Popes! Clement VII (Avignon) vs. Urban VI (Rome) Slide 51 Council of Pisa (1409) Cardinals hope to end Schism by electing new pope (Alexander V) Now there are THREE popes!!!! Slide 52 Council of Constance (1414-1418) Ends Schism: Martin V elected as new Pope Slide 53 Consequences of the Great Schism: Badly damaged the faith of many Christians Weakened the power & prestige of papacy Call to restructure Church from papal hierarchy to councils made up of clergy (conciliarism) growth of lay piety & mysticism (ex. Thomas Kempis, Imitation of Christ & Bridget of Sweden) Scholars such as Wyclif & Hus began to challenge church practices

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