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- 1. Scientific Literature The Types of Articles
- 2. Thousands of scientific articles are published in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals every year.
- 3. Popular publications like magazines and newspapers also publish a vast amount of material on scientific topics.
- 4. But there is a big difference between a magazine article and a scholarly one.
- 5. And not even all scholarly articles are the same
- 6. This presentation will walk you through the basicsof the types of scholarly and popular press articles and unlock their mysteries.
- 7. In scientific research, scholarly journal articles are the primary way research is communicated and spread.
- 8. Because these journals are not widely available outsideacademic institutions, you may have never seen a scholarly article so first we will discuss two basic types.
- 9. Type 1: The PrimaryResearch Article
- 10. The primary research article is the most basic means by which scientists report the results of their research.
- 11. A primary research articles begins when a single researcher (or more often a group of them) perform an experiment.
- 12. When you do an experiment in lab class you are oftenassigned a lab report with an Introduction, Materials andMethods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions sections.
- 13. Research articles are based on this same structure.
- 14. Lets take a look at some of the major parts of a research article
- 15. The article starts with some basic information including the Articles title, authors names and affiliations.
- 16. The publication date information shows that this article passed through a peer review process.
- 17. After the publication information youll see a short summary of the article called an abstract.
- 18. Abstracts are provided so you can quickly see if an article contains information you are interested in.
- 19. The text of the article begins with an introduction which discusses previous work on the subject and gives a brief overview.
- 20. In most articles this will be followed by a methods section.
- 21. And then results.
- 22. The results section generally contains a number of charts, graphs, or tables to express the data discussed.
- 23. The discussion section may also contain more graphs as it puts the results into a broader context with information from other research.
- 24. An articles text often ends with acknowledgements and thanks from the authors for assistance or funding for the research.
- 25. And finally the articles bibliography, citing all of the other research discussed in the article.
- 26. This list of references is a valuable place to look for other articles that you may find useful.
- 27. Type 2:The Review Article
- 28. Review articles are also scholarly and subject to peer review but they differ from primary research in their content.
- 29. Rather than a lab report, a Review article is similar to a research paper like you have written for school.
- 30. Researchers gather together many primary review articles on a topic and summarize them into a review article.
- 31. The review article starts with the same publication details and abstract that you would find in a research article...
- 32. ...but unlike a research article the entire text of a reviewarticle is a discussion of the research done of the topic with new or original research being presented.
- 33. These articles allow you to review a lot of primaryresearch in a short time and identify which of the research articles you will find valuable.
- 34. Because so much material is covered, the list of references at the end of a review article is generally much more extensive than that of a research article, often running several pages.
- 35. And to get the most out of a review article youllneed to be able to follow and read the citations to each research article in the references section.
- 36. Citations come in two basic formats depending on the article: parenthetical and numbered.
- 37. With a parenthetical citation you look for the authorsname (or occasionally title) in the list of references, which are generally listed alphabetically.
- 38. With a numeric citation you refer to the footnote number in the references list at the end.
- 39. In either case, the result will be a citation to anotherarticle, which you will need to decipher so you can find the article in question.
- 40. Most citations will contain these basic pieces ofinformation that you would need to locate an article.
- 41. Although different journals will have slightly differentformats, the same basic information will still be present and should be identifiable.
- 42. Often a journal name will be abbreviated; you can do a web search for an abbreviation to get the journals full title.
- 43. With the citation you can use the Journal Finder page on the Librarys Website to find or order the full article.
- 44. Popular Press orBackground Articles
- 45. In addition to scholarly articles, your project will ask you to use background articles to gather information.
- 46. Popular Press or background articles are those that comefrom non-scholarly sources like magazines and newspapers.
- 47. These articles are generally written by journalists rather than scientists.
- 48. And they are written to be read by the general public, rather than students or other researchers
- 49. This means that background articles will often describe the topic in a way that is much easier to understand
- 50. and contain important basic information tha
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Types of Inland Postal Articles 2.1.1. Inland Mail There are 10 classes of articles – Letters – Inland Letter Cards (ILC) – Post Cards – Book Packets