Training report(12 btceng040) pdf format of MNNIT BY RITESHMANI TRIPATHI DEAN 9473743865
Post on 09-Apr-2017
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT
Department of Civil Engineering
Summer Training Programme in Civil Engineering (15/06/2015-12/07/2015)
In the partial fulfillment of the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering
Under SHIATS, Deemed University
Riteshmani Tripathi PID: 12BTCENG040
SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF
AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.
1. Introduction 4
2. Preface 5
3. About the MNNIT 6
4. About the Department 7
5. Acknowledgement 8
6. Geotechnical Engineering Section
7. Chemical Analysis Section
8. Transportation Engineering Section
9. Building Materials Section
10. Total Station Handling 62-63
11. Conclusion 64
12. Bibliography 65
Civil Engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Civil Engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, earth science, atmospheric sciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, offshore engineering, quantity surveying, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civil Engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to International companies.
Civil Engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields.
Civil Engineers design dams to create water storage reservoirs. Hydropower is used to generate electricity or the water may be diverted through tunnels, canals and pipelines to provide irrigation for the land, to transport water to cities, supply safe drinking water to home and industry after it has been treated.
As the part of Civil Engineering and in order to gain some practical knowledge in
the field of our expertise, we are required to do training of one month in the
This training report is related to all the material testing done and executed at Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, UP.
I have tried my best to keep report simple yet technically correct. I hope I succeed in my attempt.
Training schedule for 28 days was following
S.No. From To Duration Work Location
1. 15/06/2015 15/06/2015 1 Introduction to Civil Engineering
2. 16/06/2015 19/06/2015 4 Experiments in Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering Lab
3. 20/06/2015 24/06/2015 5 Experiments in Chemical Analysis
Environmental Engineering Lab
4. 25/06/2015 29/06/2015 5 Experiments in Transportation Engineering
Transportation Engineering Lab
5. 30/06/2015 10/07/2015 10 Experiments on Building Materials
Building Materials Lab
6. 11/07/2015 12/07/2015 1 Total Station Handling
ABOUT MNNIT, ALLAHABAD
The Institute was established as Motilal Nehru Regional Engineering College in the year 1961 and was later upgraded as a National Institute of Technology with the status of Deemed University on June 26, 2002. Now, this Institute is known as Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology. The foundation stone of the institute was laid by the first Prime Minister of India, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru on the May 3, 1961 on a site spreading across 222 acres on the bank of the river Ganga. The Institute has very good infrastructure with state-of-art facilities in all the departments for teaching and research. Institute offers 9 UG and 22 PG programmes besides MBA, MCA, M.Sc. in Mathematics and Scientific Computing, and Masters in Social Work. Doctoral programmes are offered in various disciplines of Technology, Science, Humanities and Management. The climate here is generally pleasant in December. The average temperature during this time is expected to 100 to 200C. Allahabad is one of the well developed township on Kolkata-New Delhi main line of North-Eastern Railway. The nearest airports are Allahabad, Varanasi and Lucknow. Allahabad is well connected to all airport cities by convenient roads and railways.
ABOUT THE DEPARTMENT
The Department of Civil Engineering offers one Bachelor of Technology and five Master of Technology courses with specialization in Structural, Environmental, Geotechnical Engineering, Transportation and Environmental Geo-technology on regular basis. It also offers part-time Master of Technology course with specialization in Structural Engineering, and Computer Aided Design in Civil Engineering depending upon the number of candidates. Further, the department is a recognized QIP Centre for the post-graduate studies. The course curriculum is up-to-date, spanning disciplines that cover both traditional concepts and recent developments. A strong foundation is laid through courses on Concrete and Steel structure, Geotechnical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Irrigation Engineering and Computer Applications. Also, the students are offered a variety of electives like Bridge Engineering, Computer Simulation, Rock Mechanics, Operations Research etc.
Expert faculty members from MNNIT Allahabad had delivered lectures. The experiments will be conducted in the laboratory of Civil Engineering Department, MNNIT Allahabad.
I express my satisfaction on successful completion of summer training as a part of
curriculum for the degree of Bachelor of Technology, Civil Engineering. I express
my deepest gratitude to faculties of Civil Engineering Department, MNNIT,
Allahabad for their kind guidance during the entire period of training. Their
consistent support and advices has helped me to complete the training
programme successfully. Also I thank all the staff of Civil Engineering Department,
MNNIT, Allahabad for their kind support.
Date: 20/11/2015 Riteshmani Tripathi
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING SECTION
Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
To Conduct the Standard Penetration Test for Soils to Obtain the Resistance of Soil
to Penetration (N-value).
This method describes the standard penetration test using the split barrel sampler to
obtain the resistance of soil to penetrate (N-value), using a 63.5 kg hammer
falling.76cm; and to obtain representative samples for identification and laboratory
tests. The method is applicable to all types of soil. It is most often used in granular
material a but also in other materials when simple in place bearing strengths are
required .It is also used when samples cannot be recovered by other means.
Split Spoon Sampler
Drive Weight Assembly
1. When casing is used , it shall not be driven below the level at which the test is
made or soil sample is taken. In the case of cohesion less soils which cannot
stand without casing pipe should be such that it does not disturb the soil to be
tested or sampled the casing shall be preferably be advanced by slowly
turning the casing rather than by driving as the vibration caused by driving
may alter the density of such deposits immediately below the bottom of the
2. Cleaning the borehole.
3. Obtaining the samples.
4. Removal of sampler and Labeling.
1. Due to Overburden the N-value for cohesion less soil shall be corrected for
2. Due to Dilatancy the value obtained shall be corrected for dilatancy if the stratum
consists of fine sand and silt below water table for values of N greater than 15 as
N= 15 + (N-15)
Direct Shear Test
Reference:-IS: 2720 (Part-13)-1986
To Determine the Shear Strength of Soil Specimen at known Density and Water
Content by Direct Shear Test in Un-drained Condition.
Shear strength of Soil has its maximum resistance to shearing stress at failure on
the failure plane. Shear Strength composed of ;
1. Internal friction ()
2. Cohesion (c)
Coulomb has represented the shear strength of soil by the equation
=c + tan
where, = shear strength of soil
c = cohesion
= normal stress
= angle of internal friction
This test is also called the box shear test and is the oldest shear test that is in
use and is also quite simple to perform.
The soil that is to be tested is confined in a metal box of square cross section
that is split in to two halves horizontally.
A vertical load is applied to the specimen through a static weight hanger and
the soil is sheared gradually by applying a horizontal force.
The shear deformation as well as the vertical deformation is measured during
the test with the help of dial gauges.
The shear box grid plates, porous stones, base plates, and loading pad and water
jacket shall confirm to IS: 11229-1985
1. Take about 400 gm of sample, fine grained soil or sand.
2. Add about 6-8% water by weight of soil /sand and mix it thoroughly.
3. Note the dimensions/size of the mould and calculate the volume of the same .
4. Weigh the empty mould. Let this be W1.
5. Place the sample in smooth layers (approximately 10 mm thick) and compact
by tamping rod.
6. Weigh the mould with sample. Let this be W2.
7. The difference of these two is the weight of soil/sand.
8. Calculate the density of the soil.
1. In the shear box test, the specimen is not failing along its weakest plane but along
a predetermined or induced failure plane i.e. horizontal plane separating the two
halves of the shear box. This is the main drawback of this test. Moreover, during
loading, the state of stress cannot be evaluated. It can be evaluated only at failure
condition i.e. Mohrs circle can be drawn at the failure condition only. Also failure
2. Direct shear test is simple and faster to operate. As thinner specimens are used in
shear box, they facilitate drainage of pore water from a saturated sample in less
time. This test is also useful to study friction between two materials, one material in lower half of box and another material in the upper half of box.
3. The angle of shearing resistance of sands depends on state of compaction,
coarseness of grains, particle shape and roughness of grain surface and grading. It
varies between 28o(uniformly graded sands with round grains in very loose state) to
46o(well graded sand with angular grains in dense state).
4. The volume change in sandy soil is a complex phenomenon depending on
gradation, particle shape, state and type of packing, orientation of principal planes,
principal stress ratio, stress history, magnitude of minor principal stress, type of
apparatus, test procedure, method of preparing specimen etc. In general loose sands
expand and dense sands contract in volume on shearing. There is a void ratio at
which either expansion contraction in volume takes place. This void ratio is called
critical void ratio. Expansion or contraction can be inferred from the movement of
vertical dial gauge during shearing.
5. The friction between sand particle is due to sliding and rolling friction and
Shear stress data at failure for tests at Normal Stress of 0.5, 1.0 & 1.5 kg/cm2
Test Normal stress Shear Stress at
Shear Stress at
(kg/cm2) (kPa) (kg/cm2)
1 0.5 39.6 .396
2 1.0 64.8 .648
3 1.5 100.7 1.007
All three tests were performed at deformation rate =0.25mm/min
LIQUID LIMIT AND PLASTIC LIMIT OF SOIL
Reference:-IS: 2720 (Part-V)-1985
To find liquid limit and plastic limit of the soil.
The liquid limit is the moisture content at which the groove, formed by a standard
tool into the sample of soil taken in the standard cup, closes for 10 mm on being
given 25 blows in a standard manner. At this limit the soil possess low shear
Plastic limit Soil is used for making bricks , tiles , soil cement blocks in addition to
its use as foundation for structures.
Spatula -8cm long , 2cm dia, 2 mm thick.
BOWE- 10 cm dia.
Atterberg dish -10 nos.
Oven Temp. between 1050c-1100c
Balance- Sensitivity 0.01 gm.
IS Sieve -425 micron.
1. About 120 gm of air dried soil from thoroughly mixed portion of material passing
425 micron I.S. sieve is to be obtained.
2. Distilled water is mixed to the soil thus obtained in a mixing disc to form uniform
paste. The paste shall have a consistency that would require 30 to 35 drops of cup to
cause closer of standard groove for sufficient length.
3. A portion of the paste is placed in the cup of LIQUID LIMIT device and spread
into portion with few strokes of spatula.
4. Trim it to a depth of 1cm at the point of maximum thickness and return excess of
soil to the dish.
5. The soil in the cup shall be divided by the firm strokes of the grooving tool along the diameter through the centre line of the follower so that clean sharp groove of
proper dimension is formed.
6. Lift and drop the cup by turning crank at the rate of two revolutions per second
until the two halves of soil cake come in contact with each other for a length of
about 1 cm by flow only.
7. The number of blows required to cause the groove close for about 1 cm shall be
8. A representative portion of soil is taken from the cup for water content
9. Repeat the test with different moisture contents at least three more times for
blows between 10 and 40.
Draw a graph showing the relationship between water content (on y-axis) and
number of blows (on x-axis) on semi log graph. The curve obtained is called flow
curve. The moisture content corresponding to 25 drops (blows) as read from the
represents liquid limit. It is usually expressed to the nearest whole number.
Flow index If = (W2-W1) / ( log N1/N2) = slope of the flow curve.
Plasticity Index = Wl- Wp
Toughness Index = Ip /If
FOR PLASTIC LIMIT
1. Porcelain dish.
2. Glass plate for rolling the specimen.
3. Air tight containers to determine the moisture content.
4. Balance of capacity 200gm and sensitive to 0.01gm
5. Oven thermostatically controlled with interior of non corroding material to
maintain the temperature around 1050 and 1100C.
1. Take about 20gm of thoroughly mixed portion of the material passing through
425 micron I.S. sieve obtained in accordance with I.S. 2720 (part 1).
2. Mix it thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish till the soil mass
becomes plastic enough to be easily molded with fingers.
3. Allow it to season for sufficient time (for 24 hrs) to allow water to permeate
throughout the soil mass.
4. Take about 10gms of this plastic soil mass and roll it between fingers and glass
plate with just sufficient pressure to roll the mass into a threaded of uniform
diameter throughout its length. The rate of rolling shall be between 60 and 90
strokes per minute.
5. Continue rolling till you get a threaded of 3 mm diameter.
6. Kneed the soil together to a uniform mass and reroll.
7. Continue the process until the thread crumbles when the diameter is 3 mm.
8. Collect the pieces of the crumbled thread in air tight container for moisture
9. Repeat the test to at least 3 times and take the average of the results calculated to
the nearest whole number.
Sample No. 01 02 03
Container No. 24 21 25
No. of Blows 17 25 34
Mass of Empty
44.9 46 44.6
Mass of Container +
78.3 81.3 76.8
Mass of Container +
70 75.3 74.10
33.07 20.3 10.0
CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL
To Determine the Grain Size Analysis of Soil by Sieve Analysis.
Different sieve sizes.
1. Take soil sample which is passing through rough 4.75 mm sieve and retained at
2.6mm IS sieve.
2. Take 100gm. By weight of soil sample and then wet for 24 hours in water and
after 24 hours. Use 75 IS sieve.
3. The total soil and water hold on 75 sieve , then wash this sieve up to this time
4.When the clean water does not pass from the sieve till wash the soil and after that
kept in plate and after that kept in plate and after that this plate keep in oven for 24
hours with temperature up to 1050c-1100c.
5. After 24 hour dry sample taken out from oven and after take 425 and 75 IS
sieve. now, 75 sieve hold on floor and then dry soil put in to 425 and sieving for
few minutes. (15minut) and then left out soil on the 425 sieve weighted and after
that we add both sample weight which is to be found 75gm. And therefore these soil
have no plastic index because its weight is more than 50 gm.
RESULT-The results are plotted on a semi-log graph paper with the grain size or
sieve size on the X-axis in log scale and the percentage finer than each size on the
Y-axis in ordinary scale.
DENSITY MOISTURE RELATION (OMC-MDD BY LIGHT-
To Determine the Optimum Moisture Content(OMC) and Maximum Dry Density
(MDD) of Soil Sample by Proctor Test using Light Compaction.
This method covers the determination of the relationship between the moisture
content and density of soils compacted in a mould of a given size with a 2.5 kg
rammer dropped from a height of 30 cm.
1. Proctor mould having a capacity of 944 cc with an internal diameter of 10.2 cm
and a height of 11.6 cm. The mould shall have a detachable collar assembly and a
detachable base plate.
2. Rammer: A mechanical operated metal rammer having a 5.08 cm diameter face
and a weight of 2.5 kg. The rammer shall be equipped with a suitable arrangement
to control the height of drop to a free fall of 30 cm.
3. Sample extruder.
4. A balance of 15 kg capacity.
5. Sensitive balance.
6. Straight edge.
7. Graduated cylinder.
8. Mixing tools such as mixing pan, spoon, towel, spatula etc.
9. Moisture tins.
1. Take a representative oven dried sample, approximately 5 kg in the given pan.
Thoroughly mix the sample with sufficient water to dampen it to approximately four
to six percentage points below optimum moisture content.
2. Weigh the proctor mould without base plate and collar. Fix the collar and base
plate. Place the soil in the Proctor mould and compact it in 3 layers giving 25 blows
per layer with the 2.5 kg rammer falling through.
3. Remove the collar, trim the compacted soil even with the top of the mould by
means of the straight edge and weigh.
4. Divide the weight of the compacted specimen by 944 cc and record the result as
the wet weight wet in grams per cubic centimeter of the compacted soil.
5. Remove the sample from the mould and slice vertically through and obtain
a small sample for moisture determination.
6. Thoroughly break up the remainder of the material until it will pass a no.4
sieve as judged by the eye. Add water in sufficient amounts to increase the moisture
content of the soil sample by one or two percentage points and repeat the above
procedure for each increment of water added. Continue this series of determination
until there is either a decrease or no change in the wet unit weight of the compacted
Wet density gm/cc =weight of compacted soil / 944.
Dry density= wet density/ (1+w)
Where w is the moisture content of the soil.
Plot the dry density against moisture content and find out the maximum dry density
and optimum moisture for the soil.
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS SECTION CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HARDENED LUMP OF CONCRETE
SETUP OF THE TEST
The obtained sample is spread on the floor and then a physical observation is
taken. Its a rough observation about its appearance and texture.
This is done to know whether the given sample is from a rooftop (ceiling,
corners, normal beams and columns) or the sample is from the steel bars
After the physical analysis, the sample is further subjected for chemical
Before starting the analysis, one fourth of the sample is preserved. This is
done so as to ensure the source in case of the future queries and disputes. The
sample is preserved for three months (3 months) from the date of testing and
Remaining three fourth sample is further used for chemical testing. It starts
with quartering and coning.
QUATERING AND CONING PROCESS
QUATERING AND CONING: Coning and quartering is a method used
by analytical chemists to reduce the sample size of a powder without creating
a systematic bias. The technique involves pouring the sample so that it takes on a
conical shape, and then flattening it out into a cake. The cake is then divided into
quarters; the two quarters which sit opposite one another are discarded, while the
other two are combined and constitute the reduced sample. The same process is
continued until an appropriate sample size remains. Analyses are made with respect
to the sample left behind.
The steps involved in coning and quartering are described below for a sample of
1. Pile all of the sand sample into a cone-shaped
2. Using a small shovel, transfer sand from this
cone and pile up into a new cone. Always take
material from the top of the first heap and
place it on the growing peak of the new cone.
Each scoop slides down the sides of the new
cone - this action causes the grain sizes to
become evenly distributed down through the
3. The operation is repeated to form a third cone
to complete the mixing.
4. Press the edge of the small shovel vertically
into the top of the cone, rotate the shovel
several degrees and withdraw it. Repeat this
exercise until the top of the cone is flattened.
5. Draw two lines at right angles across the
flattened top of the heap.
6. Divide the heap along the lines to form four
smaller heaps of equal size.
7. Discard two of the heaps from opposite sides
and combine the remaining two heaps into a
This process is carried out till we are left with about 200gms approx.
Sieving of the sample is done through a sieve of 300 and is obtained in a
pan. A sieve of 300 is used so that all the particles that pass through gets
dissolved in water. This is because the voids present in water molecules are of
300. All the particles which are not passing through are again crushed and
allotted to pass. The total sample obtained is again divided into 2 parts. One is
preserved and the other is tested.
An electric oven is then used for drying off the moisture content from the
sample surface. It is put in the oven so as to ensure the de-carbonation and
After this, the sample which is now hot is taken carefully to the desiccator
and put in it so that no hydration and carbonation takes place. The sample is
then taken out and is weighed.
3 beakers of 250ml are taken and into it 2 to 3 gm of sample is added in each
Three beakers are taken in order to obtain an average value. Sometimes, one
or more than one sample gets disturbed. Then the third sample reading is
taken for calculation. Precaution should be taken while proceeding towards
every step as ignorance may lead to the bad results.
For two or more samples, the test is carried out simultaneously on the other
hand one has to be careful of not missing one solution into the other.
Take a fresh beaker and prepare 1:3 HCL solution. The solution is then added
to the 250ml of the sample. The change in color of the liquid is observed.
Green/towards green presence of cement
Yellow presence of sand
The solution is then put on a hot plate for heating (not boiling) so that it
dissolves the mixtures (for passing through the filter paper) uniformly. After
sufficient heating at a temperature of about 60 C to 70 C, the solution is taken
for passing through the filter paper.
The setup here is such that the solution is allowed to pass through a filter
paper and obtained in a beaker. The filter paper is folded and is put in a
funnel and the solution is allowed to pass through it completely.
The filter paper used here is Whatman filter paper no: 42. This is because the
filter paper is weightless and ash less. The filter paper is folded in such a
pattern such that a uniform passing of the solution is done. The passed
solution is obtained in a beaker is put under the funnel. The filter paper is
washed from boiled distilled water in between so that no chloride is remain as
a residue as it will increase the weight.
Simultaneously, a 1% of NaOH solution is being prepared and is heated so
that it gets dissolved. Nearly 8 tablets are taken (nearly 1gm approx.).
The solution is taken and poured in the same beaker. The solution is then
moved and mixed and stirred and is then allowed to obtain in the beaker.
Note: NaOH is used as it combines with silica to form sodium silicate which
easily passes through filter paper. The process takes about 1 hour to
completely pass through the filter paper. The solution obtained is then taken
to the water bath.
Water bath is done so as to evaporate all the solution from the beaker and
every silica remain at the bottom of the beaker. The silica which remains at
the bottom should be in the crystalline form, and not in the form of gel. The
process is quite long and takes about 7-8 hours for the liquid to evaporate
completely leaving the silica crystals only which is yellow in color.
The crystals are then baked in the electric oven for a period at 105 C to 110 C.
The beakers are then taken out very carefully and observed that the crystals
turns from yellow to white. Thereafter a 1:1HCL solution is prepared of about
600ml (because here there are 6 beakers) and in each beaker 10 ml of this
solution is now poured. Keep the beaker on the hot plate for heating it Luke
The solution is then allowed to pass through a whatman filter paper 42 and is
collected in a beaker of 500ml each. The filtrate is then collected in the
beaker and the residue remains in the filter paper.
The filter paper is thoroughly washed with distilled water at a regular
intervals so that chloride does not interfere in the weight of the residue which
While the silica solution is being filtered are simultaneously take 6 crucibles
(here silica or nickel crucibles are used because their melting point is more
than 1000 C to 1200 C and can be used. Platinum is not used because it is very
costly). Take the empty weight of it and note it down in a table made for
For loss, we take 2-3 gm of sample in a silica crucible and put it in the muffle
furnace upto a temperature of around 500 C. When the temperature is reached,
we take the crucibles out with the help of a tong and then when it loses its
heat, we weight it and from it subtract the weight of the empty crucible. The
amount we get is again subtracted from the amount of the sample taken and
loss is obtained followed by the loss%.
NOTE: Loss of the sample is obtained because it shows the actual weight of
the silica calcium. We put it in the furnace due to the reason so as the
moisture present in the pores and carbon dioxide present in it gets removed
and we can obtain its actual weight.
Till now the solution has completely been filtered and the residue of silica is
obtained. The residue along with the whatman filter paper 42 is put into the
silica crucible for ignition in the muffle furnace. The crucibles are then left
over in the furnace till the crystals present in the crucibles reach the ignition
temperature at around 950 C. the filter paper is weightless and ash less and
thus its weight is not obtained at all.
After the process is completed, the crucibles are then taken out and is then
allowed to lower their temperature and then weighed along with the silica
crystals. The weight of the empty crucibles is subtracted from this weight to
obtain the weight of the silica (actual weight). The color of the silica crystals
turns to white from yellow.
Now take the filtrate and into it put 2 drops of 3(NITRIC ACID). Put the
beaker on the hot plate and lessen the solution to about 100ml.
HNO3 Is put into the solution due to the reason that it does not allow any
other reaction to take place. Simultaneously it also stops any interfering
radical to take part in the reaction. To convert ferrous to ferric because
ferrous is an interfering radical.
Now put 2-3 gm of 4 into the solution and mix it well. After this,
another 1:1 solution of ammonia in another beaker is poured into the above
solution till it makes the ppt. of 23.
The solution is then allowed to pass through a filter paper number 40 and then
into the filtrate we put 2-3 drops of Methyl Red Indicator and put it on a hot
plate. The indicator turns the solution from acidic to basic medium. It is also
observed that the color of the solution turns from white to pink.
Now prepare a solution of ammonia oxalate. This is a saturated solution of
ammonium oxalate. The solution of about 50ml is put into the beaker
containing the sample solution to obtain a precipitate of CaO. This is now left
over a night.
1. At the end of this topic, the conclusion is that we can easily determine the
composition of the materials being added to it.
2. The amount of impurities present will also be determined. It will help to
understand whether the work is under the norms or not.
3. This should be implemented in the college so that the students should also
gain knowledge in this field.
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING SECTION
To determine the Bitumen content in Road Sample.
Take the road sample approximately one kg.
The road sample broken lightly.
Take 500-500gm two samples in beaker.
Fill the benzene in several amount to cover all the materials, and left for
40 minutes then.
The material no.1s material fill in the bitumen abstractor , then rotate the
abstractor until bitumen flow continously.
Again mix the bitumen in pot and after then aggregate and dust is take of
the pot and put in to the woven 15minut and weight then find the quantity
Bitumen quantity = Total sample weight weight of aggregate
To determine the penetration value of the given bitumen sample.
Soften the material to a pouring consistency at a temperature not more than 600c
for and pitches not more than 900c for bituminous above the respective
approximately softening point and stair it through until it is homogeneous and it is
free from air bubble and water. Pour the melt in to the container to a depth at least
10mm in excess of the expected penetration. Protect the sample form dust and allow
it to cool in an atmosphere at a temperature between 150c to 300c for 1 to 1.5 hours
for 45 mm deep container and 1to 1.5 hours .When the container of 35 mm depth in
used. Then place it along with the transfer dish in the water bath at 25 0.10c and
allow it to remain for the 1.5 hours to 2 hours and 1to 1.5 hours for 45 mm and 35
mm deep container respectively.
In case of cut back bitumen residue left after distillation shall be used for the test.
The procedure for handling the residue shall be in accordance with the method
described of distillation.
Unless otherwise specified testing shall be carried out at 250.10C.
Fill the transfer dish with the water bath to a depth sufficient to cover the
container completely .Place the sample in it and put it upon the stand of the
penetration apparatus adjust the needle (washed clean with benzene) to make
contact with the surface of sample.
This may be accomplished by placing the needle point in contact with in image
reflected by the surface of the material from a suitable placed surface of light.
Unless the otherwise specified load the needle hold with the weight of required
to make a total moving weight of 100 0.25gm.
Note the reading of oval or bring the pointer to zero. Release the needle and
adjust the point it necessary to major the distance penetration. Make at least 3
determination at point on the surface of the sample not less than 10 mm apparent
and not less than 10mm from the side of dish after each test return the sample
and transfer dish to the water bath and clean the needle with benzene and dry.
In case of material of penetration greater than 25. Three determinations on each
of two identical test specimens using a separate needle for each determination
shall be made, leaving the needle in the sample of completion of determination
to avoid disturbance of the specimens.
Express the depth of penetration of needle in tenths of millimeter.
The value of penetration report shall be the mean of not less than the amount given
Penetration Maximum Diff.
250 to above 8
The duplicate results should not differ by more than following
Penetration Repeatability Reproductivity
Below 50 1 unit 4 unit
Below 50 3% of their mean 4% of their mean
To Determine the Softening point of Bitumen by ring and ball apparatus.
The temperature at which bitumen attains a definite consistency under the specified
conditions of the test is called softening point of bitumen. At give the temperature at
which bitumen from plastic state to liquid state.
Heat the material to a temperature between 750 C to 1000C above its softening
point still until it is completely fluid free from air bubbles and water and filter if
necessary through the Is-sieve 30 place the ring previously heated to a temp.
Approximating to that of the molten material on a metal plate which has been
coated with a mixture of equal parts of glycerine and delectrine and fill with
sufficient melt to give an excess above the level of the ring when cooled after
cooling for 30 minutes in air level with the material in the ring by removing the
excess with a warmed sharp knife .
Material softening point below 800C :
Assemble the apparatus with the ring thermometer and ball guides in position and
fill the bath to a height of 50mm above the upper surface of the rings with freshly
boiled distilled water at a temperature of 50C maintain the bath at a temperature of
50C for 15 minutes after which a ball previously cooled to a temperature of 50C by
means of forceps in each ball guide. Apply heat to the bath and stir the liquid so that
the temperature. Rises at uniform rate of 5 0.50C per minute until the material
softens and allows the ball to pass through the ring. The rate temperature rise shall
not be averaged over the period of the test and any test in which the rate of
temperature rise does not fall with in the specified limits after the first 3 minutes
shall be rejected. Make the determination in duplicate.
Material softening point above 800C:
The procedure for material of softening point above 800C is similar to the describe
with the difference that glycerine Is used in place of water in the both and the
starting temperature of the test in 350C make the determination in duplication.
Record a each ring and ball the temp. Shown by the thermometer at the instant the
sample surrounding the ball touches the bottom plate of the support if any or the
bottom of the wall.
Report the nearest 0.5C the mean of the temperature recorded in duplicate
determinations without correction for the emergent stem of the thermometer as the
The results shall not difference from the mean by more than the following.
SOFTENING POINT 0C REPEATABILITY
61-80 1.5 5.5
81-100 2.0 5.5
121-140 3.0 5.5
To find out the Flexibility of the Binder
In the flexible pavement construction where bitumen binders are used, it is of
significant importance that the blinder from ductile thin films around the aggregates.
This serves as a satisfactory binder in improving the physical interlocking of the
aggregates. The binder material which does no posses sufficient ductility would
crack and thus provide pavement surface. This in turn results in damaging effect to
the pavement structure.
The ductility is expressed as the distance in centimeters to which a
standard briquette of bitumen can be stretched before the thread breaks. The test is
conducted at 270.50c and a rate of pull of 502.5 mm per minute.
Length --------------- 75 mm
Distance between clips ------------- 30mm
Width at mouth of clips ----------- 20m
Cross section at minimum width -------- 10mm10mm
Filled mould briquettes are cooled at the room temperature from 30 to 40 minute
and then placed in water bath at 270c for 30 minutes . Briquettes are placed at proper
position in the ductilometer and then pulled a part by this machine at a uniform
rate of 502.5mm per minute till the threaded does not break the distance of break is
noted and expressed in cm.
The pointer is set to read zero. The machine is started and the two clips
are thus pulled apart horizontally .While the test is in operation, it is checked
whether the sample is immersed in water at depth of at least 10mm. The distance at
which the bitumen of each specimen breaks, is recorded to report as ductility value.
The distance stretched by the moving end of the specimen up to the point of
breaking of thread measured in centimeters is recorded as ductility value.
Repeatability : 5 Percent
Reproducibility : 10 Percent
Marshall Mix Design Reference: ASTM-D2726
Design of Bituminous Mix.
In India Bituminous mix is commonly designed by marshal method for DBM,
SDBC, and BC surfaces.
The following steps followed for design of bituminous mix are
Gradation and blending of aggregate to produces the designer grading.
Determination of specific gravity of each constant of mineral aggregate and
Preparation of trial specimens with varying percentage of blinder.
Determination of density of compacted specimen.
Testing specimens for stability and flow values.
Calculation of air voids and voids filled with blinder.
Selection of optimum binder content from the test data.
SDBC:-Semi dense bituminous concrete
DBM:-Dense bituminous macadum, VG:-Viscosity grade for bituminous grade.
JOB MIX FOR BITUMINOUS MIX DESIGN
Table no. grading normal
500-4 BM 500-15 SDBC 500-10BC 500-10DBM
IS sieve (mm.)
by total mix
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST
This is a penetration test develop by the California division of highway as
a method for evaluating the stability of Soil Subgrade and other flexure highway
material. It is a expressed as the percentage of bearing power of a WBM
construction or excellent Base Coarse of crushed stone of 100% value.
Preparation of test sample: It consist of a mould 15cm diameter with a base
plate in a collar, a 2.5 kg hammer a loading from with cylindrical plunger of a 5cm
diameter and dial gauge of measuring penetration value. For design of new road the
subgrade soil sample should compact at OMC and proctor density, when ever
suitable compaction is available to achieve this density to the filled otherwise the
soil sample may be composed to the dry density expected to be achieve in the field.
In the case of existing road sample should be compacted to field density of subgrade
A representative sample of the soil weighing approximately 5kg shall be taken and
necessary quantity of the water added so that the moisture content of the soil sample
is agree to determine moisture content of soil is compacted with 2.6 kg hammer in 3
layer falling from a height of 310mm, then the sample is taken as is socked in 96
hours after placing weight. A weight is equivalent to weight of the base material and
pavement of waste sample is then placed in a standard loading device which
measure the load required to cause 2.5mm. Penetration of plunger having cross
section is made to penetrate the sample at the rate of 1.25 per minute. The load
reading shall be recorded at the penetration of 0.5,1,1.5,2,2.5,3.4,5,7.5,10 and
12.5mm from this curve a load penetration curve is plotted.
The CBR is usually calculated by 2.5mm and 5mm penetration.
The CBR is usually calculated to the first decimal place.
CBR lies between=5-8
BUILDING MATERIALS SECTION
Normal Consistency of Cement
Normal Consistency of Cement
The standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency which will
permit the vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of Vicat
Vicat apparatus Conforming to IS: 5513-1976.
Balance of capacity 1kg and sensitivity to 1gm.
Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086-1982.
Unless otherwise specified this test shall be conducted at a temperature
272C and the relative humidity of laboratory should be 655%.
Prepare a paste of weighed quantity of cement (300gms) with weighed
quantity of portable or distilled water, taken care that the time of gauging
is not less than 3mins nor more than 5mins and the gauging is completed
before any sign of setting occurs.
The gauging is counted from the time of adding water to the dry cement
until commencing to fill the mould.
Fill the Vicat Mould with this paste resting upon a non-porous plate.
Smoothen the surface of the paste, making it level with the top of the
Slightly shake the mould to expel the air. In filling the mould of operator
hands and the blade of the gauging trowel shall only be use.
VICAT MOULD APPARATUS
Immediately placed the test block with the non-porous resting plate, under the
rod bearing the plunger.
Lower the plunger gently to touch the surface of the test block and quickly
release, allowing it sink into the past.
Record the depth of penetration.
Prepare trial paste with varying percentages of water and test as described
above until the plunger is 5-7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould.
Standard Consistency (%) =
Express the amount of water as a percentage of the weight of dry cement to the first
place of decimal.
FINENESS OF CEMENT Reference:-IS:4031(Part-IV)-1988
To measure the mean size of the grains in the sample
We need to determine the fines of cement by dry sieving as per IS: 4031(Part 1)-
1996. The principle of this is that we determine the proportion of cement whose
grain size is larger than specified mesh size.
The apparatus used are 90 micron metre IS sieve, balance capable of weighting
10gm to the nearest 10mg, a nylon or pure bristle brush, preferably with 25-40mm,
bristle, for cleaning the sieve.
Sieve shown in picture below by their respective size that we used i.e., 4.75mm,
2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600micron, 300micron, 150micron & 75micron.
IMPORTANCE OF FINENESS
Finer the cement, more is the strength since surface area for hydration will be large.
With increase in fineness, the early development of strength is enhanced but the
ultimate strength is not effected. An increase in the fineness of the cement increases
the cohesiveness of the concrete mix and thus reduces the amount of the water
which separates to the top of a lift particularly while compacting with vibrators.
However, if the cement is growed beyond a certain limit, its cementive properties
are affected due to the prehydration by atmospheric moisture.
Weight approximately of 10gm of cement the nearest 0.01gm and place it on
Agitate the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movements, until no more
fine material passes through it.
Weight the residue and express its mass as a percentage R1, of the quantity
first placed on the sieve to the nearest 0.1%.
Gently brush all the fine material of the base of the sieve.
Repeat the whole procedure using a fresh 10gm sample to obtain R2. Then
calculate R as the mean of R1 and R2 as a percentage, expressed the nearest
0.1%. When the result differ by more than 1% absolute, carry out a third
sieving and calculate the mean of the values.
Total weight of cement = W
Residue weight = W1
Residue in Percentage = 1
Report the value of R, to the nearest 0.1%, as the residue on the 90 micrometre
INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT
Setting time of Cement include both initial and final setting.
This test is used to detect the deterioration of cement due to storage. It may however
be noted that this is purely a conventional type of test and it has got no relation with
the setting or hardening of actual concrete. This test is carried out to find out initial
setting and final setting.
Initial Setting Time:
The cement weighing 300gm is taken and it is mixed with % of water as
determined in consistency test.
The cement paste is filled in vicat mould.
The square needle of cross section 1mm*1mm is attached to the moving rod
of the vicat apparatus.
The needle is quickly released and it is allowed to penetrate the cement paste.
I, the beginning the needle penetrate completely. It is taken out and drop at
fresh place. The procedure is repeated at regular intervals till the needle does
not penetrate completely. The needle should penetrate up to about 5mm
measure from bottom.
The initial setting time is the interval between the addition of water to the
cement and the stage when needle ceases to penetrate completely. This time
should be about 30mins for ordinary cement.
1. The cement paste is prepared as above and it is filled in the vicat mould.
2. The needle with angular collar is attached to the moving rod of the vicat
3. The needle is gently released. The time at which the needle makes an
impression on the test block and the collar fails to do so is noted.
4. The final setting time is the difference between the time at which thaw water
was added to the cement and the time as recorded in 3. This time should be
about 10 hours (600 min) for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC).
Compressive Strength Test
To Determine the compressive strength of cement.
Cube mould of size of (7.07*7.07*7.07) cm with base plates, weighting balance
accurate up-to 0.1g, motored cube vibration machine, Measuring cylinder, trowel,
and tray etc.
Cement sample, water and standard sand.
Axis of loading
Axis of casting
Preparation of test specimen
For each cube, take the quantities of material as follows:
Standard sand= 555gm
Water= (P/4+3)% of combined weight of cement and sand
Mix the cement and sand with trowel on non-porous plate for 1min. Then add water
to the mixture of cement, sand and mix it until the mixture of uniform colour is
obtained. The time of gauging shall in any case not be less than three minutes and
not more than five minutes, gauging time is lapsed between the water added to the
mix and casting of cubes.
1. Apply thin layer of oil to the interior faces of the moved. Place it on the table
on the vibration machine, and firmly hold in position by means of suitable
2. Place the entire quantity of mortar in the hopper of the cube mould and
compact same by vibration for period of about 2mins.
3. At the end of vibration, remove the mould together with the base plate from
the machine and finish the top surface of the cube in the mould by smoothing
the surface with the blade of trowel. Engrave identification mark on cubes.
4. Keep the filled moulds in the atmosphere of at least 90% relative humidity for
24hrs in the humidity chamber, after completion a vibration. Also maintain
temperature at 272C.
5. At the end of this period. Remove cubes from the moulds and immediately
submerge in clean fresh water and keep their until taken out just prior to
breaking. After they are taken out and until they are broken, the cubes shall
not allow to become dry.
As per IS: 269, IS: 8112, IS: 12269 the average compressive strength of cement
shall be as follows:
S.No. Grade OPC Cement
After 3 days of curing N/mm2
After 7 days of curing N/mm2
After 28 days of curing N/mm2
1. 33 Grade 16 22 33
2. 43 Grade 23 33 43
3. 53 Grade 27 37 53
SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT
To determine soundness of given cement.
Excess of free lime and magnesia present in cement slake very slowly and cause
appreciable change in volume after setting .In consequence cracks, distortion and
disintegration results, there by giving passage to water and atmospheric gases which
may have injurious effect on concrete and reinforcement . This defect is unknown as
Take 100gm cement.
Quantity of water required = . 0.78
P is the normal consistency
Make the paste and filled the apparatus lechateliers
Cover the mould with another piece of glass sheet , place a small weight on
this covering glass sheet and immediately submerge the whole assembly in
water at a temperature of 270C to 370C and keep their 24 hours.
Measure the distance D1 between the indication points after 24 hours and
submerge the mould in water at the temperature prescribed below.
Bring the water to boiling at point in 25 to 30 minutes and keep it boiling for
Remove the mould from the water allow it to cool and measure the distance
D2 between indication points.
The difference D2-D1 between the two measurements gives the expansion of
cement and it should not be more than 10 mm.
Soundness Expansion of the cement sample is 1mm*(MAX 10mm).
Slump test is used to determine the workability
of fresh concrete. Slump test as per IS: 1199
1959 is followed. The apparatus used for doing
slump test are Slump cone and tamping rod.
Procedure to determine workability of
fresh concrete by slump test:
The internal surface of the mould is
thoroughly cleaned and applied with
a light coat of oil.
The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and non-absorbent
surface. The mould is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed
concrete, each approximately to one-fourth of the height of the mould.
Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod
(strokes are distributed evenly over the cross section).
After the top layer is ridded, the concrete is struck off the level with a
The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly
in the vertical direction.
The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the
highest point of the subsided concrete is measured.
This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete.
Reporting of Results:
The slump measured should be recorded in mm of subsidence of the specimen
during the test. Any slump specimen which collapses or shears off laterally gives
incorrect result and if this occurs, the test should be repeated with another sample. If
in the repeat test also, the specimen shears, the slump should be measured and the
fact that the specimen sheared, should be recorded.
SIEVE ANALYSIS OF COARSE AGGREGATE
Sieve Analysis of Aggregates
Sieve analysis help to determine the particle size distribution of the coarse and fine
aggregates. This is done by sieving the aggregates as per IS: 2386(Part-1)-1963. In
this we use different sieves as standardized by the IS code and then pass aggregates
through them and thus collect different sized particles left over different sieves.
A set of IS sieves of sizes- 80mm, 63mm, 50mm, 40mm, 31.5mm, 25mm,
20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 6.3mm, 4.75mm,3.35mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm,
0.600mm, 0.300mm, 0.150mm & 0.075mm.
Balance or scale with an accuracy to measure 0.1% of the weight of the test
The test sample is dried to a constant weight at temperature of 110+5C and
The sample is sieved by using a set of IS Sieves.
On completion of sieving, the material on each sieve is weighed.
Cumulative weight passing through each sieve is calculated as a present of
the total sample weight.
Fines modulus is obtained by adding cumulative % of aggregates to retained
on each sieve and dividing the sum by 100.
The result should be calculated and reported as:
1. The cumulative % by weight of the total sample.
2. The percentage by weight of the total sample passing through one sieve and
retained on the next smaller sieve, to the nearest 0.1%.
The result of the sieve analysis may be recorded graphically on a semi-log graph
with particle size as abscissa (log scale) and the percentage smaller than the
specified diameter as ordinate.
AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE
This test is done to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) 1963. The apparatus used for determining aggregate impact
value of coarse aggregate is Impact testing machine conforming to IS: 2386 (Part
IV)- 1963,IS Sieves of sizes 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm, A cylindrical metal
measure of 75mm dia. and 50mm depth, A tamping rod of 10mm circular cross
section and 230mm length, rounded at one end and Oven.
Preparation of Sample:
The test sample should conform to the following grading: - Passing through 12.5mm IS Sieve 100%
- Retention on 10mm IS Sieve 100%
The sample should be oven-dried for 4hrs. at a temperature of 100 to 110oC and cooled.
The measure should be about one-third full with the prepared aggregates and tamped with 25 strokes of the tamping rod.
A further similar quantity of aggregates should be added and a further tamping of 25
strokes given. The measure should finally be filled to overflow, tamped 25 times
and the surplus aggregates struck off, using a tamping rod as a straight edge. The
net weight of the aggregates in the measure should be determined to the nearest
gram (Weight A).
Procedure to determine Aggregate Impact Value
The cup of the impact testing machine should be fixed firmly in position on
the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and
compacted by 25 strokes of the tamping rod.
The hammer should be raised to 380mm above the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup and allowed to fall freely onto the aggregates. The test
sample should be subjected to a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered
at an interval of not less than one second.
Reporting of Results
The sample should be removed and sieved through a 2.36mm IS Sieve. The fraction passing through should be weighed (Weight B). The fraction
retained on the sieve should also be weighed (Weight C) and if the total
weight (B+C) is less than the initial weight (A) by more than one gram, the
result should be discarded and a fresh test done.
The ratio of the weight of the fines formed to the total sample weight should
be expressed as a percentage.
Aggregate impact value =
DETERMINING FLAKINESS INDEX
Use this test method to determine the
percentage of particles in a coarse
aggregate material that have a thickness
(smallest dimension) of less than one-half
of the nominal size.
The values given in parentheses (if
provided) are not standard and may not be
exact mathematical conversions. Use each
system of units separately. Combining values from the two systems may
result in non-conformance with the standard.
Standard U.S. sieves, meeting the requirements of Tex-907-K, in the
7/8 in. (22.4 mm)
5/8 in. (16.0 mm)
3/8 in. (9.5 mm)
1/4 in. (6.3 mm).
Metal thickness gauge, made of 12-gauge carbon steel sheet.
Scoop, brass wire brush, bristle brush, and other miscellaneous laboratory
Sample splitter, quartering machine, quartering cloth, or shovel, and a smooth
Forced-draft oven, capable of maintaining the temperatures specified in the
Obtain a representative sample of processed aggregates in accordance with
Place aggregate sample in an oven and dry between 100300F (38150C)
until sufficiently dry for testing.
Quarter the aggregate sample until obtaining a minimum of 200 particles
passing the7/8 in. (22.4 mm) sieve and retained on the 1/4 in. (6.3 mm) sieve.
Sieve the quartered sample through the 7/8 in. (22.4 mm), 5/8 in. (16.0 mm),
3/8 in.(9.5 mm), and 1/4 in. (6.3 mm) sieves. Discard the material retained on
the 7/8 in.(22.4 mm) sieve and passing the 1/4 in. (6.3 mm) sieve.
Count the aggregate particles obtained in Section 3.4. The total sample count
must be more than 200 particles.
Try to pass each particle of the 7/8 in. (22.4 mm) to 5/8 in. (16.0 mm) sample
through the 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) slot of the thickness gauge. Separate the particles
passing through the gauge from those retained on the gauge.
Try to pass each particle of the 5/8 in. (16.0 mm) to 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) sample
through the 1/4 in. (6.3 mm) slot of the thickness gauge. Separate the particles
passing through the gauge from those retained on the gauge.
Try to pass each particle of the 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) to 1/4 in. (6.3 mm) sample
through the 5/32 in. (4.0 mm) slot of the thickness gauge. Separate the
particles passing through the gauge from those retained on the gauge.
Combine all particles retained on the gauge and count. The total is the
Combine all particles passing through the appropriate slots and count. The
total is the Passing Sample.
Use the following calculation to determine Flakiness Index:
Report the Flakiness Index to the nearest whole number.
TOTAL STATION HANDLING
Total station or Total station theodolite is an electronic/optical instrument used in
modern surveying and building construction. The total station is an electronic
theodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope
distances from the instrument to a particular point.
Robotic total stations allow the operator to control the instrument from a distance
via remote control. This eliminates the need for an assistant staff member as the
operator holds the reflector and controls the total station from the observed point.
Angle measurement: Most modern total station instruments measure angles by means of electro-optical
scanning of extremely precise digital bar-codes etched on rotating glass cylinders or
discs within the instrument. The best quality total stations are capable of measuring
angles to 0.5 arc-second. Inexpensive "construction grade" total stations can
generally measure angles to 5 or 10 arc seconds.
Distance measurement: Measurement of distance is accomplished with a modulated microwave or infrared
carrier signal, generated by a small solid-state emitter within the instrument's optical
path, and reflected by a prism reflector or the object under survey. The modulation
pattern in the returning signal is read and interpreted by the computer in the total
station. The distance is determined by emitting and receiving multiple frequencies,
and determining the integer number of wavelengths to the target for each frequency.
Most total stations use purpose-built glass corner cube prism reflectors for the EDM
signal. A typical total station can measure distances with an accuracy of about 1.5
millimeters (0.0049 ft) + 2 parts per million over a distance of up to 1,500 meters
Reflector less total stations can measure distances to any object that is reasonably
light in color, up to a few hundred meters.
Coordinate measurement: Some total stations can measure the coordinates of an unknown point relative to a
known coordinate can be determined using the total station as long as a direct line
of sight can be established between the two points. Angles and distances are
measured from the total station to points under survey, and the coordinates (X, Y,
and Z or easting, northing and elevation) of surveyed points relative to the total
station position are calculated using trigonometry and triangulation. To determine
an absolute location a Total Station requires line of sight observations and must be
set up over a known point or with line of sight to 2 or more points with known
For this reason, some total stations also have a Global Navigation Satellite System
receiver and do not require a direct line of sight to determine coordinates. However,
GNSS measurements may require longer occupation periods and offer relatively
poor accuracy in the vertical axis.
Data processing: Some models include internal electronic data storage to record distance, horizontal
angle, and vertical angle measured, while other models are equipped to write these
measurements to an external data collector, such as a hand-held computer.
Applications: Total stations are mainly used by land surveyors and civil engineers, either to record
features as in topographic surveying or to set out features (such as roads, houses or
boundaries). They are also used by archaeologists to record excavations and by
police, crime scene investigators, private accident re-constructionists and insurance
companies to take measurements of scenes. Meteorologists also use total stations to
track weather balloons for determining upper level winds.
Images of Total Station
With all gratitude I conclude that this training at MNNIT was a turning point of my
life. This was a great chance for me to understand our profession in greater detail in
both technical and managerial aspect.
It has given me a great experience in the field of Civil Engineering. In this training I
have learnt what latest trends in Civil Engineering are.
As a Civil Engineer I really feel proud to be associated with such a huge and
prestigious institution which has given me an opportunity to get training under its
Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics by GOPAL RANJAN and A S R RAO
Building Materials by S.K. DUGGAL
IS 3085:1965 (for Permeability of cement mortar and concrete)
IS 8112 (for cement lab and field test)
IS 4032:1985 (for Physical test on hydraulic cement)
IS 4031:1988 part 3 (for Soundness test of cement)
IS 2720(Part-IV)-1985 (for Grading and Sieve analysis)
IS 2383:1963 (for method of test for aggregate used in concrete)
IS 2386(Part-I)-1963 (for Shape tests)
IS 1203:1978 (for Penetration test)
IS 1208:1978 (for Ductility test)
IS 1208:1978 (for Softening test)
IS 2720(Part-XVI)-1965 (for CBR Test)
ASTM: D2726 (for Marshall Mix Design)
IS 2720(Part-V)-1985 (for Liquid limit and Plastic limit)
IS 2720 (Part-VII)-1985 (for OMC and MDD test)
IS 2720(Part-XIII)-1986 (for Direct Shear Test)
IS 2131:19819 (for SPT)
Apparatus images by AIMIL INDIA PVT. LTD.
Sieves images by Roorkee Engineering Instruments.
Images from MNNIT web source.