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u.s. Armor-Cavalry (1917-1967) AShort History byDuncanCrow Editor AFV/Weapons series ~ProfilePublicationsLimited ~Windsor,Berkshire,England - L OtherProfileBooks AFV /WeaponsSeries ModernUSArmoredSupport Vehicles 2BritishandCommonwealthArmouredFormations(1919-46) 379thArmouredDivision:Hobo'sFunnies 4InTrust for theNation:HMS Belfast1939-1971 Other FamousProfileBound VolumeSeries AFVsof the World : Volume1 WorldWar I1914-1919 Volume2BritishAFVs1919-1940 Volume3BritishandCommonwealthAFVs1940-1946 Volume4 AmericanAFVsof World WarII AircraftinProfile:Volumes1-11 LocomotivesinProfile:Volumes1-2 WarshipsinProfile:Volumes1 -2 DuncanCrowandProfilePublicationsLimited 1973 1 SBN0853830843 Firstpublishedin1973,by PROFILEPUBLICATIONSLIMITED Windsor,Berkshire,England Printed inEngland by EdwinSnell printers,Yeovil,Somerset Contents To1918 TheUnitedStatesTankCorps II191 9-1 940 TheMechanizedForce III1940-1 945 TheArmoredDivisions TheArmoredCorps Separate(Non-Divisional)TankBattalions Cavalry TankDestroyers U.S.MarineCorpsArmor IV1945-1950 TheU.S.Constabulary Armor,Cavalry, andArmoredCavalry VSince1950 TheArmoredDivisions ArmyReserveandNationalGuard TheCombat ArmsRegimentalSystem Appendix Index Colourillustrations: Page 5 8 10 1 6 16 22 22 27 35 38 42 42 45 48 48 54 55 59 62 29, 32,33, 36 ,J ;[In'' of IhelSI(laler3041h)u.s.TankBrigadedW';l1ganallack 0"October7.1918;17theMeuse,Argo"ne offensive. (U.S.Signal Corps Photo No.111 - SC- 27424inthe NationalArchives) ArmoredOrganization canCrow

:-:J:oattheiconoclastsbrokethrough, from" theoldandbold". ---.. _.- armoredenthusiastsresultedinthe -=- n Experimental Mechanized Force __-cars, tankettes,tanks, a motorized fieldartillerywhichwastractor'-;- ;-elled,andmotorizedengineers.A - ....::: :::-. battalion wasattachedformost of andairsupport(reconnaissance, _-Iwasalsoprovided.Thefollowing _---:"Force was changed to Experimental "-=...:its maneuvers were devotedmore to _ mantoorganizationalexperiment _ _;:>revious year. Present as an observer - :: _''-cf5wasDwight F.Davis,theUnited -.;;:.:- War.He was so impressed bywhat he imaneuvers soclearlypresagedthat 75-l11mHowilzerMotorCarriag eTIoj Ihe1930periodwilhweaponal maximumelevation.(U.S.OrdnanceDepartment) onhisreturntothe States he directedthat a similar force bedevelopedintheU.S.Army. Theexperimentalmechanizedforceresultingfrom this directive was assembled at Camp Meade, Maryland, fromJulyItoSeptember20,1928.Itconsistedof elementsfromtheInfantry,includingInfantry(Tanks), theCavalry,FieldArtillery,AirCorps,Engineers, Ordnance,ChemicalWarfareService,andtheMedical Corps.Althoughinsufficientfundsandobsoleteequipment prevented the re-assembly of the force the following year,its fewweeksof activity werenot nugatorybecause theWarDepartmentMechanizationBoard,whichhad beenappointedtostudytheexperiment,recommended thatamechanizedforcebepermanentlyestablished. ThisrecommendationwasacteduponbytheArmy Chief of Staff,GeneralCharlesP.Summerall,who,on theeveof leaving officeinOctober1930,directedthat a II TheCavalry'sT5A rmoredCar( alsoknownastheCombatCarT2 Modified)of J931wasbOlha hal/-trackand awheeledvehicle. (U.S.OrdnanceDepartment) pelmanentmechanizedforcebeassembledimmediately andstationedat Fort Eustis,Virginia. TheMechanizedForcewasorganizedunderthe commandofColonelDanielVanVoorhis,whothus earned for himselfin later years the title of "Grandfather oftheArmoredForce".Butthe"permanency"was short-lived. In1931the new Army Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur, decidedthat insteadof mechanizationbeingtheprerogativeofaseparateforce-apart, thatis,fromthe1stand2ndTankRegimentsandthe divisionaltankcompanieswhichwerepartofthe infantry-all arms and services were to adopt mechanizationandmotorization"asfarasispracticableand desirable." To this end all arms and services were allowed toexperimentwitharmorandmechanization,andthe separate Mechanized Force at Fort Eustis was dissolved. Butlestanyonemightseeinthisnewdirectivethe openingof thedooronthepossibilityof re-forminga separate Tank Corpsinthefuture,GeneralMacArthur statedunequivocallythatnoseparatecorpswouldbe established"inthevainhopethatthroughautilization of machinesitcanabsorbthemissions,andduplicate thecapabilitiesof allothers."Althoughtankswereno longertobethepreserveoftheinfantrytherewasno question of them regaining their WorldWar I autonomy. 12 CommunicaJiolls car model ofthe1Y Scout Car inuse by the Communica lionsOfficerof the151Cavalry,Mechanized. (Post Studio,Fort Knox) Thearmthatbenefitedmostfromthe1931directive wasthecavalry.Thiswasnotaviewthatallcavalry officerswouldhaveagreedwith.AsinBritainandGermanythe developmentof thetank mechanicallyandits growingimportancebothstrategicallyandtacticallyalbeitthiswasconfinedtodiscussionsandexercisesreinforcedtheantagonismoftheoldercombatarms which equated the rise of the tank with their owndecline inimportance, and therefore infinancialappropriations. With only a meagre amount allotted fornational defense asa whole,newcomers were not welcome.On top of this as far as the "old and bold" in the cavalry were concerned wastheJoveforthehorseandthedisgustforthings mechanical.Readthecommentsofseniorcavalry officersinany countryandtheymightbecarboncopies of thesame speech. It wasnotunnatural. Butthe more far-seeing realised that without mechanizationthe cavalrywas likelyto' beout of business.They didnot agree with those whomaintainedthat the lack of opportunityforthecavalryontheWesternFrontin 1914-1918wasthe exceptionratherthantherule.They arguedthatalthoughthetraditionalcavalrymissions hadnot altered,thehorse wasno longer the light mount onwhichtocarrythemout.Thattheairplanewould takeovertheverylongrangereconnaissancemission - C?T2 I!:'I:ent) m7. ica-T""

the cavalry was common ground betweenthem and unyieldinghorse-lovers.Whatwasatissuewas t oTherthe machine shouldreplacethehorseforother =-.\-:l1rymissions--protectingflanks,coveringadvance - retreat , mediumrange reconnaissance,pursuit. Those ;:;.)favored the reten tion of the horse could point tothe of thetanksavailable;but asspeedsandreliincreasedthisargument faltered.Even bythe late -':: :Isafewlight armored vehicles were inuseincavalry _-:!is. andthe1931directive encouraged this acceptance. interestof thecavalry,wroteGeneralMacArthur, .=.;now"centeredonarmoredcarsandcross-country =X 'iespossessingahighdegreeof strategicmobility, -:- fjfightingandtacticalmobility animportant though -:-:'li ndary consideration." Cavalry was therefore instruc :0developcombatvehicleswhichwould"enhance --"inr61esof reconnaissance, counter-reconnais-- e,flankaction,pursuit,andsimilaroperations." s ":cavalryregimentwastoloseitshorsesandbe exclusivelywiththesenewvehicles.The meanwhile,wastoconcentrateondeveloping :..::::.:-" whichcouldmore effectivelysupportthe rifleman -=._islodging the enemy fromstronglyheldpositions. The" horsesonly"schoolhadafurtherset-backin -: :whenGeneralMacArthurpointedoutthat"the hasnohigherdegreeofmobilitytodaythanhe ::.. :'athousandyearsago.Thetimehastherefore _-:-.-:edwhentheCavalryarmmusteitherreplaceor "i thehorseasameansoftransportation,orelse - --0":;intothelimboof discardedmilitaryformations." --::.:.,didnotmean,however,thatthetasksofthe iliywereoutmoded.Therewouldalwaysbe"the _. for certain units capable of performing more distant - -;:ons than can be efficiently carried out by the mass of --;:..lJmy.Theelementsassignedtothesetaskswillbe - ;::avalryof the future,butmanifestlythehorsealone =:lot meetitsrequirements intransportation." A::-iersucha dictum, thepercipient realized, complete ::,,-:-,-: anization of the cavalry was now a cloud somewhat than aman's hand. ecavalryatthisperiodconsistedoffourteen -=-;:nents-the1stthroughthe14thCavalry-anda -:: ;:mentof PhilippineScouts,the26thCavalry,which in1922.Inaddition there were18cavalry in the National Guard anl'l24 in the Organized -:::5e"'es.Attheendof WorldWarItherehadbeen _ 7nieencavalryregimentsintheRegularArmy. -' ertomeettherequirements of the1920National Actthree regiments-the 15th,16th, and17th inactivatedandtheremainderwerere-organized ,:-x15istofHQ,HQtroop,servicetroop,andsix ':- --:-00troops(i.e.TroopAthroughTroopFintwo ...:j:onsof threetroopseach),insteadof12lettered _:- - andamachine-gun troop inadditionto the HQ, - _ andsupplytroop(astheservicetroopwas _ sJycalled).Someseparatemachine-guntroops ...-:.;::la ' hIDe-gunsquadronswereorganizedinplace of -- .:-:-g:i mentalmachine-guntroops.Thelosstothe __=- --:- armbythispost-warreductionwasthree ;-:=:;;regiments and98troops, "some of the troops," officialhistorypointsout," havingbeenincon- ...='exi stenceforalmost ahundredyears."" geSeries,op.cit.p.53.Itisinterestingtonote :':.2 British Cavalry lost eight or its thirty regiments

Furthermajorchangesinthecavalryweremadein 1928whenthe number of letteredtroops wasreducedto four(dividedbetweentwosquadrons)andtheseparate machine-gunsquadronsandtroopswereeliminated, eachregimentnowhavingitsownmachine-guntroop again. Having receiveditsorderstodevelop combat vehicles thecavaltyselectedFortKnox,Kentucky,asthe locationforitstask.Thenucleusof thecommandwas formedbypersonnelandequipmentfromtheMechanizedForceatFortEustis,sothatineffectitcanbe saidthatthatForceneverceasedtoexistandthereisa continuity,admittedlyalittlewobblyin1929,thatran fromtheexperimentalmechanizedforceof 1928tothe formationof the firstarmoreddivisions in1940--just as inBritainthereisacontinuity,alsosomewhatlimping inits early stages,betweenthe Experimental Mechanized Forceof1927andtheformationof thefirstarmored division,knownoriginallyastheMobileDivision,in 1938. The regiment selected to lead the van of mechanization was theI st Cavalry. It arrived at Fort Knox from Marfa , Texas,earlyin1933,andbegantoreplaceitshorsesby AFVs. The organization of the mechanized regiment was similartothatof ahorseregiment.Ithadfourlettered troops,twoof theminacoveringsquadron,onebeing an armored car troop, the other a scout troop, and two in acombat carsquadron,bothof thembeing combat car troops.Theregimenthad35lighttankswhichwere about equallydividedbetweenthescouttroopandthe twocombatcartroops.Theterm"combatcar"was invented to overcome the restriction of the1920 National DefenseActwhichlaiddownthatonlytheinfantry were to have tanks andthat alltank units were to be part of theinfantry.Thusitwasacaseof "atankbyany othername"forthetrack-layingfightingvehiclesused bythe cavalry, and the other name chosenwas"combat car".Butitwasthename onlythat differed,apart from one other feature. Inorder toeconomize,thelighttank designthat wasevolvedin1933was adaptableforboth infantryandcavalry.It couldsupporttheinfantry,in theOlYatleast,indislodgingtheenemyfromstrong defensivepositions;anditcouldmeettheneedsof the cavalryinitspursuit ,protection,andreconnaissance r6les.Thisnewtank,the T2,couldachieveatop speed of35m.p.h.InitsT2EIandT2E2versionsithad fixedturrets- a singleturret inthe case of the T2E 1 and twinturrets side byside in the case of the TIE2- and was intendedfortheinfantrysupportr6le.InitsT2E3 version,whichwasidenticalinallotherrespectstothe T2E I,ithadasimplehand-traversedfullyrotating turret for the cavalry r6le.The T2E 1 wasstandardized as theLight TankM2A I,andthe T2E3wasstandardized as the Combat Car MI. Overthenextfewyearsseveralotherunitsincluding the13thCavalry,afieldartillelYbattalion,anda quartermaster company,weremovedto Fort Knoxand theremechanized.Andthecavalrydivisionitself receivedan armored car troop, atank company,andan airobservationsquadron.Earlyin1938amodification wasmadetothe1931directive:mechanizationwould infuture nolongerbedevelopedbyallarms but onlyby theinfantlyandthecavalry.The Fort Knoxunitswere formedintothe7thCavalryBrigade(Mechanized), withBrigadierGeneralVanVoorhisincommand. Later inthe yearhewas succeededbyColonel AdnaR. 13 TheIlilTellessLighlTallkT3of 1936IVasaproduciof Ihe fillancially leanyears.Thedriversor011theleftandtherewasamachine-gun sponsollOilIherighl glacis.(U.S.Ordnance Department) CombalCarMIA 1 used by The71hCavalryBrigade( Mechanized)lVas fasl and agile. BuilTill1937 it had iTSlurrel off-sel 10The lefl , IVasequipped \Vilhradio, alld weighed 975Ions.Thisparlicularvehicle belollged 10Ihe 1STCavalry,Mechallized.(PostStudio,Fort Knox) TheCombalCarT51of 1935wasbuill durillgIheperiod of in IereSTina barbelle TypeofsuperSlfuclllre.(U.S.Ordnance Department) 14 -"II}' -lUll :r:::; nt) was "l oed ;v'the ", ox) in a -=ont) astrongadvocateofarmor,whohadbeen: _--:--. -.....::..:: : r _.L --_- -.;::;:-in-commandoftheMechanizedForceatFort ='-_f peacewheneconomyhadbeenthekeynoteforU.S. 'u ilitaryforces,ithadbeeneasytoshuntthisproblem aside;but now, with danger to the freeworldincreasing andpartialmobilizationalreadyunderway,theArmy had to face up to how to organize and equip itscavalry."* According to the Armor-Cavalry history theNational Defense Act of 1920providedfortwocavalry divisions, the1standthe2nd,of whichthe1stwasactive andthe 2ndinactive"''''.Eachdivisionhadtwo cavalrybrigades, eachwithtworegiments,amachine-gunsquadron, and aheadquarterstroop.Therewasalsoahorseartillery battalionwith 75-mm.guns, amountedengineerbattalion,anambulancecompany,thedivisiontrains,and thespecialtroops(headquarters,signal,ordnance,and veterinary).Acloseanalysisofthecavalryregiments' lineages,however,revealsthat,onpaper at least,there was also a3rd Cavalry Division. The assignments of the cavalryregimentstothethree divisionswasasfollows: TheI st Cavalry Divisionstarted in1921with the 1st, 7th, 8th, and10th Cavalry. In1922the5thCavalry replacedthe10thwhich wasassignedtothe2nd CavalryDivision.In1933 the12thCavalryreplaced the1stCavalrywhich beganitsmechanization career.Thefinalstateof thedivision,therefore.as regards its horse regiments. wasthe5th,7th,8th,and 12th Cavalry. . * Op.cit.p.70.** p.53. . t.f5A1Ligh/tank 0117thCava!ryullder camouflage in Germany early i1l1945.Filled inlrol1l is a Culill hedgerolVdevice, a brilliant invention dnised inlhe inNormandy.(U.S.Army SC199360) 27 The 2ndCavalry Division startedin1923withthe 10th (ex-1st Cav.Div.) and the12thCavalry.In1927 the2ndCavalryreplaced the 10th which was assigned to the 3rd Cavalry Division. In1933the11thand13th Cavalry came into the divisionandthe12thwas assignedtothe1stCavalry Divisioninplace of the1st Cavalry.In1936the13th Cavalry left the divisionto beginitsmechanization careerwith1stCavalryin the7thCavalryBrigade (Mechanized),thepredecessorofthe 1st Armored Division.In1940the9th Cavalryreplacedthe11 th andthe10thjoinedthe divisionfromthe3rd CavalryDivision.In1941 the14thCavalryjoined thedivision.Itsfinalstate therefore,asregardsits horseregiments,wasthe 2nd,9th,10thand14th Cavalry. The 3rdCavalry Divisionstartedin1927withthe 6thand10thCavalry(ex2ndCav.Div.).In1933the 9thCavalrywasassigned tothe division.Tn1939the 6thCavalryceasedtobe assignedtothedivision, andin1940the9thand 10thCavalrywerereassigned to the 2nd Cavalry Division. Cavalrymen, aswehaveseenearlier,werenot of one mindaboutthemilitaryvalueof thehorse.Some were in favor of pensioning it off and mecharuzing the cavalry completely,otherstookadiametricallyopposedview andwantednomechanizationatall,andothersagain favoredacombinationof horsesandmachines.Oneof the"combinationers"wasthelastChiefofCavalry, Major General John K.Herr, who declaredin1938that "we must not be misledto our own detriment to assume thattheuntriedmachinecandisplacetheprovedand triedhorse," and the following year told a Congressional committeethat"althoughinsomecavalrymissionsit maybebetter tousehorse cavalry aloneormechanized cavalryalone,onthewholethebestresultscanbe accomplishedbyusingthemtogether." The"combination"organizationwasappliedtotwo cavalryregiments,the4thandthe6th,whichby1940 "Calliope rocket projector.sonamed fromitsresemblancetoa circus steam-pipeorgan. Iiwasmounted onaSherman.(U.S.Ordnance Magazine) 28 Under theCombat ArmsRegimentalSystem(CARS) there are thirty-four parent regimentsof armor andcavalry.Eachhaseither a coat of armsor ahistoric badge. Acomplete coat of armsconsists of a shield,acrest,andamotto.Historic badges arenot shield-shapedbutinclude mottoes. htCavalry2d Amored CavaJry3dArmored Cav::Ury 5th Cavahy 4th Cavalry ::::t :\nnored Cavalry 71hCavalry8th Cavalry " A"Calliope"T34rocketlaunchermounted ona Shernum firedroundssorapidlythaItlVOsuccessiveroundsappearedtobe firedsimultaneous/y,Sa t here is a "Calliope" of 1341hOrdnance Battalion. 14th Armored Division. XXI Corps. Seventh Army.firing inthe Fletrangearea ontheeastemjrolltier c{ France,(U,S,ArmyCourtesyCoLG.B,Jarrell werepartiallyhorsedandpartiallymechanized,With twootherregiments,the1st and13th,fullymechanized andinthe1stArmoredDivision,thisleftonlythe3rd and11 thCavalryasnon-divisionalmountedregiments, InMarch1942theofficeof theChief of Cavalrywas eliminatedwiththoseof theother chiefsof armswhen Army Ground Forces was formed,The pace of mechanization consequently quickened, On July15,1942the 9thand10th Armored Divisions wereactivated,the9thwiththe2nd and14th Armored Regiments,the10thwiththe3rdand11 thArmored Regiments,Thesefourarmoredregimentswereall constitutedintheArmyof theUnitedStatesonJuly II ,1942andactivatedonthe15thwithpersonneland equipmentfromthe2nd,3rd,11 th,and14thCavalry respectivelywhichwereallinactivated(althoughonly temporarily,asitturnedout)onthatdate,The3rd ArmoredRegiment,itshouldbenoted,isnottobe confused withthe original 3rd Armored Regiment in 3rd ArmoredDivisionwhichwasre-designatedthe33rd ArmoredRegiment on May 8,1941. The inactivationof the 2ndand14thCavalrystillleft the2ndCavalryDivisionwithoneof itstwocavalry brigades,the4th,whichhadthe 9thand10thCavalry; thisbrigaderemainedactive,The1stCavalryDivision alsoremainedactive,Bothdivisionswentoverseas, thoughneithertookhorses withthem,The1stCavalry DivisionfoughtinfourmajorcampaignsintheSouthWestPacificasalightinfantrydivision.Itretainedthe four-regiment,two-brigadeformationofthecaval!} division,buthad4,000fewermenthanthestandarc infantrydivisionof15,000men,Italsolackedthe standard155-mm,howitzer fieldartillerybattalion,bu: special allowances of heavy weapons andother infantrytypeequipmentweresuppliedtocompensateforthis The2ndCavalryDivisionwasfullyreactivatedi.E February1943andservedinNorthAfrica,thoughi: didnot fightasaunit.Its existence,however, was shonlived,Between February and May 1944 it was inactivated andits personnelweretransferredto units, While the cavalry regiments in the1st and 2nd Cavalr: Divisionswerebeingdismounted,evenif notmechanized,theremainderoftheregiments-andthest includedthe15th,16th,and17thCavalrywhichwert reactivated, and seven partially horsed-partially mechanizedNationalGuardcavalryregimentsinFederc.. service"-werenowmechanizedcompletely,Further* TheseweretheIOl st(NewYork),102nd(New 104th(Pennsylvania),106th(Illinois),107th(Ohio),113tt (Iowa) , and theI 15th (Wyoming),ANational Guardbrigad;; of twohorseregiments (the112th and124thCavalry (Texas alsoenteredFederalservice,Thetworegimentsweredismounted,withdrawnfromthebrigade,andreorganized2S infa ntry;theHQandHQtroopofthebl;gade(the56tc Cavalry)becamethe56thReconnaissanceTroop,Mech2nized, 30 .:'thecavalry tilestandard :...;0lackedthe ,)attalion,but :,:her infantry-_':::-.5ateforthis. :-eactivatedin thoughit 7'-- cr,was short- ,;: was completely -':--rredtoservice - _::0 2nd Cavalry not mechan===:s--andthese =- whichwere - -:-- ..:ially mechan sinFederal -::-:etely.Further .=::0:'(ewJersey), - -,:i(Ohio),113th Guardbrigade _-- Cavalry (Texas ,=ntsweredis reorganizedas (the56th Troop,Mecha morethe2nd,3rd,11th,and14thCavalrywerereactivatedasmechanizedcavalryunits,thearmored regimentsthathadstemmedfromthembecoming newlyconstitutedunitsinsteadofre-designatedones. In1943and1944thesenon-divisionalmechanized cavalryregimentswerebrokenuptoformseparate mechanizedcavalrygroups andsquadrons,forbynow theproblemof whattodowiththecavalryhadbeen solved:horses were banished andthe job of mechanized cavalrywasreconnaissance. ** Eachmechanized cavalry group consisted ofHQ, HQ troop,andtwoormoreattachedmechanizedcavalry reconnaissancesquadrons.Groupswereassignedto armiesandthenallottedtocorpswithinthearmy. Frequently agroupwasattachedtoadivision-usually aninfantrydivision-foroperations.Despitethedirective issued by the War Department in1943that mechanizedcavalryunitswere"toengageincombatonlyto theextentnecessarytoaccomplishtheirmissions"of reconnaissance,the practice of thebattlefieldturned out ** Althoughthe lasthorse cavalryunittofightmountedwas the26thCavalryof thePhilippine Scouts ea rlyin1942, there wereinstancesof provisionallyorganizedunitsusinghorses intheU.S.Armyafterthat."Merrill ' sMarauders"had horsesintheIndo-Burmesetheater.Sotoohadthe3rd InfantryDivision'sReconnaissanceTroopinSicilyandthe earlypart of theItaliancampaign. somewhat differentfromthetheoryof theWarDepartment'sdirective.Afascinatinganalysisintheofficial Armor-Cavalryhistory(p.73)showsthatpurely reconnaissancemissionsformechanizedcavalryin Europe- wheremostofthemechanizedcavalryunits fought- wereextremelyrare.Indeedtheyaccounted foronlythreepercentof themissions assigned.Most frequentwere defensivemissions(33per cent), followed byspecialoperations,"includingactingasmobile reserve,providing forsecurity and controlof rear area6, andoperatingasanarmyinformationservice"(29per cent),securitymissionsi.e."blocking,screening,protecting flanks,maintaining contact betweenlarger units, andfillinggaps"(25percent),andoffensivemissions (10percent)."Foroffensive,defensive,andsecurity missions,themechanizedcavalrygroupwasnormally reinforcedby abattalionof fieldartillery,abattalionof tank destroyers,and a company of combat engineers." Aswellasthe73non-divisionalmechanizedcavalry unitsthatwereactiveinWorldWarIIasgroupsand squadrons,therewerealsowellover100divisional cavalryunits- indeedtherewerevirtuallyasmanyas thereweredivisionsintheArmy.Each infantry division haditscavalryreconnaissancetroop,designatedbythe same number as the division ofwhich it was a part e.g.1st CavalryReconnaissanceTroopwasin1stInfantry DivisionandfoughtwithitinItalyandintheNorth-One of theveryrarevehicles inthe U.S.Army inWorldWar II wastheM4A I E8 seen hereincombatinEurope.fl wasthe early1944 prototype/or the productionM4A I(76mm)withwetstowage and HVSS_(U.S.Army) 31 w +>M 10Tank Destroyer of 36rhInfanlry Divisionpassingaknocked ourShermaninIhe figh ling forOberho/fen,easternFrance,March1945.Inthebackground acasually isbeing remo ved by medics.(U.S.Army199935) _i'lesaredrerank's enemy:adesolateShermanafterhitting n mineintheEuropeanThemeI'onNovember 21,1944.(U.S.Army) . 'estEurope campaignfromthebeachesof Normandy The1stCavalryDivision(which,itwillbe :-emembered,foughtinthePacificasalightinfantry : i\'ision)hadthe302ndCavalryReconnaissance Troop - the301st,incidentally,wasat roopthat servedinthe -\Ieutians.Each armoreddivisionalsohadits divisional ::avalryunit.AsmentionedearliertheI stArmored Divisions was originally constituted in the Regular Army - n April 22,1940and activated at Fort Knox on June J, 7th Reconnaissance and Support Squadron (Mechan.zed)-itsnumericaldesignationcoming,nodoubt, :-romthe7thCavalryBrigade(Mechanized)---andwas : ;:-organizedandre-designatedonJuly15,1940(the .:.:t ythedivisionwasactivatedandonwhichtheunit -as assignedtoit)astheI stReconnaissanceBattalion Armored).Theunitwasre-designatedthreetimes _ulingWorldWarII: first,onMay8,1941,as81st Battalion (Armored);second,onJanu-'J,1942,as81st ArmoredReconnaissance Battalion; -.ndthird,onJuly20,1944,whenthedivisionchanged j-oma"heavy"toa"light"armoreddivision,as81 st : avalryReconnaissance Squadron,Mechanized. Thedesignation"armoredreconnaissancebattalion" . as appliedtothe mechanized cavalryunit of the heavy !nDoreddivision,andthedesignation"cavalryrecon-'aissancesquadron,mechanized"tothemechanized _ valryunit of thelightarmored division.The 2ndand 'rdArmoredDivisionswhichremainedunderthe -heavy"tablehadthe82ndand83rdAnTIoredRecon=aissan(. Battalionsrespectively, * whilethe finaldesigTheiroriginaldesignationswererespectively,2ndRecon- ,issanceBattalion(Armored)constitutedonJuly15,1940, 3rdReconnai ssanceBattalion(Armored)constitutedon ; "nuary16,J941. nationsof thecavalryreconnaissancesquadronsinthe otherarmoreddivisionsaregiveninanearlierTable (p.21).The other cavalryreconnaissancesquadrons, all of which served inthe European theater were: 2nd,3rd,4th,6th,15th,16th,17th,18th,19th,24th, 28th,32nd,36t h,38th,42nd,43rd,44th,91 st,101st, 102nd,104th,106th,107th,I I 3th,I I 6th,I 17th,121 st, 125th.(Thelineageof thosefrom2ndthrough17th, 19th,24th,28th,42nd,and43rd,aswellasthe majorityofthealTIloreddivisions'cavalryreconnaissancesquadronsstemmedfromthecavalryregiments). TANKDESTROYERS AperennialargumentinalTIloredcircleswaswhether thebestanti-tankweaponwasagunoranothertank. Although the latter doctrine had many supporters among Americanmilitaryleadersitwastheformerthatprevailed.Forthedestructionof enemyarmortheU.S. Armyhadtank destroyer battalions, equippedwith selfpropelledortowedhighvelocityguns. Thetankdestroyerbattalionshadtheirtactical origininthe1940maneuversandinthetraumatic effect of the GenTIan blitzkrieg. "The German successes," saysthe officialArmor-Cavalry history, "were adversely affectingmoraleof combattroops,andtherewasan urgentneedfornew,effectiveweaponstocalmtheir fearsandprovethevulnerabilityofthetank. " *The WarDepartmentdecidedthattanksshouldbecounteredbyfast -moving,highvelocitygunsusedenmasse . * Op.cit.p.67. 35 (-noTankDestroyerso/601s[TankDestroyerBattalion,45thInfantryDivision,crosstheDuranceRiverinProvenceduringOperationAnvil-the lied landingsinthe sOUlhFrance,Augll st1944. Although planned and generallyknownasAn"il theOperationwasactually carried OlltasDragoon. (U.S.Army) ?ewantitankgunsshouldbeplacedinstatic defensiveberof activebattalionswas78,andtherewasafurther ?Ositions; the majority should be heldinmobile reserve,decreaseduring the year. - 'hencetheyshould" seek,strike,anddestroy"theThetankdestroyerbattalions servinginthedifferent ::Jainenemy armored thrusts.theaters were asfollows: At this period the infantry division's artillery regiment anumber of 37-mm.anti-tank guns.From the 85th of 1940eachinfantryregiment,of whichtherewere 601s1 603rd:' reeinthe infantry division,had an anti-tank company605th 607thtoit.This14thCompanyintheregiment(there 609th -:eing three infantry battalions each withfour companies 610th 612th:nd a13th Company equipped with six105-mm. howit 614th 628th! ers)remainedintheinfantryregimentthroughoutthe 629th - 'ar,equippedat firstwith towed37-mm.guns and later 630th 631st six57-mm.guns.Theanti-tankunitsinthedivi 632nd 633rdo:onalartillery,however,wereabsorbedintothenew 634th anti-tankbattalionswhichwereorganizedin194 Iasa 635th 636th of the War Department's doctrine of mass employ 637th 638th::nentof mobileanti-tankguns.Toimpartanoffensive 640th ;pirit to these new units and to givethem a psychological 641st 643rd'Joostwhichwould"provethevulnerabilityofthe644th 645th:ank"bystating thefact,their designationwaschanged 648th ::nlate194Itotank destroyer battalions. 654th 656thTheTankDestroyerCenterwassetupatFort661 st 679th\.leade,Maryland,andthenmovedinFebruary1942 691 st : 0thenewCampHood,Texas.AlthoughtheTank 692nd 701stDestroyer force had no realstanding as a separate arm it702nd 703rdo'JCcessfullyresistedallattemptsthroughoutthewarto 704th itintheArmoredForceorinanyof theolder 705th 738th3rms.It grewprodigiously.Bylate1942ithad100,000771st 772nd:nenand80activebattalions, with 64moreplanned.By 773rd .=arly1943itreacheditsmaximumwith106active 774th 776thj attalions-almost as many asthetotal number of tank786th 801st.:-attalions. Thereafter a decline set in, partlybecause the 802nd Americantroopsinactionhadnothadtofacethe 803rd 804th::Jassedarmoredformationsthat1940hadseemedto805th 806th... ake likely, and partly because tank destroyer units were 807th .sedasreinforcementstoreplacetheheavycasualties 808th 809th bydivisionsin combat. Byearly1944thenum- 811th Europe\= the1944-45 campaign)NorthArica.Italy,SouthernFrance,Europe EuropeEurope Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Pacific,Philippines Europe Europe Europe Italy,SouthernFrance,Europe Philippines Europe Pacific,Philippines Pacific Europe Europe Italy,SouthernFrance,Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Italy Europe Europe NorthAfrica,Itoly Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Italy NorthAfrica,Italy Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe 37 M lOA ISelf-Propelled GunincombalinFrancein1944.BoththeM 10and Ihe!vI fOAlhad a 3-inchgun.The formerlVasbuill01/alladaptedM4A2 chassis,Ihe laller onanM4A3chassis. 813thNorthAfrica,Italy,SouthernFr ance,Europe 814thEurope 815thPacific 817thEurope 818lhEurope 819lhPacific 820thEurope 822ndEurope 823rdEurope 824thEurope 825thEurope B27lhEurope 843rdEurope B93rdEurope B94thNorthAfrica,Italy 899thNorthAfrica,Europe Theoriginalintentionbeingthatthetankdestroyer battalionsshouldbeusedinmass,formationheadquarters wereset uptocontrolthem, Twobrigades,the 1stand2ndTankDestroyerBrigades,wereorganized, andthirteentankdestroyer groupS:the1stthroughthe 9th,the12th,the16th,the20th, andthe23rd.Allthese sawaction,exceptthe2ndTD,Brigadewhichwas inactivatedinearly1944.Howevertheydidnotsee actionascomplete formationsbecausethe employment oftankdestroyerbattalionsdidnotturnoutasenvisagedintheearlydays,Insteadtheywereusedas assaultgunsandconventionalmotorizedartilleryeven morefrequentlythanintheirroleofdirecttankdestroyers.The theory that tanks wouldnot fighttanks was exploded on the battlefield and with it went the theory of thetankdestroyers'exclusiverole,Thebattalions were assignedtoarmiesforre-assignmenttodivisionsas needed. The tank destroyer battalion had about 800 men and a total of 36 guns, together with strong reconnaissance and anti-aircraft elements,Approximately half the battalions wereequippedwithself-propelledguns,theotherhalf withtowedguns.Self-propelledtankdestroyerswere theMIO(andMIOAI)witha3-inchgun,theMI8 (Hellcat) with a 76-mm, gun, and the M36 with a 90-mm. gun, Despite the finecombat record of the Tank Destroyer force,battlefieldexperienceshowedthatthelightly armoredtankdestroyerwithitsopentopturretwasa lesseffectiveanti-tankweaponthanabetterarmedand armoredtank.Bytheendof thewarthisprovedtobe unarguableandtheTankDestroyerforcewentoutof existence, U,S.MARINECORPS ARMOR Inthe early1920s the U.S.Marine Corps had afewlight tankcompaniesequippedwiththe6-tontankwhich hadbeencopiedfromtheFrenchRenaultF.T.tank. Someexperimentingwasdonewithannoredcarsand withMarmon-Herringtonlighttanks,buttheneedfor an amphibian tank was never met. A Christie amphibian tankwasdeck-loaded on asubmarine andlaunched ina simulatedlandingassaultonCulebraIsland,eastof PuertoRico,in1924,but itwasnotfoundsuitable and nofUl1herdevelopmenttookplaceuntiltheRoebling amphibiantractor wasdiscoveredbytheMarine Corps in1937.Threeof theseAlligators,astheywerecalled, werepurchasedandtested,andinlate1940fundswere authorizedtoorder200.ThefirstwasdeliveredinJuly 1941. It was designated LVT I (Landing Vehicle Tracked). Aseriesof LVTs wasdevelopedandusedextensivelyin thePacific campaigns inWorldWar II.These Amtracs, as LVTs were also called, were employed both logistically andtactically, not onlybythe Marine Corpsbut alsoby 38 theU.S.ArmyandbytheBritish,FreeFrenchand "IationalistChinese,towhomsome weresupplied. After1939threatsofAmericaninvolvementinthe EuropeanWarledtomorewidespreadamphibious ,rainingbytheMarineCorps.CulebraIslandwasno ionger suitable because of GermanU-boat operations in tbeCaribbean,soanewamphibioustrainingbasewas established inNorth Carolina. Organizational changesweremadeatthesametime. TheI stMarineDivisionwasorganizedoutofthree three-battalioninfantryregiments,afour-battalion artilleryregiment ,ashorepartyengineerbattalion,an engineerbattali on,andother elementsincluding ali ght tankbattalion.Thisorganizationwassoonalteredto three infantryregiments, an artillery regiment withthree packhowitzerbattalionsandonelO5-mm.howitzer battalion, an engineer battalion, alight tank battalion, a specialweaponsbattalion,ascoutcompany,asignal company,anamphibiantractorbattalion,amedical battalion, aservice battalion, a guard company, and the divisional headquarters company. Then a second division wasorganized.Eventuallysixdivisionsplusseparate regimental combat teams,auxiliaryorganizations, paratroops andair units wereformed. ShelmantankswereintroducedwiththeIa.ndingat Tarawa inthe South Pacific in November 1943,but without previous practice with infantry such as the light tanks haddeveloped.OnlyonecompanyofShermanswas availableandmostof themwerecasualtiesinthisfirst operation. The growing inadequacy of the lighttank led to the conversion of many to flamethrower tanks. GraduallyShermansreplacedalllighttanksinthedivisional tankbattalion. Insubsequentoperationsinfantryregimentswere assignedonereinforcedmediumtankcompanyof18 tanks plus a platoon of four flamethrowertanks and two lighttanks.Unfortunately,lackof shipping oftenmade itnecessaryto leave behind one out of the three medium tankcompaniesinadivisionaltankbattalion.Operationally, it might have beenbetter to have provided space forthesetanksandtohavereducedthenumberof infantrycarriedforagivenoperation,atleastforthe initiJllanding. Bythetimeof thelandingonIwolimainFebruary 1945thelightflamethrower tankshadbeenreplacedby flamethrowing Shermans.Infactmostof theShermans hadflamethrowingcapability,butofthesethemost effective,because of their longer range,were those which LoadingaChristie amphibioustankon 10asubmarine JarU.S.MarineCorpsmaneuversoff PuerlORicoin/ 924.This pro,'ed tobe a blind alley,the LVT orAmtrac became theMarine Corps assaultvehicle.( DefenseDepartment ( MarineCorps) 528927) 39 Successivewaves of LVT 3sforming and moving shoreward atlwo lima. AnLVT 2 wilhboll-onarmor pulling a disahled LVT 4 onLeyle Island. (Photo:U.S.ArmyNo.SC26061 7) (Photo:U.S.Navy50-G312456) firedthroughthe 75-mm.gun tube rather thanfromthe machine-gunport inthefrontplate. IntheoperationonOkinawainApril1945the Japanese developedan efficient defensive system against thetank-infantryteams.Theyfirstsoughttoeliminate .theinfantrybyhighvolumefireandthenturnedhigh volume fire on to the tank.Ifthis failed,anti-tank assault teamswithsatchelchargeswouldtry,undercoverof smoke,todestroythetank.Nevertheless,the American use of tanks on Okinawa reached a high peak as evidenced bya dispatch issuedbyGeneral Ushijima shortlybefore his death and foundlater: "The enemy's power lies inhis tanks.IthasbecomeobviousthatourgeneralbattIe against theAmericanForcesisabattle against their... tanks. ,,* OftenonOkinawa,tworelaysof tankswereusedin order topermitrearming soas tomaintain a continuous attack on caves and bunkers. This technique of the tankinfantryteamwascalledbytheU.S.commanderthe "blowtorchandcorJ...., -------ThebridgeovertheRive/'RMne:thebridgeatRemagenwMchwas caplured illl aCIby 91hArmored DivisiononMarch7.1945. (U.S.Army) The finalstatus of the armored divisions was as follows: 1stInactivatedApril26,1946atCampKilmer,New Jersey. ReactivatedMarch7,1951at Fort Hood,Texas. 2ndHas remainedactive since July15,1940. 3rdInact ivatedNovember 9,1945inGermany. ReactivatedJuly15,1947 at Fort Knox,Kentucky as atraining divisionandonMarch15,1955as a combat divi sion. 4thInactivatedMarch4,1946 inGermany. Reactiv.atedJune15,1954 at Fort Hood,Texas. 5thInacti vatedOctober11,1945atCampKilmer, New Jersey. ReactivatedJuly6,1948atCampChaffee, Arkansas. InactivatedFebruary1,1950 atCamp Chaffee. ReactivatedSeptember1,1950 at Camp Chaffee. InactivatedMarch16,1956at Camp Chaffee. 6thInactivatedSeptember18,1945atCampShanks, New York. ReactivatedSeptember5,1950atFortLeonard Wood, Missouri. Inactivated March16,1956 at Fort Leonard Wood. 7thInactivatedOctober9,1945atCampPatrick Henry,Virginia. ReactivatedNovember 24, 1950 at Camp Roberts, California. InactivatedNovember15,1953at Camp Roberts. 8thInacti vatedNovember13,1945at CampPatrick Henry,Virgini a. 9thInactivatedOctober13,1945atCampPattick Henry, Virginia. 10thInactivatedOctober15,1945atCampPatrick Henry, Virginia. 11 thInactivatedSeptember30,1945inAustlia. 12thInactivatedDecember17,1945atCampKilmer, New Jersey. 13thInactivatedNovember15,1945atCampCooke, California. 14thInactivatedSeptember23,1945atCampPatrick Henry,Virginia. 16thInactivatedOctober15,1945atCampKilmer, New Jersey. 20thInact ivatedApri l 2,1946at Camp Hood, Texas. ARMYRESERVEAND NATIONAL GUARD Latein1946anumberof tankandcavalryunitswere activatedintheOrgani zedReserves,asthiscomponent of theArmywasthencalled.Thesewereonearmored division(the19th),fourcavalrygroups(the301st throughthe304th),twotankbattalions(the75th TheM37(T76)Howit zerMalarCarriageIVas builtolllhe chassis oJ theM24Lighltank.(U.S.OrdnanceDepartment) -- AI/.lI -Aror :...,banz1:; :. = andRese:-T!:: Kore-=::

_

meetto regm:

B: divi.:: : fou r ::..::::; in Tc:--. porr.,=, mid-'

sen';'. squ;:.::::-abo, ;::: and: 54 An"vI8Armored CaronMindal/aoinIhePhilippines.1945. Amphibianandthe 782nd),twocavalry reconnaissance battalions (the 31 4th and 315th), and one reconnaissance troop (the 83rd). Early in1948 the name of the Organized ReserveswaschangedtotheOrganizedReserveCorps, andthenin1952itwaschangedagaintotheArmy Reserve. TheNationalGuardbetweenWorldWarIIandthe KoreanWarhadtwoarmoreddivisions(the49th (Texas) and the 50th (New Jersey, five annored groups, three cavalry groups,31tankbattali ons,and15cavalry reconnaissancesquadrons.Atankbattalionanda mechanizedcavalryreconnaissancetroopwasorganic toeachof the25infantrydivisions,andeachinfantry regimenthadatankcompany.EightoftheNational GuardinfantrydivisionswerecalledintoFederal serviceduring the KoreanWar. Bylate1955thenumberof NationalGuard armored divisionshadbeen increased to sixbythe conversion of fom infantry divisions-the 27th,the30th(that portion in Tennessee), the 40th, and the 48th. The North Carolina portionof the30thbecameafullinfantrydivision.At mid-1967theNationalGuard,inadditiontoitssix annored divisions,hadtwoseparate armoredbrigades, sevenarmoredcavalryregiments,anarmoredcavalry squadron,and16separatetankbattal ions.Overand above this the 17 infantry divisions had 34 tank battalions and17caval rysquadrons. (U.S.Army265177) THECOMBATARMS REGIMENTALSYSTEM In1957,atthetimeof the firstmajorreorganizationof the U.S.Army divisionsunderthepentomic plan,there was a fundamental change in the organization of combat units.The arrivalof nuclearweaponsonthebattlefield confirmedatrendthathadstartedinWorldWarII: theregiment ,whichhadalwaysbeenthebasicfighting unit of the Army, wastoolarge.Except inthe case of the 2ndand3rdArmoredDivisionsthearmoredregiments in1943hadbeenbrokenupintoseparatebattalions, manyof whichhadlivedtheirownindividualunitlives unrelatedtotheregimentsfromwhichtheystemmed. Manyofthecavalryregiments,too,hadlosttheir identitiesbybeingsplituptoformnewunits.Regimentalhistoryandtradition- sovitalinanyarmywere scattered piecemeal across the mosaic of Amelica's recentmilitaryexploits.The Combat ArmsRegimental System(CARS)revivedtheoldcavalryandarmored regimentsasparentbodieswhichwouldconsolidatethe relevantdisparateunits,includingthosewhichwere inactive,andthusgiveacontinuitytotheirregimental histOJies.Regimentalheadquarterswereundercontrol of the Department of the Army and eachregiment could organizeanaverageofsomefifteenbattalionsor squadronswhichwouldbeacti vatedasneeded . TheparentregimentsselectedforuseunderCARS 55 .--; Fouru.s.ranks builrillrhe1950s.Left torighr.M 103wirll120-mm gUll.M48 and M47 Pallollwith 90-mm gun. and M41Light(WalkerBulldog)wilh 76-mmgun, ori:: T- = slit'.: An1MBHOII'i!zerMOlorCarriage passingawrecked peepand aburn/-oulSherman,(U .S.Army 44-8780) M26PershingbeingrecoveredbyanM74ArmoredReco veryVehiclebasedonIhekf4A3chassis.Pershings firstsawcombatlVirhthe3rdand 9rl< Armored Di,'isiollsillEuropein1945. and rhenil1Korea.(U.S.Army) S6 Newly modifiedallhe Tokyo OrdnanceCenler in Seplember 1950IhisSherman M4 AJ was one ofmany which Itad ils 75-mll1MJ gUll rep/acedby a 76-mm gun f or useinKorea.Theoriginal turretwasrelained and the recoil guard oilhe76wasmodified10leIif fitin. (U.S.Army SC348719CourtesyR. P.Hunnicutt) were:thefivearmoredcavalryregiments(the2nd.3rd, 6th,II th,and14th)whosestructurewasnotcllanged RegimentDate of Constitution (& OriginalDesignation) under CARS,thetwel vecavalryregiments(the1st 4th. 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th,10th,12th,13th,15th,16th, and17th). 1stCa valry (1stReg iment of Dragoons)Mar ch2,1833(asthe UnitedSta tesRegimentof Dragoons ) andseventeenarmorregiments(the32nd,33rd,34th, 35th, 37th, 40th,63rd, 64th, 66th, 67th, 68th,69th, 70th, nnd,73rd,77th,andthe8Ist).Subsequentlythe 2ndArmoredCavalry(Seco nd Dragoons) 3rdArmoredCavalry(BraveRi fl es) May23.1836