University of Tennessee Chattanooga Challenger Center embraces the National Science Education Standards in each of its missions so that students ... SENDING MESSAGES MISSION ... learning exciting. Students
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Cha l l enger Center Voyage to Mars U n i v e r s i t y o f T e n n e s s e e C h a t ta n o o g a 2012-2013 January 28, 1986On the morning of the launch, the weather was freezing cold. We looked out at a clean blue sky that served as a magnificent backdrop to what appeared to be, from a distance, a small replica of the greater-sized shuttle. It glistened in the light, all white and sparkling, perhaps because of the bright Florida sun and the ice that hung from the platform, launch pad, and shuttle That morning, riding out on the chilly busI prayed for us all for our loved ones waiting to be launched, for those of us waiting to watch the launch, for our children, for the children around the world waiting for lessons to be taught from the classroom in space When we arrived at the launch Control Center, the families departed the buses and were escorted into the offices that were traditionally set aside for the immediate families of the crewWe looked out the window. We watched the TV news announcers, the NASA select channel, and our children We all waited. The clock ticked away each moment as though it carried a heavy burden. Finally, the long-awaited countdown began. We picked up the babies and cameras and climbed the stairs to the rooftop viewing area We cheered as the solid rocket boosters ignited, and the shuttle carrying its precious cargo lifted off the pad. Only a few anxious moments were left We watched in silence as our loved ones climbed the sky sunward. Their craft from the distance seemed to sit atop a great flume of smoke. The floor shook with the sheer raw power of the million pounds of thrust... Then.it happened! The unspeakable happened. Standing there together, watching with all the world, we saw the shuttle rip apart. The SRBs went screaming off on their own separate paths, the orbiter with our loved ones exploded in the cold blue sky, like our hearts it shattered into a million pieces. In stunned silence, we looked to each otherfor answers, for information, for hope?... Excerpts from Silver Linings, Triumph of the Challenger 7, by June Scobee Rodgers . That day, hundreds of thousands of school children and citizens were watching with anticipation the launch of this Teacher in Space mission that had captured the excitement and awe of the nation only to see a major space tragedy before their eyes. It was truly a sad day in history. But with determination and vision, the Challenger families turned this tragedy into a monumental educational opportunity for children and adults alike. T H E 2 5 T H A N N I V E R S A R Y F R O M T R A G E D Y T O T R I U M P H About Us Challenger Center is an international, not-for-profit education organization that was founded by the families of the astronauts from Challenger Space Shuttle mission 51-L.Through Challenger Center's programs and its international network of Challenger Learning Centers, the diversity, spirit, and commitment to education that exemplified the Challenger 51-L mission continues to make an impact on students, teachers, and families today. These positive learning experiences raise students expectations of success; foster a long-term interest in mathematics, science, and technology; and motivate them to pursue careers in these fields. Our Mission As new advances in science and technology occur at an ever more accelerated pace, the need for excellence in education has never been more essential. Perhaps that's one reason why so many communities throughout the world are actively engaged in developing a local Challenger Learning Center. Organizational History In the aftermath of the Challenger accident, the 51-L crew's families came together, still grieving from loss, but firmly committed to the belief that they must carry on the spirit of their loved ones by continuing the Challenger crew's educational mission. Excerpts from http://www.challenger.org Page 2 Dear Friends, January 28, 1986, is a day in history that stands out as one of excitement, tragedy, and remembrance. On that day, Challenger, 51-L, the Teacher in Space mission, launched into space carrying teacher Christa McAuliffe, Com-mander Dick Scobee, Pilot Mike Smith and astronauts Judy Resnik, Ellison Onizuka, Greg Jarvis, and Ron McNair. Thousands of school children and citizens were watching with anticipation the launch of this mission that had cap-tured the excitement and awe of the nation only to see a major space tragedy before their eyes. It was truly a sad day in history, but with determination and vision, we turned this tragedy into a monumental educational opportunity for children and adults alike. In April of that same year, the families of the Challenger astronauts met in the living room of June Scobee, widow of Commander Dick Scobee, to discuss a memorial for our loved ones. Choosing not to have a monument in stone but rather something that would continue the education that was part of the mission of 51-L, we chose to create an educational organization to inspire young people across the nation. Gathering educators, scientists, astronauts, and leaders in business and industry, we were able to create Challenger Center for Space Science Education, which be-came a network of Learning Centers that uses space as a motivator to inspire students to succeed in mathematics, science, technology, and engineering. These Challenger Learning Centers provide simulations in which students climb aboard a space station and work in teams to solve problems as astronauts and mission controllers in scenarios that take them through a comet, to the surface of the Moon, to a rotating platform to observe Earth, and to Mars. New scenarios are being developed to take education into new realms of excitement, creating tomorrows prepared work force. Recognized by the United States Department of Education for being a top motivator in mathematics, science, and technology, Challenger Center embraces the National Science Education Standards in each of its missions so that students receive hands-on, minds-on delivery of concepts that must be taught. As we begin our historic 25th year, our Challenger Learning Centers will honor the crew and commemorate their lives and legacies throughout the year in a number of events. Through the growing network of 51 Challenger Learn-ing Centers in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, the mission of the crew truly lives on. And as new centers open, we will celebrate those communities which, like our families, come together from diverse back-grounds and experiences to create opportunities to enrich and expand the education of students in a unique and fun approach. Our Challenger Learning Centers touch lives and create opportunities for students, our future leaders, who are the true continuation of the mission of the Challenger, 51-L. Please help us continue this mission by contacting us at the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Sincerely, June Scobee Rogers, Ph.D. Joseph P. Allen, Ph.D. Founding Chairman Chairman L E T T E R F R O M T H E C H A I R S Page 3 F O R M O R E I N F O R M A T I O N C A L L : 4 2 3 . 4 2 5 . 4 1 2 6 O R V I S I T O U R W E B S I T E : W W W . U T C . E D U / O U T R E A C H / C H A L L E N G E R C E N T E R CHALLENGER CENTER V o y a g e t o M a r s The 20th Anniversary 4 Letter From the Chairs 5 Educator Letter 6 Mars Team Descriptions 7 How to Match Student Abilities 8 Mars Crew Manifest 9 Mini Mars Crew Manifest 10 Nametags 11 School Mission Patch 15 Keys to A Successful Mission 16 Using the Software 17 Mars Information (Excerpts from NASAs 2004 Press Kit) Mars At-A-Glance 20 Where Weve Been and Where Were Going 21 MER Overview 24 MER Investigations 26 Mars Student Activities Mars Planetary Icosohedron 29 Mars Physical Geography Vocabulary Terms 31 Navigating a Spacecraft 33 Keyboarding Activity 36 Mars Websites 38 Program Information & Pricing Full and Mini Missions 41 Extra Venue Activities 42 Micronaut Program K-4 44 Teacher Professional Development 46 Inquiry Forms 50 Directions 53 Map 54 T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s NASA FACT: Although at first glance it appears wrong, the flag on the shuttle Orbiter is not truly backward. The regulation for displaying a U.S. flag on a national vehicle states that the star field must be positioned at the front of the vessel (the nose cone end of the shuttle), as if the flag were "flying" along the side of the ship. This causes the flag to look as though it were backward on one side of the Shuttle. Page 5 A T e a c h e r s P r o g r a m G u i d e U s i n g t h e S o f t w a r e RECEIVING MESSAGES -MISSION CONTROL When a new message is received, the button will turn yellow and you will hear a beep. It is important that you read new messages as soon as they are received. Notice the message bar is yellow. This is the message screen. Select the appropriate message. RECEIVING MESSAGES - SPACECRAFT When a new message is received, the indicator on the computer will flash and you will hear a beep. It is important that you read new messages as soon as they are received. Page 6 U s i n g t h e S o f t w a r e SENDING MESSAGES MISSION CONTROL / SPACECRAFT Notice the subject line in the messages box. Each time you send a message you must enter a subject title. Page 7 Page 8 Dear Classroom Educator, Our voyage begins in the year 2076 with a new crew of astronauts on route to the Red Planet. The purpose of their voyage is to replace the existing crew that has manned Mars Control for the last two years. Control of the incoming flight has been transferred from Mission Control, Houston to Mars Control at Chryse Station. Mars Control must safely guide the Mars Transport Vehicle (MTV) into Martian orbit and finally to a safe landing. Before returning to Earth, a probe will be launched to one of the Martian moons to gather data. The Voyage to Mars Mission uses the innate curiosity students have about space explorations to make learning exciting. Students flying the Mars Mission will be studying a variety of earth, space and life science topics. The Mission Prep Activity Book (MiPA) and the Mars Prep Activity Book (MaPA) have specific lessons to address each topic. Some of the basic concepts are listed below: 1. Study of the Planet Mars (NASA Projects, physical features, etc.) 2. Mars Geologic mapping (MaPA) 3. Rocks and Minerals 4. Calculating mass, volume and density 5. Finding averages 6. Average Temperature (MiPA) 7. The pH scale 8. Acids and Bases (MiPA) 9. Weather and Climates 10. Longitude and Latitude 11. X & Y Coordinates (MiPA) 12. Constellations & Stars 13. Satellites and Probes 14. The Solar System 15. Plants Hydroponics (MaPA) 16. Nutrition Mission Meals (MaPA) Please call (423.425.4126) if we can help you with any other educational issues regarding your mission or any of our educational activities or visit our website: http://www.utc.edu/Outreach/ChallengerCenter. We are looking forward to meeting you and your students. T h e U T C C h a l l e n g e r C e n t e r NASA FACT Have you ever heard a sonic boom? When an airplane travels at a speed faster than sound, density waves of sound emitted by the plane accumulate in a cone behind the plane. When this shock wave passes, a listener hears a sonic boom. Large meteors and the Space Shuttle frequently produce audible sonic booms before they are slowed to below the speed of sound by the Earth's atmosphere. M A R S T E A M D E S C R I P T I O N S Team Mars Control Mars Transport Vehi-cle COM/DATA Sends verbal messages to MTV , including emergency messages. Manages message flow in MC. Manages and monitors outgoing text messages from all MC teams. Skills: 5th grade reading level, good oral communication, time management, and keyboarding skills Sends verbal messages to MC. Manages the message flow in the MTV. Manages and moni-tors outgoing text messages from all teams to include image data from the spacecraft. Skills: 5th grade reading level, good oral communication, time management, and keyboarding skills NAV Assist and monitors MTV; lift-off from Mars; launch maneuvers Skills: giving oral instructions, math, graphing skills, good time management Achieve Martian orbit; select a landing site on Mars; lift-off from Mars; launch maneuvers Skills: following oral instructions, math, reasoning PROBE Assists and monitors the construction and deployment of the probe. Skills: giving oral instruction over headset, reading Constructs and deploys a probe that will be launched to one of the Martian Moons; Phobos or Deimos. Skills: reading, following oral directions REM 1 REM 2 Records and analyzes data sent from MTV. Conducts research on Earth and Mars rock and mineral resources. Provides emergency solution procedures. Skills: interpreting data, math and keyboarding Collects data on mass, volume, and geological make-up of Earth and Mars rock samples. Skills: metric measurement, observation and keyboarding LS Records and analyzes data sent from MTV. Conducts extensive research and makes decisions regarding safety of crew. Skills: analysis of data, math and keyboarding Collects data on pH of water, oxygen tests, and solar panels. Skills: collecting data, math, following written instructions and keyboarding MED Collects, monitors, and analyzes medical test data. Skills: problem solving and keyboarding Conducts medical tests on the MTV crew. Skills: proper use of testing equipment and keyboarding ISO 1 ISO 2 ISO 3 Records and analyzes data sent from MTV. Conduct research and respond immediately with decisive actions. Skills: reading, making decisions, interpreting data and keyboarding Conducts experiments regarding radioactivity, meteoroids, and hazardous materials. Skills: good hand-eye coordination, high frustration tolerance when working with robotic arms, and keyboarding Page 9 H o w t o m a t c h s t u d e n t a b i l i t i e s t o t e a m s o n T h e C r e w M a n i f e s t Communication/Data: The communication specialist has excellent verbal and auditory skills. This student is a good time manager. This team is definitely not the place for the class clown. Specialist possesses excellent reading, keyboarding and organizational skills. Navigation: The navigators have excellent reading comprehension, verbal, and math skills. They follow oral and written directions well . This specialist is able to work within a set timeline. Probe: The probe engineers are self starters, able to follow oral instructions well and are good listeners. This specialist is able to complete work within a set timeline. Remote: The remote specialist is comfortable in working with oversized gloves in the glovebox. This special-ist is observant, knows how to read and use metric equipment, and has excellent research skills. Keyboarding and organizational skills also required. Life Support: The life support specialist is a multi-tasker and a problem solver. This specialist follows written and oral instructions with ease. Keyboarding and research skills also required. Medical: The medical specialists are self starters, comfortable with giving and following both written and oral instructions as they perform a variety of tests on the spacecraft crew. Keyboarding, problem solving and re-search skills also required. Isolation: The isolation specialist possesses excellent hand-eye coordination skills and patience to work with sophisticated robotic equipment. This specialist reads well and follows written and oral instructions. Keyboard-ing and research skills also required. Page 10 Mission Date ____________________________ Time ___________________________________ Teacher name ______________________________ School______________________________________ Grade(s)_____________ # of students______________ # of chaperones_____________ 1. Assign the crew following the numbers listed below. Maximum crew size is 34. 2. FAX the Manifest at least two days prior to mission day. FAX #: 423.425.2190 V O Y A G E T O M A R S C R E W M A N I F E S T Page 11 Team Name Group A Begins in Mars Control Group B Begins in Mars Transport Vehicle C o m / D a t a 1 2 N a v i g a t i o n 3 21 4 22 P r o b e 5 27 6 28 R e m o t e 1 7 9 8 10 R e m o t e 2 23 25 24 26 L i f e S u p p o r t 11 15 12 16 M e d i c a l 13 17 14 18 I s o l a t i o n 1 I s o l a t i o n 2 31 33 19 29____________ 32 34 20 30_____________ M i n i - M a r s T E A M D E S C R I P T I O N S Team Spacecraft COM / DATA Sends verbal messages to MC. Manages the message flow in the Spacecraft. Manages and monitors text messages from all teams to include image data from spacecraft. Skills: 5th grade reading level, good oral communication, time management , keyboarding, and prioritizing information NAV Achieve lunar orbit, triangulating landing positions, selecting landing sites, land lunar spacecraft. Skills: following oral instructions, math, reasoning, map reading PROBE Constructs and deploys a Probe that will be launched to the lunar surface. Skills: reading, following oral directions REM 1 REM 2 Collects data on mass, volume, density and specific gravity of rock and mineral samples. Skills: metric measurement, observation and keyboarding, math calculations LS Collects data on pH of water, oxygen tests, humidity and air pressure. Skills: collecting data, math, following written instructions and keyboarding MED Conducts medical tests on the Spacecraft crew. Skills: proper use of testing equipment and keyboarding ISO 1 ISO 2 ISO 3 Conducts experiments regarding the solar array, meteoroids and hazardous materials. Skills: good hand-eye coordination, work with robotic arms and keyboarding Page 12 Mission Date ____________________________ Time ___________________________________ Teacher name ______________________________ School______________________________________ Grade(s)_____________ # of students______________ # of chaperones_____________ 1. Assign the crew following the numbers listed below. Maximum crew size is 34. 2. FAX the Manifest at least two days prior to mission day. FAX #: 423.425.2190 M I N I - V O Y A G E T O M A R S C R E W M A N I F E S T Page 13 T eam Name Spacecraft Crew C o m / D a t a 1. ____________________ N a v i g a t i o n 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ P r o b e 4. ____________________ 5. ____________________ R e m o t e 1 6. ____________________ 7. ____________________ R e m o t e 2 8. ____________________ 9. ___________________ L i f e S u p p o r t 1 L i f e S u p p o r t 2 10. ___________________ 11. ____________________ 12. ___________________ 13. ____________________ M e d i c a l 14. __________________ 15. ____________________ I s o l a t i o n 1 I s o l a t i o n 2 16. ___________________ 17. ____________________ 18. __________________ COM MC COM MC DATA MC DATA MC NAV MC NAV MC MED MC MED MC REM MC REM MC Page 14 V O Y A G E T O M A R S N A M E T A G S LS MC LS MC LS MC ISO 1 MC ISO 2 MC ISO 3 MC PROBE MC PROBE MC __________ MC __________ MC Page 15 V O Y A G E T O M A R S N A M E T A G S COM MTV COM MTV DATA MTV DATA MTV NAV MTV NAV MTV MED MTV MED MTV REM MTV REM MTV Page 16 V O Y A G E T O M A R S N A M E T A G S V O Y A G E T O M A R S N A M E T A G S LS MTV LS MTV LS MTV ISO 1 MTV ISO 2 MTV ISO 3 MTV PROBE MTV PROBE MTV __________ MTV __________ MTV Page 17 S C H O O L M I S S I O N P A T C H Page 18 We would like to invite your group to design its own patch to represent your Challenger Center mission. Your patch should include: Name of your mission Date of your mission School name Symbols, logos, or characters that represent your groups mission The SIZE of your patch should be designed to fit on a sheet 5 1/2 inches by 8 1/2 inches. [1/2 of a standard letter page] BE CREATIVE AND COLORFUL!!!!! Bring your designed patch with you on mission day. It will be displayed in Mission Control. While in training, the crew designs a patch that identifies its unique mission. Each member of the crew contributes to the patch design. The team uses color, shape, images, and text to represent different aspects of their mission. The mission patch for flight 51-L (Challenger Crew) offers symbols for its mission of education and flight. The shuttle is launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida; it encircles the planet to signify America's presence in space and to illus-trate the nation's drive to explore the space frontier. The shuttle's open cargo doors represent three mission objectives: to launch a communications sat-ellite, collect data from Comet Halley, and conduct various scientific experiments. The apple next to Christa McAuliffe's name signifies her role as the first teacher in space, as well as the education component of the mission. Finally, the scene is encircled by the surnames of each of the seven crew members. PaK E Y S T O A S U C C E S S F U L V I S I T Classroom preparation is vital to a successful visit. Total time at the Challenger Center: 15 minutes prior to start time 2 hours per mission Up to 1 hour for lunch A minimum of 2-3 chaperones is recommended for the mission and EVA(s). Lunch facilities do not exist at the Challenger Center. You may bring lunch and eat across the street in the Administration Building Lunchroom. You may also purchase lunch at the University Center. The UTC Challenger Center is unable to provide free parking for personal vehicles. Bus parking is still free. Please make arrangements through UTC Parking Services. Personal vehicles must register through UTC Parking Services prior to event date. Please allow an addi-tional 20 minutes to your trip time for parking. The UTC Parking Services office hours: Monday - Friday from 7:30 AM to 4:30 PM Phone: (423) 425-4051 Fax: (423) 425-2674 E-mail: email@example.com Web Address:www.utc.edu/Administration/Parking/ Parking Options: 1. UTC Parking Garage located at the end of 5th street by McKenzie Arena (limited during the fall and spring semesters). Cost: 0 - 1 hr $1.00 1 - 1 1/2 hrs $1.50 1 1/2 hr - 2 hrs $2.00 2 - 3 hrs $3.00 Over 3 hrs $4.00 2. Engel Stadium Lot located on 3rd Street. Ride shuttle to front of Challenger Center. Cost: Requests should be submitted to Parking Services at least 48 hours in advance. The charge for this area will be $4.00 per day (TO PARK). Shuttle ride is free. 3. Any city street curb parking (limited during the fall and spring semesters) Cost: free After 4:30pm parking is free except for 24 hour reserved lots. Page 20 Scientists believe that 3.5 billion years ago, Mars experienced the largest known floods in the solar system. M A R S I N F O R M AT I O N ( E X C E R P T S F R O M N A S A S 2 0 0 4 P R E S S K I T ) NASA FACT Olympus Mons may be the largest volcano in our solar system. It is three times taller than Mt. Everest (the tallest mountain on Earth) and as big as the state of New Mexico. -81F Average temperature on Mars. That's a chilly -62C. 687 Number of days it takes for Mars to orbit the sun. A Martian year. 66.5 Years it would take to travel the minimum distance between Earth and Mars at 60 mph. It takes only five minutes at the speed of light. Page 21 General One of five planets known to ancients; Mars was Roman god of war, agriculture and the state Yellowish brown to reddish color; occasionally the third brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus Physical Characteristics Average diameter 6,780 kilometers (4,212 miles); about half the size of Earth, but twice the size of Earth's Moon Same land area as Earth, reminiscent of a rocky desert Mass 1/10th of Earth's; gravity only 38 percent as strong as Earth's Density 3.9 times greater than water (compared to Earth's 5.5 times greater than water) No planet-wide magnetic field detected; only localized ancient remnant fields in various regions Orbit Fourth planet from the Sun, the next beyond Earth About 1.5 times farther from the Sun than Earth Orbit elliptical; distance from Sunaverage distance from the Sun 227.7 million kilometers (141.5 million miles) Revolves around Sun once every 687 Earth days Rotation period (length of day) 24 hours, 39 min, 35 sec (1.027 Earth days) Poles tilted 25 degrees, creating seasons similar to Earth's Environment Atmosphere composed chiefly of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%) and argon (1.6%) Surface atmospheric pressure less than 1/100th that of Earth's average Surface winds up to 80 miles per hour (40 meters per second) Local, regional and global dust storms; also whirlwinds called dust devils Surface temperature averages -53 C (-64 F) Features Highest point is Olympus Mons, a huge shield volcano about 26 kilometers (16 miles) high and 600 kilometers (370 miles) across; has about the same area as Arizona Canyon system of Valles Marineris is largest and deepest known in solar system; extends more than 4,000 kilometers (2,500 miles) "Canals" observed by Giovanni Schiaparelli and Percival Lowell about 100 years ago were a visual illusion. The Mariner 9 and Viking missions of the 1970s established that Mars has channels possibly cut by ancient rivers Moons Two irregularly shaped moons, each only a few kilometers wide Larger moon named Phobos ("fear"); smaller is Deimos ("panic"), named for attributes personified in Greek mythology as sons of the god of war M a r s a t - a - G l a n c e Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov M a r s E x p l o r a t i o n : W h e r e W e ' v e B e e n a n d W h e r e W e ' r e G o i n g NASA's Mars Exploration Program will establish a sustained observational presence both around and on the surface of Mars in coming years. The program's strategy is to uncover profound new insights into Mars' past environments, the history of its rocks and interior, the many roles and abundances of water and, quite possi-bly, evidence of past and present life. These are the most recently completed, ongoing, and future Mars explorations in the NASA program: Mars Pathfinder (December 1996 - March 1998): The first completed mission in NASA's Discovery Program. This lander, which released its Sojourner rover at the Martian surface, returned 2.3 billion bits of information, includ-ing more than 17,000 images and more than 15 chemical analyses of rocks and soil and extensive data on winds and other types of weather. Investigations suggested that Mars was warm and wet, with liquid water on its surface and a thicker atmosphere. The lander and rover exceeded their planned lifetimes. Mars Global Surveyor (November 1996 - present): Today the orbiter continues to gather data in a second extended mission. It has completed more than 20,000 orbits of Mars and returned more than 137,000 images. Some of the mission's most significant findings include: a. Evidence of possible recent liquid water at the Martian surface b. Evidence for layering of rocks that points to widespread ponds or lakes in the planet's early history c. Topographic evidence that most of the southern hemisphere is higher in elevation than most of the northern hemisphere, so that any downhill flow of water and sediments would have tended to be northward d. Identification of gray hematite, a mineral suggesting a wet environment when it was formed e. Extensive evidence for the role of dust in reshaping the recent Martian environment Global Surveyor provided valuable details for the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and will serve as a communi-cations relay for the rovers as they descend, land, and roam on Mars. Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov Page 22 Page 23 Mars Odyssey (April 2001 - present): Its instruments have provided strong evidence for large quantities of frozen water mixed into the top layer of soil in the 20 percent of the planet near its north and south poles. By one estimate (likely an underestimate) the amount of water ice near the surface, if melted, would be enough water to fill Lake Michigan twice. Odyssey's infrared camera system provided detailed maps of minerals in rocks and soils. A layer of olivine rich rock in one canyon near Mars' equator suggests that site has been dry for a long time, since olivine is easily weathered by liquid water. Nighttime infrared imaging by its camera system provides information about how quickly or slowly surface features cool off after sunset, which gives an indication of where the surface is rocky and where it is dusty. Odyssey's observations help evaluate potential landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers. When the rovers reach Mars, radio relay via Odyssey will be one way they will return data to Earth. Opportunity A mission planned for 90 days has turned into an adventure that's lasted over two Earth years! Opportunity has returned over 58,000 images. Curious bead-like objects turned out to be rich in hematite, a mineral that often forms in water. Distinct layering in some rocks showed that water once flowed on the surface of Mars. A rock was found in which the chemistry indicated the presence of sodium chloride (table salt), which only forms when water has been present. Its odyssey has shown that water was present not only once, but washed through and affected the area multiple times. Spirit A mission planned for 90 days has turned into an adventure that's lasted over two Earth years! Provided some 70,000 images and a new understanding of Mars as a potential habitat. Spirit found rocks in the 'Columbia Hills' that either formed in, or were altered by, water. The hills hold the highest sul-fur content ever found on Mars: sulfate salts, deposited by water. Spirit has discovered at least five distinct classes of rocks. Engineers are delighted with the unlikely role the Martian wind has played in increasing the rover's staying power. While dozens of dust devils have passed before Spirit's cameras, some have made contact, sweeping dust from the rover's so-lar panels. The solar panels are then able to take in more sunlight and convert it into electricity, keeping Spirit "alive" for even longer. Both rovers are aging and have lasted seven times longer than expected. The parts are slowly wearing out, and unknown challenges certainly lie ahead. Still, the team is prepared to guide their robotic explorers for as long as they are able to roam. Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov M a r s E x p l o r a t i o n : W h e r e W e ' v e B e e n a n d W h e r e W e ' r e G o i n g Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2005): The spacecraft's telescopic camera will reveal Martian landscapes in resolution fine enough to show rocks the size of a desk. Maps of surface minerals will be produced in unprecedented detail. Scientists will search for minerals that form in wet environments. A radar instrument will probe below Mars' surface for layers of frozen or melted water, and other types of geologic layers. Another instrument will document atmospheric processes changing with Mars' seasons, and study how water vapor enters, moves within and leaves the atmosphere. Phoenix Mars Scout (2007): This mission will send a spacecraft to land in an ice-rich region of northern Mars, scoop up soil to analyze at the landing site, and radio home evidence about the history of Martian water and the possibility of past or current life. Phoenix will land in May 2008. A stereo color camera and a weather station will study the surrounding environment while other instruments check excavated soil samples for water, organic chemicals, and conditions that could indicate whether the site was ever hospitable to life. Microscopes will reveal features as small as 1/1,000th the width of a human hair. Mars Science Laboratory (2009): Search for habitable environments and the basic building blocks of life. It will have the capability to move on the surface for a full Martian year or longer and across distances an order of magnitude larger than the Mars Exploration Rovers. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (2009): This mission will be the first interplanetary spacecraft whose primary mission is to provide communications services to other missions. It will fly in a higher orbit than any previous Mars orbiter missions. It will dramatically in-crease the amount of data that surface missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory can send to Earth. The next decade will witness the transition from "following the water" to a "search for building blocks of life" -- in other words, following the carbon. Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov M a r s E x p l o r a t i o n : W h e r e W e ' v e B e e n a n d W h e r e W e ' r e G o i n g Page 24 m a r s E x p l o r a t i o n R o v e r s O v e r v i e w NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Project will deliver two mobile laboratories to the surface of Mars for robotic geologi-cal fieldwork, including the examination of rocks and soils that may reveal a history of past water activity. Sequences of launch, cruise and arrival operations are dispatching each rover to a different area of the planet three weeks apart to explore those areas for about three months each. The twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, can recognize and maneuver around small obstacles on their way to target rocks selected by scientists from images sent by the rovers. They will conduct unprecedented studies of Mars geology, such as the first microscopic observations of rock samples. They will provide "ground truth" characterization of the landing vicinities that will help to calibrate observations from instruments that view the planet from above on Mars orbiters. Interplanetary Cruise and Approach to Mars Following launch, each spacecraft has spent several (about 7-8) months en route to Mars. During this cruise and the ap-proach to Mars, each spacecraft has been attached to a cruise stage that will be jettisoned in the final minutes of the flight. Solar panels on the cruise stage provide electricity for the spacecraft in flight. The months in which Spirit and Opportunity traveled from Earth to Mars have also provided time for testing critical procedures, equipment and software in preparation for arrival. Entry, Descent and Landing About 84 minutes before entering Mars' atmosphere, each rover spacecraft will begin 14-minute partial rotation to orient its heat shield forward. On both spacecraft, 15 minutes before atmospheric entry, the protective aeroshell encasing the lander and rover will separate from the cruise stage, whose role is now complete. Each spacecraft will hit the top of the atmosphere, about 128 kilometers (80 miles) above Mars' surface, at a flight path angle of about 11.5 degrees and a velocity of about 5.4 kilometers per second (12,000 miles per hour). Although Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than Earth does, the friction of traveling through it will heat and slow the spacecraft dramatically. The sur-face of the heat shield is expected to reach a temperature of 1,447 C (2,637 F). By 4 minutes after atmospheric entry, speed will have decreased to about 430 meters per second (960 miles per hour). At that point, about 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) above the ground, the spacecraft will deploy its parachute. Twenty seconds after parachute deployment, the spacecraft will jettison the heat shield, exposing the lander inside. Ten seconds later, the backshell, still attached to the parachute, will begin lowering the lander on a tether like bridle about 20 meters (66 feet) long. Spooling out the bridle to full length will take 6 seconds. Almost immediately, a radar system on the lander will begin sending pulses toward the ground to measure its altitude. Radar will detect the ground when the craft is about 2.4 kilome-ters (1.5 miles) above the surface, approximately 35 seconds before landing. A downward-looking camera is mounted on the lander. Once the radar has sensed the surface, this camera will take three pictures of the ground about 4 seconds apart and automatically analyze them to estimate the spacecraft's horizontal velocity. A set of three small transverse rockets mounted on the backshell can be fired in any combination to reduce horizontal velocity or counteract effects of side-to-side swinging under the parachute and bridle. Eight seconds before touchdown, gas generators will inflate the lander's airbags. Two seconds later, the three main decel-eration rockets on the backshell -- and, if needed, one or two of the transverse rockets -- will ignite. After 3 more seconds, when the lander should be about 10 to 15 meters (33 to 49 feet) above ground and have zero vertical velocity, its bridle will be cut, releasing it from the backshell and parachute. Page 25 Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov The airbag-protected lander will then be in free fall for a few seconds as it drops toward the ground. Bouncing and rolling could last several minutes. The spacecraft will bounce on the surface, and those minutes will be packed with chal-lenging events crucial to the mission's success. Twelve minutes after landing, motors will begin retracting the airbags, a process likely to take about an hour. Then the lander petals will open. No matter which of the four petals is on the bottom when the folded-up lander stops rolling, the petal-opening action will set all four face up, with the rover's base petal in the center. Mars Surface Operations Opening of the four-sided lander will uncover the rover tucked snugly inside. Each rover's first action will be to unfold its solar-array panels. Then, still in a crouch, it will take images of the immediate surroundings with four hazard-identification cameras mounted below the plane of the solar panels. Each rover will need to spend a week or more completing a series of engineering and scientific tasks before moving off its Lander. The rover will also use the panoramic camera to locate the Sun in the sky, allowing it to calculate its orienta-tion and point its high-gain antenna toward Earth. Each rover goes through several stages in rising from its crouching posi-tion to stand at its full height while still on the lander base petal. Standup requires a number of days. Once the rover is at its full height atop the lander platform, it will take a 360-degree high-resolution, stereo, color panorama with its panoramic camera and a matching 360-degree panorama with its miniature thermal emission spectrometer before moving off the lander. Scientists will rely heavily on those images to decide which rocks and soils the rover should go examine. The rover will ex-amine each target up close, then begin moving on to its next target. Its maximum travel in one day will likely be about 20 meters (approximately 65 feet). Communications The Mars Exploration Rover project relies on the agency's Deep Space Network to track and communicate with spacecrafts. During the critical minutes of arrival at Mars, Spirit and Opportunity transmitted essential spacecraft-status information throughout their atmospheric entry, descent and landing. On the surface of Mars, the rovers will be capable of communicating either directly with Earth or through Mars orbiters acting as relays. The Deep Space Network transmits and receives radio signals through large dish antennas at three sites spaced approximately one-third of the way around the world from each other. This configuration ensures that spacecraft remain in view of one antenna complex or another as Earth rotates. Planetary Protection Requirements In the study of whether Mars has had environments conducive to life, precautions are taken against introducing microbes from Earth. The United States is a signatory to an international treaty that stipulates that exploration must be con-ducted in a manner that avoids harmful contamination of celestial bodies. The primary strategy for preventing contamination of Mars with Earth organisms is to be sure that the hardware intended to reach the planet is clean. Each Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft complied with requirements. Technicians cleaned surfaces by wiping them with an alcohol solution. The planetary protection team sampled the surfaces and per-formed microbiology tests. Components tolerant of high temperature, such as the parachute and thermal blanketing, were heated to kill microbes. The core box of each rover, containing the main computer and other key electronics, is sealed and vented through high-efficiency filters that keep any microbes inside. Some smaller electronics compartments are also iso-lated in this manner. Page 26 Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov m a r s E x p l o r a t i o n R o v e r s O v e r v i e w M a r s E x p l o r a t i o n R o v e r s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s The Mars Exploration Rover mission seeks to determine the history of climate and water at sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. Each rover is equipped with a suite of science instruments that will be used to read the geologic record at each site, to investigate what role water played there, and to determine how suitable the conditions would have been for life. Science Objectives Based on priorities of the overall Mars Exploration Program, the following science objectives were developed for Spirit and Opportunity: Search for and characterize a diversity of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity (water-bearing minerals and minerals deposited by precipitation, evaporation, sedimentary cementation, or hydrothermal activity). Investigate landing sites, selected on the basis of orbital remote sensing, that have a high probability of containing physical and/or chemical evidence of the action of liquid water. Determine the spatial distribution and composition of minerals, rocks and soils surrounding the landing sites Determine the nature of local surface geologic processes from surface morphology and chemistry Calibrate and validate orbital remote-sensing data and assess the amount and scale of heterogeneity at each landing site. For iron-containing minerals, identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or hydroxyls, or are indicators of formation by an aqueous process, such as iron-bearing carbonates. Characterize the mineral assemblages and textures of different types of rocks and soils and put them in geologic context. Extract clues from the geologic investigation, related to the environmental conditions when liquid water was present and assess whether those environments were conducive for life. Science Instruments Panoramic Camera will view the surface using two high-resolution color stereo cameras to complement the rover's navigation cameras. The camera's images will help scientists decide what rocks and soils to analyze in detail, and will provide information on sur-face features, the distribution and shape of nearby rocks, and the presence of features carved by ancient waterways. The Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer is an instrument that sees infrared radiation emitted by objects. By measuring the brightness of that emission in 167 different "colors" of infrared for each point it views, this spectrometer will determine from afar the mineral composition of Martian surface features and allow scientists to select specific rocks and soils to investigate in detail. Observing in the infrared allows scientists to see through dust that coats many rocks, allowing the instrument to recognize carbonates, silicates, organic molecules and minerals formed in water. Infrared data will also help scientists assess the capacity of rocks and soils to hold heat over the wide temperature range of a Martian day. Besides studying rocks, the instrument will be pointed upward to make the first-ever high-resolution temperature profiles through the Martian atmosphere's boundary layer. The instruments on the rover arm are: The Microscopic Imager is a combination of a microscope and a camera. It will produce extreme close-up black-and-white views (at a scale of hundreds of microns) of rocks and soils examined by other instruments on the rover arm, providing context for the inter-pretation of data about minerals and elements. The imager will help characterize sedimentary rocks that formed in water, and thus will help scientists understand past watery environments on Mars. Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov Page 27 Because many of the most important minerals on Mars contain iron, the Mssbauer Spectrometer is designed to determine with high accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals that are difficult to detect by other means. Identification of iron-bearing minerals will yield information about early Martian environmental conditions. The instrument is provided by Germany. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer will accurately determine the elements that make up rocks and soils. This in-formation will be used to complement and constrain the analysis of minerals provided by the other science instruments. Through the use of alpha particles and X-rays, the instrument will determine a sample's abundances of all major rock-forming elements except hydrogen. Analyzing the elemental make-up of Martian surface materials will provide scientists with information about crustal for-mation, weathering processes and water activity on Mars. It is provided by Germany. The arm-mounted instruments will be aided by a Rock Abrasion Tool that will act as the rover's equivalent of a geologist's rock hammer. Positioned against a rock by the rover's instrument arm, the tool uses a grinding wheel to remove dust and weathered rock, exposing fresh rock underneath. Each rover has three sets of Magnet Arrays that will collect airborne dust for analysis by the science instruments. Mars is a dusty place, and some of that dust is highly magnetic. Magnetic minerals carried in dust grains may be freeze-dried remnants of the planets watery past. A periodic examination of these particles and their patterns of accumulation on magnets of varying strength can reveal clues about their mineralogy and the planets geologic history. The magnet arrays are provided by Denmark. Calibration Targets are reference points that will help scientists fine-tune observations not only from imagers but also other science instruments. Supplemental Instruments: Each rover also has other tools that, while primarily designed for engineering use in the operation of the rover, can also provide in-formation about the geology of the landing region: Hazard-Identification Cameras ride low on the front and rear of the rover. The cameras are in stereo pairs at each location in order to produce three-dimensional information about the terrain before or behind the rover. The front pair of hazard identification cameras provides position information to help movement of the rover's arm and placement of arm-mounted tools on target rocks. The Navigation Camera is another stereo pair of black-and-white cameras. Like the panoramic camera, it sits on top of the mast and can rotate and tilt. Unlike the panoramic camera, it shoots wider-angle images. Engineers and scientists will use those images in planning where to send the rover and where to use the science instruments for more detailed examinations. Each spacecraft has one more camera on the underside of the lander as a key component in what is called the Descent Image Motion Estimation Subsystem. The main purpose of this camera is to aid in safe landing by providing information about how fast the spacecraft is moving horizontally in the final half-minute of its descent. It will take a total of three black-and-white images it takes from altitudes of up to about 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) above ground, which may also provide scientists with a broader geo-logical context about the landing site. Wheels of the rover, in addition to providing mobility, may be used to dig shallow trenches to evaluate soil properties and expose fresh soil to be examined. Excerpts from 2004 NASA Press Kit - http://www.nasa.gov M a r s E x p l o r a t i o n R o v e r s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s Page 28 DID YOU KNOW Unraveling the story of water on Mars is important to unlocking its past climate history, which will help us understand the evolution of all planets, including our own. Mars is a rocky planet. It is dusty and dry. The sky would be hazy and red instead of blue. 2,500 Length (in miles) of Valles Marineris, the 'Grand Canyon of Mars.' That's 4,000 km. Periodically, great dust storms engulf the entire planet. The effects of these storms are dramatic, including giant dunes, wind streaks, and wind-carved features. On Mars, you would see two moons in the sky. They are Phobos and Deimos. Although no one knows how they formed, they may be asteroids snared by Mars' gravity. M a r s S t u d e n t A c t i v i t i e s Mars, the Red Planet, was a familiar and yet suspicious omen, a symbol for war and aggression for thousands of years. Page 29 The icosahedron is a 20-sided polyhedron with each side made up of an equilateral triangle. Joining five triangle faces together forms each vertex. Ancient Greeks dis-covered that certain solid objects could be made from flat polygons such as the equi-lateral triangle and square. A tetrahedron is made from 4 triangles, a cube from six squares, an octahedron from 8 triangles, a dodecahedron from 12 triangles and the icosahedron from 20 triangles. As the number of faces increases in the polyhedron, its shape becomes more spherical. Each face displays a part of the (nearly spherical) planetary surfaces. The triangles are folded so that adjacent triangles are joined exactly at their closest edges. The cut-out pattern forms the complete globe with the North and South Poles at opposite vertices. The overall size of an assembled globe is approximately 2.75 inches if printed on an 8 1/2 x 11 piece of paper and 3.75 inches if printed on an 8 1/2 x 14 page. To assemble the icosahedron, score each face and then cut out along the edges of the map. You can use tape or glue to assemble the globe. Double-sided tape works well. The challenge is in connecting the last edges together. Good luck and have fun. http://star.mpae.gwdg.de/solar/eng/ico.htm M a r s P l a n e t a r y I c o s a h e d r o n Page 30 Page 31 Match each term to the correct meaning: Dorsum A. a long narrow shallow depression Mons B. mesa flat top elevation Undae C. dunes Fossa D. a shallow crater Terra E. ridge Vallis or Valles F. extensive land mass Patera G. intersecting valley Rupes H. mountain Planitia I. scarp Mensa J. valley or valleys Labyrinthus K. low plain M a r s P h y s i c a l G e o g r a p h y V o c a b u l a r y T e r m s Page 32 Match each term to the correct meaning: Dorsum E A. long narrow shallow depression Mons H B. mesa flat top elevation Undae C C. dunes Fossa A D. a shallow crater Terra F E. ridge Vallis or Valles J F. extensive land mass Patera D G. intersecting valley Rupes I H. mountain Planitia K I. scarp Mensa B J. valley or valleys Labyrinthus G K. low plain M a r s P h y s i c a l G e o g r a p h y V o c a b u l a r y T e r m s K e y Page 33 Location 1 If we take a look at the chart, it states the distance of the spacecraft to the Sun is 150 million km. We must set our compass to 150 million km as shown above left. Then, we place the compass point on the sun and draw a cir-cle representing 150 million km shown by the dark circle. Because the spacecraft is still on Earth, the distance is zero. So, currently, the spacecrafts course would be the same as Earths. N a v i g a t i n g a S p a c e c r a f t Page 34 Location 2 To find the 2nd position, set the compass to the spacecrafts new distance to the sun,163 million km. Place the point on the sun and only draw an arc at the distance. N a v i g a t i n g a S p a c e c r a f t Page 35 Next, set your compass to represent spacecrafts distance to the Earth, 18 million km. Place the point of the compass on the Earth and draw a circle. The circle youve created around the Earth intersects your arc (spacecrafts distance to the sun) at two points. So, wheres the spacecraft? Planets orbit in a counterclockwise direction. Therefore, for this location, the spacecraft is in front of the Earth in a counterclockwise fashion between the two orbits. Follow this procedure for the remaining dates. Best of luck! N a v i g a t i n g a S p a c e c r a f t Page 36 Page 37 K e y b o a r d i n g A c t i v i t y The mission software allows individual teams to communicate with their teammates via their team station computers. Text messaging is embedded in the software at each station. The written post -it note format for sending messages is no longer used in the mission. Use the content and paper keyboard below to help students practice keyboarding skills. The normal reaction time for is between 10 and 20 seconds. The systolic blood pressure is the reading of the heart as it pushes blood through the body. Diastolic blood pressure is the reading of the relaxation of the heart as it refills with blood. A Geiger counter is an instrument used to measure the presence of radiation. Meteoroid test panels are attached to various places on the Solar Array located on outside of the Spacecraft. Meteoroid showers in space can damage the Spacecraft Solar Array. Chemicals aboard the spacecraft can be come volatile do to changes in spacecraft conditions. Regolith is a rock found in the lowland soil of the Moon. The Moon completes all eight phases in 29 and days. Anorthosite is a rock found in the highlands of the Moon. Relative humidity refers to the amount of water vapor in the air. The acceptable pH of spacecraft drinking water is 7. The Probe data will help us determine a lunar landing site. Mission Keyboarding Content for Team Station Messaging K e y b o a r d i n g A c t i v i t y Page 38 The term "aeronautics" originated in France, and was derived from the Greek words for "air" and "to sail. Page 39 For Mars Web Quests, Classroom Resources, and Activities check out these websites! Mars Websites Mars Web Quest http://www.marsquestonline.org/mer/ NASA Mars Information and Updates http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/solarsystem/mer_main.html JPL Website Mars Classroom Resources for Teachers http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/resources.html http://msip.asu.edu/curriculum.html Mars for Students http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/students.html Mars for Kids http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/funzone_flash.html Rover Web Quests and Classroom activities for grades K-12 http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/classroom/ Mars surface has been changed by volcanism, impacts from other bodies, movements of its crust, and atmospheric effects such as dust storms. NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers' discovery of evidence of past water on Mars was the top scientific "Breakthrough of the Year," according to the journal Science. Mars has polar ice caps that grow and recede with the change of seasons. A satellite is any object that travels around another object, such as the Earth around the sun, or the moon around the Earth. Man-made satellites are machines that are built here on Earth and then launched into space. PROGRAM INFORMATION & PRICING The Valles Marineris canyon system stretches a distance equivalent to the distance from New York to Los Angeles; Arizona's Grand Canyon could easily fit into one of the side canyons of this great chasm. Columbia was the first Space Shuttle that traveled to Earth orbit and made the 100th flight in shuttle program history. Page 40 Page 41 Full Mission Price: $500.00 M i s s i o n s A Full Mission is a 2 hour group simulation that includes Mission Control, being launched into space, and conducting research in the Space Lab. Maximum 34 participants per mission; 5th grade reading level required. Mission preparation materials (standards-based lesson plans, hands-on activities, and other educational resources) are provided for each mission. Voya g e t o m a r s In Earth years, it is 2076, and a now routine Voyage to Mars has brought the latest human crew into Martian orbit. Control of the incoming flight has been transferred from Houstons Mission Control to Mars Control at Chryse Station. The crew arriving from Earth on the Mars Transport Vehicle has been specially trained to replace the existing crew of astronauts, which has manned Mars Control for the past two years, and to continue their scientific explorations. The Mars Control team is charged with the selection of entry and departure trajectories before the landing and subsequent lift-off of the Mars Transport Vehicle can occur. The relief crew on the Mars Transport Vehicle is tasked with the launching of a probe to one of the Martian moons before they return to Earth. Both the relief crew and the planet-based crew will be under tight deadlines to gather important data and communicate information to the teams, the spacecraft, and the Mars base. R e t u r n t o t h e m o on Answering the call of the 2020 Space Initiative for human exploration, the Return to the Moon mission begins with a spacecraft in Earths orbit and the Mission Control team monitoring the crews status. The crew aboard the spacecraft will leave Earths orbit and travel to the Moon. In this mission, our crew establishes a permanent lunar base that will serve as a staging area for further Solar System exploration. As the crew moves toward our closest neighbor, they will capture a stranded probe, repair and rebuild the probe and launch it to the Moon. Together, the crew will place their spaceship into lunar orbit and make the important decision of the location of the first permanent lunar base. A complete team effort is required for the ultimate challenge: a safe and successful lunar landing! R end e z vo u s W i t h c ome t H a l l e y It is the year 2061. An earth-orbiting space station moves towards Halley's Comet which last passed through our solar system in 1986 and will not return for another 76 years. During this mission, team members work as scientists and engineers who are headed to Rendezvous with a Comet as part of a continuing study of our Solar System. Their mission is critical in helping scientists verify and better understand data collected by earlier missions at the start of the new millennium, such as STARDUST s capture of cometary material from comet Wild-2. The onboard astronauts, working with their counterparts in Mission Control, have two hours to rendezvous with the comet and launching a probe to intercept and collect new data. A Mini Mission is a 1 hour simulation where crew members are launched into space and conduct research in the Space Lab. 10-18 participants. Mini - Mission Price: $250.00 E X T R A V E N U E A C T I V I T Y P r o g r a m s EVA (Extra Venue Activity) 2 hours - Hands-on, investigative activities, which are designed as companions to Full Missions, incorporate math and science related themes. EVAs are recom-mended to accommodate larger groups that require back to back missions. EVA Price: $300.00 P o p r o ck e t s ( G r a d e L e v e l 4 - 7 ) Students investigate Newton's Laws of Motion through the construction and launch of pop rockets. They discover how the laws affect what happens to the rockets. This EVA is designed to complement the Rendezvous with Comet Halley Mission. Mars r ov e r ( G r a d e L e v e l 5 - 9 ) Students use their creative skills to design and build their own Mars Rover. The engineering design teams follow a basic specification checklist to assign functions, determine mass and the overall cost of their Rover. This EVA is designed to complement the Voyage to Mars Mission. Moon Maneuvers (Grade Level 5-9) Students explore the Lunar Landing sites of the Apollo astronauts. Students use a shaded relief map to investigate the different lunar landing sites, and learn about a variety of lunar surface features. Knowledge of the terrain will assist the team in planning a lunar ex-cursion for their Lunar Rover Vehicle. Students will use map reading, graphing skills and problem solving to calculate the shortest trip time. This EVA is designed to complement the Return to the Moon Mission.. Page 42 EMU ( E x t r a M o b i l i t y U n i t ) CONS TRUCT I ON ( G r a d e L e v e l 5 - 8 ) Participants work on a team of five to construct the EMU using the large Quadros pieces. Each member of the team is assigned a unique role with specific guidelines for construction. The emphasis is on clear unambiguous verbal communication between team members. Students will give and follow verbal instructions to replicate the EMU. After construction is complete, students will determine the dimensions of the EMU by measuring length, width, diameter and radius using a meter stick. In addition, students will find the surface area and volume of the EMU by substituting values into mathematical formulas and performing the indicated operations. Sho r t c i r c u i t s ( G r a d e L e v e l 6 - 8 ) Students use graphing calculators and voltage probes to investigate circuits. The electrician specialist will collect and analyze voltage readings of batteries in series and parallel circuits. *Special Booking required Mo t i o n p i c t u r e s ( G r a d e L e v e l 6 - 9 ) Students use graphing calculators and motion sensors to investigate motion. The student Motion Specialist will graph their own motion, calculate motion velocity, and match distance vs. time graphs. The students will work with the latest in data collecting equipment while learning how to calculate slope and velocity. Maximum of 24 students. *Special booking required E X T R A V E N U E A C T I V I T Y P r o g r a m s Page 43 M I C R O N A U T G r a d e s K - 2 Price: 1 hour Program: $300.00 Maximum is 36 Participants 2 hour Program: $400.00 Maximum is 54 Participants 1 Hour Micronaut Program includes Mini Discovery Mission and one Micronaut EVA. Maximum is 36 participantsDivided into 2 groups up to 18 students each. 2 Hour Micronaut Program - includes Mini Discovery Mission and two Micronaut EVAs. MICRONAUT DISCOVERY - Traveling 230 miles above the Earths surface aboard the International Space Station, the Discovery crew continues the mission of the largest scientific cooperative program in history. This elite team of scientists, engineers, and mathematicians will engage in unique research using a variety of hands-on experiments. Our Micronaut Discovery program is designed for grades K through 2 (for non to beginning reading levels). This program divides students up into small groups and rotates the groups through our Discovery mission in the space simulator and the hands-on EVA activity(s) of your choice. All components of our program are hands-on, standards-based activities that are designed and led by our team of certified teachers. Micronaut EVAs Micronauts In Orbit Students learn about the different parts of a space shuttle launchfrom liftoff to landing Students work in pairs to put shuttle launch sequence cards in order based upon what they learned Students will create a paper model of a space shuttle and learn about an astronauts daily routine in space Micronaut Tech Students will learn about the uses of NanoSatellite technology in space Students will learn about orbiting objects and will discuss the day & night sky Students will work in pairs to build a NanoSatellite (NanoSat) with Geofix pieces Micronauts to the Moon Students will learn how rockets take astronauts to the Moon and back from liftoff to landing Students will work in pairs using sequence cards to show the correct order of a rockets liftoff & landing Students will count and identify different shapes and use those tangram shapes to construct a paper rocket Space Fishing Students will use the numbered fish to create and solve number sentences Students will use manipulatives to observe, solve, and create number patterns and formulas Planet Walk Students will learn important facts and characteristics of the planets in our solar system Students will discover the order of the planets and will practice putting them in order from the Sun Students will learn the relative size and distance of the planets Page 44 *For groups that are larger than 54, please inquire about available options. Call (423) 425-2191.* M I C R O C O M E T G r a d e s 3 - 4 Price: 1 hour Program: $300.00 Maximum 36 Participants 2 hour Program: $400.00 Maximum 54 Participants Micronaut EVAs Micronaut Tech Students will learn about the uses of NanoSatellite technology in space Students will learn about orbiting and will discuss the day & night sky Students will build an origami NanoSatellite (NanoSat) by folding colored paper Telescope Tech Students will explore the concepts of reflection and refraction and discuss their differences. Students will learn about the different parts of a telescope. Students will use a refracting telescope to observe distant objects. (For an additional cost, students can construct telescopes to take home.) Moon Phases Students will investigate the sun, earth, and the moon and their interactions with each other. Students will learn the eight moon phases and will model and discuss each phase. MicroRockets Students will build and launch a MicroRocket. Students will organize the rockets launch results using a bar graph. Students will read and interpret the results of the bar graph. Troubled Ladder Students will use fraction building blocks to build a staircase for a stranded lander Students will identify, compare, and place fractions in order using manipulatives Students will determine patterns between fractions and will complete fraction problems MICROCOMET - It is the year 2061. Traveling between Earth and Mars, the MicroComet crew is on a mission to locate Comet Halley. After locating the comet, this scientific team of explorers will launch a probe into the comet to discover the secrets of this ancient cosmic material. Our MicroComet program is designed for grades 2 through 4 (for beginning to advanced reading levels). This pro-gram is a standards-based guided exploration the academic disciplines and standards into a fun learning experience. Students are divided into small groups which rotate through our Discovery mission in the space simulator and the hands-on EVA activity(s) of your choice. 1 Hour Micronaut Program includes Mini Discovery Mission and one Micronaut EVA. Maximum is 36 participantsDivided into 2 groups up to 18 students each. 2 Hour Micronaut Program - includes Mini Discovery Mission and two Micronaut EVAs. Page 45 *For groups that are larger than 54, please inquire about available options. Call (423) 425-2191.* An Astronomy-based physical science curriculum developed at the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics focusing on how nature behaves and the development of models to explore that behavior. This discovery-based hands on science curriculum addresses the developmental levels of grades 3 through 8, is correlated to State and National Science Standards and provides the basis for a complete physical science program. The pedagogical explorations lead students in the construction and reconstruction of basic science concepts. Curriculum connections are in each module. Upon completion of the workshop participants receive: The Teachers Manual, 30 Student Journals and a complete Apparatus Bin. The separate modules of study are listed below. Exploring Time Exploring Earth in Motion Exploring Moon and Stars Exploring Light and Color Exploring Motion and Forces Exploring Energy Exploring Waves Time: 8:30 AM to 3:00 PM Place: Challenger Center at UTC For special arrangements or a workshop at your location call 423-425-2284. Please note prices may vary. Exploring Navigation A R I E S W O R K S H O P S Page 46 Page 47 4-Day Aviation: Above & Beyond Astronauts in 5th-8th grade 9:00am4:00pm June 7-10, June 21-24, or July 20-23 Quest Price: $250 (Lunch included) The Cosmic Space Quests at the Challenger Center provide for students in grades Pre-K through 8. We offer 4 different camps: 1/2 Day Mini-Quest, 1 Day Quest, 2 Day Quest, and 4 Day Quest. Each camp addresses a particular grade level, so we can best meet the needs of the Camp Specialists. Our camps engage the Specialists intellectually by stimulating their interest in space through science and mathematics. As Camp Specialists learn to problem solve and work in teams, they will achieve camp success! -Day Mini Quest 4 & 5 year old astronauts 9:00 am12:00 pm June 14, June 18, July 9, July 12, or July 28 Quest Price: $35 (Snack included) COSMIC SPACE QUEST 2012 Join us this summer for an experience thats out of this world! 1-Day Future Astronaut Training Astronauts in 1st-3rd grade 9:00am4:00pm June 2, June 15, July 8, July 13, or July 27 2-Day Exploring Satellites Astronauts in 3rd-5th grade 9:00am4:00pm June 3 & 4, June 16 & 17, June 28 & 29, July 6 & 7, or July 14 & 15 Quest Price: $100 Registration begins February 1, 2012 For more information, visit our website www.utc.edu/ChallengerCenter The above Quests are intended for rising grades. D i s c o v e r i n g S p a c e w i t h M i c r o n a u t s Discovering Space with Micronauts uses the allure of the International Space Station to transport students through an interdisciplinary content curriculum. This one-day workshop is designed for elementary teachers grades K through 3. It will demonstrate through hands-on activities, different strategies to incorporate math, science, social studies, language arts, technology, and performing arts standards using a space theme. Important Content: Science Language Arts Science as inquiry Reading to learn in a variety of content areas Objects in the sky Creative skills for writing Making and using models Technology design Performing Arts Science as a human endeavor Improvise a melody Properties of objects and material Characteristics of organisms Mathematics Social Studies Understanding patterns, relations and functions Geography-understand and appreciate relationships Apply transformations and use symmetry between people, places, and environments. to analyze mathematical situations Spatial reasoning and geometric modeling Participants receive: The Micronaut Teacher's Guide and CD (11 different lessons correlated to National and TN standards) Jumbo Bug Card Templates for Bug-go ISS Color Lithograph 1 Large Color ISS Poster Inflatable Earth Globe Page 48 Place: Challenger Center at UTC Time: 8:30 AM to 3:00 PM For special arrangements or a workshop at your location call 423-425-2284. Please note prices may vary. Page 49 Plan for next year! Complete the appropr iate I nqu iry Form and ma i l or fax back to us ! Challenger Center The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Phone: 423.425.4126 Fax: 423.425.2190 MISSION INQUIRY School/Group Name________________________________________________________________ Address_________________________________________________________________________________ Street City State Zip Contact Person(s) ______________________________________________________________________ Telephone________________________________ Best Time to Call _______________________________ Email address:____________________________________________________________ 1 Is your school interested in a Teacher Professional Development Mission Workshop? Yes No Full Missions: Rendezvous with a Comet Voyage to Mars Return to Moon Mini Missions: Mini Comet Mini Mars Mini Moon EVAs: Pop Rockets Mars Rover Moon Maneuvers EMU Short Circuit Motion Pictures None Mission Date(s):___________________________________________________________ #Missions (max 34) _________________ #EVAs ______________ #Total Students ____________ #Students per mission ________________ Grade(s)____________ Ages ___________ Mission Start Time _____________________ Departure Time _____________________ Lunch: Brown Bag-30 minutes University Center-1hr Delivery-1hr None Are students reading on grade level? Yes No Special Information___________________________________________________________________ Students with Disability(s) _____________________________________________________________ I have reviewed the reservation and coordinating materials, and I confirm at this time this information is accurate to the best of my knowledge. I will notify the Challenger Center of any changes to our reservations. _________________________ _________________ ____________ Signature of Principal Lead Teacher Date Confirmed _____ Page 50 Challenger Center The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Phone: 423.425.4126 Fax: 423.425.2190 M ic ro naut Pro gr a m Inq uiry School/Group Name : _______________________________________________________________ Address: ___________________________________________________________________________ Street City State ZIP Contact Person: ________________________________ Telephone: __________________________ Email address:______________________________________________________________________ Is your school interested in a Teacher Professional Development Workshop? Yes No Micronaut Program Selection: 2 hr Block Mini Discovery Mission + Micronauts in Space EVA and Micronaut Technology EVA, maximum 54 students - 3 groups of up to 18 students * 1 Mini Discovery manifest is required for each group of students 1 hr Block - Mini Discovery Mission + Micronauts in Space EVA or Micronaut Technology EVA, maximum 36 students 2 groups of up to 18 students * 1 Mini Discovery manifest is required for each group of students Micronaut Program Date(s)___________________________________________________________ #Total Students _________ Total # of Chaperones _______ Grade(s)_______ Ages ________ Start Time ___________________________ Departure Time __________________________ Lunch: Brown Bag-30 minutes University Center-1hr Delivery-1hr None Are students reading? Yes No Special Information___________________________________________________________________ Students with Disability(s)______________________________________________________________ I have reviewed the reservation and coordinating materials, and I confirm at this time this information is accu-rate to the best of my knowledge. I will notify the Challenger Center of any changes to our reservations. ________________________ ______________________ __________ Signature of Principal Lead Teacher Date Page 51 Challenger Center The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Phone: 423.425.4126 Fax: 423.425.2190 M ic ro Com e t Progr am Inquiry School/Group Name : ________________________________________________________________ Address : ___________________________________________________________________________ Street City State ZIP Contact Person: _________________________________ Telephone: _________________________ Email address: ______________________________________________________________________ Is your school interested in a Teacher Professional Development Workshop? Yes No Micronaut Program Selection: 2 hr Block MicroComet Mission + Micronauts Origami NanoSat EVA and Micronaut Moon Phases EVA, maximum 54 students - 3 groups of up to 18 students * 1 Mini Discovery manifest is required for each group of students 1 hr Block - MicroComet Mission + Micronauts Origami NanoSat EVA or Micronaut Moon Phases EVA, maximum 36 students 2 groups of up to 18 students * 1 Mini Discovery manifest is required for each group of students Micronaut Program Date(s): ___________________________________________________________ #Total Students __________ Total # of Chaperones ______ Grade(s)______ Ages ______ Start Time _________________________ Departure Time ________________________ Lunch: Brown Bag-30 minutes University Center-1hr Delivery-1hr None Are students reading on grade level? Yes No Special Information____________________________________________________________________ Students with Disability(s)_______________________________________________________________ I have reviewed the reservation and coordinating materials, and I confirm at this time this information is accurate to the best of my knowledge. I will notify the Challenger Center of any changes to our reservations. ________________________ ______________________ __________ Signature of Principal Lead Teacher Date Page 52 D i r e c t i o n s From Atlanta to The Challenger Center: ~ Take I-75 North to Chattanooga. Exit I-24 West (Chattanooga). ~ Exit Highway 27 North (to Downtown Chattanooga). Take exit 1C (4th Street Exit). ~ Go to 4th Street Directions at the bottom of the page From Knoxville to The Challenger Center: ~ Take I-75 South exit I-24 West (Birmingham/Chattanooga). ~ Exit Highway 27 North to Downtown Chattanooga. Take exit 1C (4th Street exit). ~ Go to 4th Street directions at the bottom of the page From Nashville to The Challenger Center: ~ Take I-24 East to Chattanooga. Exit Highway 27 North to Downtown Chattanooga. ~ Take exit 1C (4th Street exit). ~ Go to 4th Street directions at the bottom of the page. From Birmingham to The Challenger Center: ~ Take I-59 North to exit I-24 East to Chattanooga. ~ Exit Highway 27 North to Downtown Chattanooga. Take exit 1C (4th Street Exit) ~ Go to 4th Street exit at the bottom of the page. 4th Street Directions: After entering 4th Street, stay in the middle lane. You will pass UTC McKenzie Arena at the bottom of the hill on the right. Get into the right-hand lane. 4th Street merges with 3rd Street (keep right). You will pass a cemetery on the right and The Chattanooga School for Arts and Sciences on the left. Make a right onto Palmetto Street. The Challenger Center is the first building on the right. If you have problems, please call (423) 425-4126. Page 53 To the Challenger Learning Center at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga 855 East Fifth Street Chattanooga, TN 37403 423-425-4126 Page 54 F O R M O R E I N F O R M A T I O N C A L L : 4 2 3 . 4 2 5 . 4 1 2 6 O R V I S I T O U R W E B S I T E : W W W . U T C . E D U / O U T R E A C H / C H A L L E N G E R C E N T E R CHECK OUT OUR WEBSITE AT: WWW.UTC.EDU/OUTREACH/CHALLENGERCENTER F O R M O R E I N F O R M A T I O N CONTACT US AT: 423.425.4126 FAX US AT: 423.425.2190 EMAIL: ELLIE-WALLIS@UTC.EDU THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE AT CHATTANOOGA
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