Training Report by Anuj Sinha

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<p>SUMMER TRAININGATHUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT CENTRE</p> <p>PROJECT REPORT ON CONSTRUCTION OF TURBOGENERATOR(600 MW)</p> <p>BRUSHLESS EXCITER</p> <p>TRANING PERIOD-(30th may-29th June 2011) SUBMITTED BYSUBMITTED TO Anuj Sinha VI SEM ELECTRICAL S.G.V.U Jaipur, Rajasthan SDGM H.R.D.C B.H.E.L HARDWAR UTTARAKHAND1</p> <p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTMy sincere thanks goes to Mr. A.K.DHIMAN or his prodigious guidance, precaution, painstaking, attitude reformative and suggestion throughout my summer training schedule. Special thanks goes to Mr. P.S.Jangpangi who helped me a lot in giving minute details of the working of turbo generator, brushless exciter and enlightened me with the knowledge of essential equipments and their working. Last but not the least, my sincere thanks to all the staff members of BHEL HARDWAR</p> <p>Anuj Sinha B.Tech EE (VIth SEM) S.G.V.U Jaipur, Rajasthan .2</p> <p>PREFACEIn the light of practical aspects of training for engineering. I am a student of B.Tech VI Sem had been completed my practical training at BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED (BHEL) HARDWAR for four weeks. The objects of training in engineering course is to correlate the theory with practical aspects and to make students familiar with the difficulties arises during practical application so that they can face challenges boldly while working in the field. As I am a student of electrical engineering so training at BHEL had been particularly beneficial for me. I observe various electrical machineries that are used in different large scale or a small scale industries and different types of power plants. BHEL is very large industry for making the different types of electrical equipments as well as mechanical equipments. I tried my best to get acquitted with over all plants. I hope that I have excited enough in the report of my training.</p> <p>3</p> <p>CONTENTS1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19 20. 21. Company profile BHELs contribution in Different Sectors BHEL Hardwar Products And Ratings Different Blocks And Their Function Turbo Generators Construction of Turbo Generator TARI &amp; THRI Turbo Generators Technical data of Turbo Generator Turbo Generator Stator 210MW Turbo Generator Stator 500MW Control Panel Section Stator Coil Construction 500MW Metal Coating Rotor coil for THRI Generator Brushless exciter for Turbo Generator Block diagram of Brushless Exciter Working of Brushless Exciter Merits of Brushless Exciter Conclusion References 05 06 07 08 08 09 09 10 11 12 14 17 18 19 21 22 23 23 24 25 26</p> <p>4</p> <p>COMPANY PROFILEThe first plant of what is today known as BHEL was established nearly 40 years ago at BHOPAL and was genius of heavy electrical equipment industry in India. BHEL is today the largest engineering enterprise of its kind in India with well recognized track records of performance making profits continuously since 1971-72 it achieved a sales turnover of 1023 crore in 1977-78. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian economy in power, industry, transportation, defence etc. The wide network of BHELs 14 manufacturing divisions, 9 service centers &amp; 4 power global players. BHEL has a wide network 14 mfg. div.,4 power sct. Regional centers, 8 service centers,15 regional offices &amp; large no. of project sites all over India &amp; abroad. BHEL attained ISO 9001 certification for quality management, ISO 14001 certification for environmental management &amp; OHSAS-18001 certification for occupational health &amp; safety management system. Power sector comprises thermal, nuclear, gas &amp; hydro power plant business today, BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 56, 318 MW or 75% of the total installed capacity of 86, 636 MW in as against nit till 1969-70. BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projectors from concept to commissioning. It possesses the technology and capability to produce thermal power plant equipments up to 1000 MW rating and gas turbine generator sets up to a unit rating of 240 MW. Cogeneration and combines cycle plants have been introduced to achieve higher plant efficiencies. To make efficient use of the higher ash content coil manufacturers 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator head discharge combinations are also engineered and manufactured is also competitive.</p> <p>5</p> <p>BHELS CONTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT SECTORS POWER GENERATION :Power Generation sector includes Thermal, Gas, Hydro and Nuclear Power Plant business. BHEL supplied 75% of the total installed capacity in the country. BHEL has the capability to produce thermal sets up to 1000MW unit rating and gas turbine-generator sets of up to 250MW unit rating. The company manufactures 220/235/500 MW nuclear turbine-generator sets. Hydro sets of Francis, Pelton and Kaplan types for different head discharge combination are also manufactured by BHEL.</p> <p>TRANSMISSION &amp; DISTRIBUTION :BHEL also supplies a wide range of transmission products and system up to 400 KV class. These include high voltage power and distribution transformer, instrument transformers, instrument, transformers, dry type transformers, vacuum and SF6 circuit breaker, gas insulated switch gear, capacitor and insulator etc series and shunt compensation system have been also developed and introduced to minimize transmission losses.</p> <p>INDUSTRIES :BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries: cement, sugar, fertilizer, refineries, petrochemicals, paper, oil and gas, metallurgical and process industries. The company is a major producer of large-size thyristor devices. It also supplies digital distributed control system for process industries and control &amp; instrumentation systems for power plant and industrial application.</p> <p>TRANSPORTATION :A high percentage of trains operated by Indian Railway are equipped with BHELs traction and traction control equipments including the metro at Calcutta and Delhi. The company supplies broad gauge. Electrical locomotive to Indian railway and diesel shunting locomotives to various industries 5000/6000 hp ac/dc locomotive developed and manufactured by BHEL have been leased to Indian railway, battery powered road.</p> <p>RENEWABLE ENERGY :Technologies offered by BHEL for non-conventional and renewable sources of energy include: wind electric generators, solar photovoltaic system, stand alone and grid-interactive solar power plants, solar heating systems, solar lanterns and battery-powered road vehicles. The company has taken up R&amp;D efforts for development of multi-junction amorphous solar cells and fuel cells based systems.</p> <p>INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS :BHELs product series and projects have been exported to over so countries ranging from UNITED STATES in the west to NEW ZEALAND in for east INDIA is over 3000 MW. A few motable ones are 150 MW gas turbine to GERMANY, utility boiler and open cycle gas turbine plant to MALAYSIA, Tripoli west, power station in Libya and Turkey. In Cyprus, hydro generator to New Zealand and hydro power plant to Thailand , Saudi Arabia, Oman , Greece and Egypt. 6</p> <p>BHEL HARIDWARAt the foothills of the majestic Himalayas on the bank of the holy Ganges in RanipurrHARIDWAR is located heavy electrical equipment plant of BHEL. BHEL , wholly owned by the govt. of INDIA is and integrated engg. Complex consisting of several plants in INDIA, where about 70000 workers are busy in design and manufacturing of heavy electrical equipment. At present 70% of the country electrical equipment is generated BHEL HARIDWAR. BHEL HARDWAR is broadly divided in to two parts: A)- CFFP : Central Foundry Forge Plant B)- HEEP : Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant A)- CFFP is divided in to following shops: i)- Forge Shop ii)- Machine Shop iii)- Steel Melting Shop (SMS) iv)- Steel Foundry v)- Pattern Shop vi)- Cast Iron(CI) Foundry B)- HEEP is divided into following blocks: i)- Block-1 ii)- Block-2 iii)- Block-3 iv)- Block-4 v)- Block-5 vi)- Block-6 vii)- Block-7 viii)- Block-8</p> <p>7</p> <p>BHEL PRODUCTS HEEPs PRODUCT &amp; RATINGS : S.No. PRODUCT TYPE CAPACITY RATING</p> <p>1.</p> <p>Turbo Generators</p> <p>Air Cooled Hydrogen Cooled 500 MW Water Cooled Umbrella Semi-Umbrella Suspension Horizontal 250 MW</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Hydro Generators</p> <p>3.</p> <p>Motors AC Motors DC Motors 35 MW 12 MW (70 rpm)</p> <p>BLOCKS IN HEEPBlock-1 Block-2 Block-3 Block-4 Block-5 Block-6 Block-7 Block-8 Turbo Generators, Brushless Exciters Fabrication (Steam, Hydro &amp; Gas Turbine) Gas, Hydro &amp; Steam Turbine CIM &amp; ACM Heat exchangers, forging &amp; fabrication Electrical repair &amp; maintenance of motor &amp; transformer Wooden packing works Fabrication, seamless tuber and heat exchanges 8</p> <p>TURBO GENERATORS1. They are all high speed machines, the usual value of speed being 3000 or 1500 rpm for 50 Hz. Systems. 2. The machines have horizontal configurations. 3. The rotor is made from solid steel forgings of high grade nickel chrome molybdenum steel 4. The short circuit ratio is 0.4 to 0.6 5. The machines have cylindrical rotors wound usual for two poles or four poles outside diameter of rotor 175 m/s max. Speed. Modern turbo generator is designed such that first critical speed lies between 1250 &amp; 1400 rpm and then second critical speed is not less than 3700 rpm. 6. The machines reactances have following range. Synchronous reactance Transient reactance Sub- Transient reactance Negative sequence reactance Zero sequence reactance 1.5 to 2.5 p.u. 0.1 to 0.35 p.u. 0.1 to 0.15 p.u. 0.1 to 0.15 p.u. 0.02 to 0.15 p.u.</p> <p>9</p> <p>CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF T/G STATOR BARS 500 MW1. Conductor cutting 2. Transposition 3. Cross over insulation 4. Stack pressing 5. I.S.T. Testing 6. Forming 7. Coil lug brazing 8. N2 and Helium testing 9. Thermal shock testing 10. Insulation 11. Insulation baking 12. Finishing 13. Conductor varnish coating 14. Tan and H.V. Test</p> <p>210 MW1. Conductor cutting 2. Transportation 3. Cross over insulation 4. Stack Prssing 5. I.S.T. Testing 6. Forming 7. Coil lug brazing 8. Hydraulic test 9. Insulation 10. Resin rich, baking on mould 11. Hydraulic test 12. Finishing 13. Conductor varnish coating 14. Tan &amp; H.V. test</p> <p>10</p> <p>TURBO HYDROGEN RADIALLY INDIRECT (THRI) &amp; TURBO AIR RADIALLY INDIRECT (TARI)The latest Computer numerical control (CNC) technique used for the following purposes: 1. Conductor cutting 2. Transposition 3. Cross over insulation 4. Stack pressing 5. I.S.T. Testing 6. Forming insulation 7. Insulation baking 8. Finishing 9. Conductor varnish coating 10. Tan and H.V. Test THRI is the latest German technique which is more oftenly used now a days where as TARI the Russian Technique earlier is used.</p> <p>11</p> <p>TECHNICAL DATA OF TURBO GENERATOR</p> <p>12</p> <p>210 MW TURBO GENERATOR STATOR</p> <p>13</p> <p>No. of slots No. of bar/set Winding pitch Terminal Voltage</p> <p>- 60 - 120 ( 60 upper &amp; 60 lower) - 1-26 - 15.75 KV 2.1*7.4*7300 mm 7.4*1.5*7300 mm 2.1*7.4*7000 mm 7.4*1.5*7000 mm</p> <p>Lower bar solid conductor size Hollow conductor size Upper bar solid conductor size Hollow conductor size</p> <p>210 MW Turbo Generator Bar manufacturing process :The stator winding consists of 3 phase double layer bar type lap winding having 2 parallel paths. Each winding consists of glass insulated solid and hollow conductor wit cooling water (D.W.) passing through them the elementary conductor are transposed in the slots portion of winding to minimize eddy current losses. The winding insulation is of thermo reactive type and it is rated as class f for avoiding corona and other surface discharge stress grading coating of varnish is provided on the winding. 1. Transportation of bar Copper conductor of required size is cut and edgewise bending is done to assemble the conductor in particular sequence as per drawing. The main reason for transportation is To reduce eddy current losses. To generate equal voltage at any cross section in slots portion. To reduce skin effect.</p> <p>1. 2. 3.</p> <p>2. Cross over insulation Insulation spacers are kept at bend portion so that short circuit between two strands is eliminated. Leveling spaces are also put in slots portion so that proper consolidation of slot portion is avoided during tack pressing.</p> <p>3. Stack pressing 14</p> <p>Stack pressing of bars is done to have proper consolidation in slot portion so that all loose conductor become monolithic and stack size of bar is achieved during pressing the slots portion after pressing becomes rectangular in shape. 4. Inter turn testing After stack pressing the bar is tested for inter turn test so that any short circuit between conductor are checked and it eliminates local flow of current during operation. This is dome at 300 V A/C supply. 5. Forming of bars The forming of bars are done on T/G forming M/C, the bars are given proper shape during formation and the brazing of coil lug is dome at the ends of bars. This brazing is done with electric brazing insulation with the help of carbon. 6. Hydraulic testing Hydraulic testing at 15+5 Kg/cm2 is carried out on stack bars so that any leakage of lug joint may be detected. This test is carried out for 21/2 hrs and pressure drop of +-1 Kg/cm2 is allowed. N2 test at 15+-1 Kg/cm2 has been introduced on bars so that any leakage of fine nature may also be checked before insulation of bar. 7. Insulation of bars The stator bar is insulated by epoxy mica tape (0.18*25 mm) from tip to tip and nos of layers and perepary of insulation bar is noted for cross checking on the top of insulation a release film tape is done so that during baking &amp; pressing the bar is easily taken out from moulds. 8. Pressing &amp; curing of bars The bar is pressed and cured on baking moulds provided for lower and upper bars separately. Heating of bars is done by electric supply through the conductor itself and pressing of bar is done by mechanical clamps provided on moulds baking regime is followed for proper currying of bars. 9. Coil lug tinning Tinning of coil lugs are done to achieve proper contact surface during ferruling og lugs and assembly stage. 10. Final hydraulic testing Final hydraulic testing of bar is done to check any brazing leakage during the process. The final hydraulic test is carried out at 15+5 kg/cm2 for 10 hrs. Water flows test is also done to ensure any blockage of hollow conductor during the process. 11. Finishing of bars/ stress grading The bar slot portion is properly sanded and dimension are maintained. Then the conductor coating is done in slot portion to check surface discharges and tan checking. Low tan ensure better quality of insulation and better consolidations.</p> <p>15</p> <p>500 MW :</p> <p>Conductor size- hollow conductor Conductor size- solid conductor Lower bar L 10200 mm Conductor No of bars Upper bar U-10050 mm Conductor size Conductor no in one bar</p> <p>-8*4.6*1.5 mm - 8*2.8 mm</p> <p>c -500 mm hollow 10 No</p> <p>c-5mm 8*4.6*1.5 mm (hollow) 8*1.3 mm (solid) hollow -10no Solid - 20 no</p> <p>16</p> <p>500 MW TURBO GENERATOR STATOR</p> <p>No of slots Winding Pitch Voltage Current</p> <p>-40 -1-21 - 21KV - 16.2 KA 40 Lower -40 Upper -2.8*8*10200 mm lower bar -4.6*8*10200 mm lower bar -1.3*8*10050 mm upper bar</p> <p>Full bar 20...</p>